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Jan, 7th, 1868. 

The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Thirty-three members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 
" Description of some extinct fishes, previously unknown." By E. 
D. Cope. 

" Monograph of the Alcidse." By Elliott Coues, M. D., U. S. A. 

Jan. 14th» 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-six members present. 

The death of Edward B. Grubb, of Burlington, N. J., a member 
of the Academy, was announced. 

On leave being granted, the Committees on the following papers 
reported in favor of their publication in the Proceedings : 

" On the habits of a Tipulideous Larva." By E. D. Cope. 

" Mechanical theory of Solar Heat." By Jacob Ennis. 

" Description of five new species of Central American Birds." By 
Geo. N. Lawrence. 

On motion, it was resolved that these papers should be printed in 
the Proceedings for December, 1867. 

Jan. 21s<. 

Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-three members present. 
1868.] 1 


The following paper was presented for publication : 
" List of birds collected in Southern Arizona by Dr. E. Palmer, 
with remarks by Dr. Elliott Coues, U.S.A." 

E. D. Cope made some observations on some specimens of Vertebrata pre- 
sented by Wm. M. Gabb, of San Francisco, which were procured by him in 
western Nevada and the northern part of Lower California. 

Of reptiles were two undescribed species of Boas, thus increasing the 
species of the Fauna Nearctica to four, all of which belong to the family 
Lichanuridse Cope. The new species belong to Lichanura Cope, and are 
thus characterized : L. roseofusca; scales in 36 series, those in the or- 
bital ring seven or eight, the anterior fused into a large preocular. Loreals 1 
Color brown above. Belly and especially gular region pink shaded. Length 
two feet five inches. L. myriolepis; scales in 45 rows, those in the or- 
bital ring of equal size, ten in number; loreals -|. Color leaden blue, with 
three rusty red bands extending throughout the length, but very indistinct 
on the anterior half of the body. 

Of mammalia he noticed a good specimen of the Lagomys p r i n c e p s, 
from an elevation of 10,000 feet on the Sierra Nevada, near lat. 32°, a locality 
about 10° further south for the genus than had been hitherto recorded for 
this continent. Another interesting species was an Arvicola, allied to the 
A. modesta of Baird, but not described, from Pigeon Springs, on the 
eastern boundary line of California, east of Owen's Yalley. The characters 
are as follows : Arvicola c u r t a t a Cope ; one of the smallest species of the 
genus, differing from A. m o d e s t a in its much shorter hind foot and tail, 
in the lower anterior molar with two external triangles instead of three, in 
the very light color, and other points. Ears well developed, the marginal 
half loosely furred externally; long silky hairs from the meatus within, on 
the exterior two-thirds. Anterior lower molar with a posterior triangle, 
three internal and two external triangles, with an open trefoil. Tail vertebrae 
a Utile shorter than the hind foot, and about one-half the head. Hind foot 
a little over half the head, and five thirds the length of the fore foot. Some 
long hairs at the bases of the toes, posterior half of the sole densely hairy. 
Hair on upper surface of feet very long, concealing the claws. Fur rather 
long, dense, base dark leaden, followed by a light grey, and light brown tip 
on the upper parts of head and body ; general resulting color above light 
greyish brown; below and feet white. 

In. Lin. 

Length to end tail vertebrae 2 9-4 

" head, (slightly crushed) 10-7 

" tail vertebrae 48 

'' ear from meatus 2* 

" fore foot 3-8 

" hind foot 6- 

" whiskers 10-8 

On favorable reports of the Committees, the following papers were 
ordered to be published : 

A Monograph of the ALCID.S:. 


Assistant Surgeon United States Army. 

" Hinc bonus Moehringivs, boni Brissonivs, Kleinivs, Linnafi cat. sed in medio in omnes 
Veritas et Naturae ordo !" — Pallas. 

The Alcidse contained in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington ; the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia ; the Society of 
Natural History, Boston ; the Essex Institute, Salem ; and in the private cabi- 



net of Mr. Geo. N. Lawrence, of New York, have been examined in the prepa- 
ration of the present memoir. The writer tenders his acknowledgements to 
the officers having immediate charge of these collections, for numerous favors 
shown him, in a variety of ways, during the prosecution of his researches. 

Nearly all the known species of the family are represented in the several 
collections above named ; and the libraries of these Institutions contain all 
needed works of reference. Being based upon such ample data, this monograph 
ought to embody all that is known of the Alcidse in a technical point of view, 
and constitute a fair exponent of the same. The writer ventures to indulge 
the hope that it may not be found to fall far short of this standard. 

Before proceeding to the proper matter of the subject, it may be well to 
glance at what has already been done in this family of birds. Following is a 
list, in chronological order, of the principal works in which Alcidse are made 
more or less of a specialty, with remarks upon each. It is obviously by no 
means a bibliography of the family ; only those works being noticed in which 
some special point is presented. It may pass, however, for a reviewing sketch 
of the literature of the subject, and as such may be valuable and helpful to the 
student. Consultation of most of the works mentioned below is absolutely 
necessary to a correct understanding of the subject, except in so far as it may 
be obviated by perusal of the text of the present paper. 

I. Review of the Literature of the Family. 

Certain species of Alcidse made their appearance in the very earliest ornitho- 
logical writings of which we have any knowledge, long before the establish- 
ment of the science upon any fixed and recognized basis. However desirable 
it may be — as well in justice to early authors, as tending to bring the whole 
subject in the strongest light — to collate and identify, as far as possible, 
the older names of these species, the attempt to cite as authoritative names 
and descriptions which antedate the foundation of the binomial system 
of nomenclature would be at once embarrassing and profitless. There must 
be a fixed initial point for the commencement of authority in the matter of 
names in the existing system of zoological nomenclature ; otherwise a writer 
might adopt names at pure caprice ; in which event the species he' treats of 
would be recognizable only by synonymy adduced, or descriptions appended, 
and names would fail of their proper purpose by becoming simply indices of the 
extent of his philological research. The date of the tenth edition of the Sys- 
tema Naturae furnishes an unobjectionable starting-point, beyond which in- 
vestigation need only extend from motives of curiosity ; and is on several ac- 
counts more eligible than the date of the twelfth»edition. 

Moehring, a mononomial author whose work appeared in 1752, has very fre- 
quently been quoted as authoritative, notably, among European authors, by 
Gray, and among American by Cassin, Baird, Bryant and others, including the 
present writer. Five genera of Alcidse«iXQ instituted in this work of Moehring's : 
(U Chenalopex, based on Alca impennis ; (2) Spkeniscus, upon Fraterculaarctica; 
(3) Arctica, upon Meryulus alle ; (4) Vria (sc. Vria), upon U. grylle ; and (5) 
Cataractes^ upon Lomvia troile. Of these five, Arctica and Cataracies have never 
come into use, except in an isolated instance or two ; Uria is in universal em- 
ploy, accredited, however, as it should be, to a later writer ; AS/?Acn/«cMs is used, 
in an entirely different acceptation, for a genus of Penguins; and Chenalopex 
for an Anserine genus. These names, though all positively identified, will not 
be countenanced in their Mcehringian acceptation, for reasons just mentioned. 

(1758.) LiNN^FJUS, Syst. Nat., ed. x.— The Linnaean genus Alca at this date 
comprehended six species, to wit : impennis, torda, " pica," arctica, lomvia, alle. 
Two Guillemots— <7ry/Z« and troile— mh presented under the genus Coli/mhus. 
Excluding from these eight species Alca " pica," which is the winter plumage 
of torda, we have at the outset of authoritative records seven Linnieau names, 



for as many valid species, representing as many distinct genera. The twelfth 
edition (of 1766) gives us nothing new. 

(1760.) Brisson, Ornithologia. — This author gives excellent descriptions of 
the then known species, but adds no new valid ones, though several stages of 
plumage are characterized under distinctive names. He was a polynomialist 
— to our lasting regret, and his great misfortune — and therefore not authorita- 
tive in the matter of species. With those, however, who quote him for genera, 
his Fratercula will stand as the name of the genus of which Alca arctica Linn, 
is the type ; and his Uria for that one typified by Uria grylle. 

(1764.) Brunnich, Ornithologia Borealis. — This author was a strict binomi- 
alist : the question of the adoption of his names only hinges upon the accepta- 
tion of Linnaeus at 1758 or at 1766. Briinnich's names are in general employ, 
as they should be. The chief point of this work, regarding the Auks, is the 
characterization of Uria ringvia, which, though known long before, had been 
usually referred to troile. Brunnich describes the young or winter plumage of 
Utamania torda under the names " unisulcata " and " balthica ;" the young 
Fratercula arctica as "Alca deleta ;" the albino Mergulus allea.5 "Alca Candida;" 

various plumages of Uria grglle '^.s " grylloides," "balthica," and (No. 

116). Briinnich's " Uria lomvia " is Colymbus troille Linn. ; his " Uria troille " 
and " Uria svarbag " are both Alca lomvia Linn. ; his " Uria alga " is ringvia 
Briinn. in winter plumage. His descriptions, though brief, are all recognizable. 
(Species now eight.) 

(1769 ) Pallas, Spicilegia Zoologica,fasc. v. — Among the writers of the 18th 
century, no one contributed so much to a knowledge of the Alcidse as Dr. 
Pallas. He introduced more new valid species than any other writer, and gave 
us our first knowledge of some of the curious forms from the North Pacific. 
His works claim the high eulogium, that every one of the species they contain 
are identifiable from the descriptions, and that a species is very rarely twice de- 
scribed as new. In the Spicilegia four species are for the first time described : 
Alca cirrhata^ A. psittacula, A. cristatella and A. tetracula. A white state of 
plumage of Uria grylle [ov possibly of U columba) is described as " Cephus 
;lacteolus." The four species above mentioned are well described, and illus- 
itrated by plates. (Species now twelve ) 

(1785.) Pennant, Arctic Zoology. — Although the author used only vernacular 
names, his work must be here considered, since in it four species are for the 
first time presented. These are the " Antient Auk" (for which the author is 
indebted to Dr. Pallas' MS.), the "Labrador Auk," the " Pigmy Auk," and the 
" Marbled Guillemot." The second and third of these are very dubious spe- 
cies, which have never been located to the entire satisfaction of ornithologists 
(cf. infra, under head of Fratercula arctica and Simorhynchus pusillus) ; the first 
and fourth are good species. In this work the future Uria columba is hinted 
fit, but not named. (Species now fourteen.) 

(1788.) Gmelin, Systema Naiurx. — In this compilation by the professional 
plagiarist nothing new is given, but some points require notice. The genera 
Alca and Colymbus retain, in general, their Linnaean signification. Pennant's 
four species, above noticed, appear in proper Latin garb, as Alca antiqua, A. 
labradorica, A. pygmsea and Colymbus marmoratus ; Pallas' four species are 
^continued. " Cepphus lacteolus" Pallas re-appears as " Colymbus lacteolus." 
Linnaeus' " Colymbus " troille is repeated, of course ; but the other two species 
-of Murre, though having already made their debut, are discontinued, unless 
-one of them is intended by a certain " Colymbus minor" Gm., for which 
Briinnich's Nos. 110, 111, are cited, ^/ca " pica " and ^. " balthica " are 
perpetuated. (No additions ; species still fourteen.) 

(1790.) Latham, Index Ornithologicus. — This is the one of Dr. Latham's seve- 
ral works in which species are binomialized, and it is therefore the authorita- 
;tive one. Except in adopting Uria (after Brisson), the Index is nearly a repeti- 



tion of Gmelin. We have nothing new, except the first unequivocal indication 
of Uriacolumha in Latham's " Uria gri/lle Yar. B, from Aoonalaschka" ("fascia 
alarum gemina alba," which was " grylle Var. A " of Latham's Synopsis, vol. 
iii.) " Alca Candida " Briinn. and " Cepphus lacteolus " Pallas— both of which 
are merely albinos — still hold their ground ; but the nominal species based 
upon the plumages of Utamania tord'j, hitherto rampant, subside into " varie- 
ties." (Species still fourteen.) 

(1790.) BoNNATERRE, Encyclopedic Meihodigue, Orn. — Genus Pinguinus insti- 
tuted, with Alca impennis L. as type. A certain " Uria nivea " is named, for 
which the author quotes Pallas, Spec. Zool. v. p. 33 (" lacteolus "; = albino 
grylle or columha). 

(1794.) DoNNDORFP (JoHANN August), Bcytrdge Zoologische, zweyter band, 
erster theil. — The great synonymist of the eighteenth century, as he fairly de- 
serves to be called, gives no descriptions, but laboriously collates astonishing 
lists of synonyms. In the cases of some well-known birds, the citations stretch 
over several pages, giving one such an idea of the extent of the ornithological 
literature of the last century as could hardly be gained from any other work. 
Donndorff follows Linnaeus in his reference of the Auks to two genera, Alca 
and Colymbus ; the now sub-family Urinx composing his " Colymbi mit dreyze- 
higen Fiissen," as distinguished from the four-toed Divers proper. With this 
author Alca '' pica " and " balthica " revive ; A. " labradorica " and A. " pyg- 
maia" continue in their original significance ; Pallas' four species remain, and 
also his nominal species "lacteolus ;" five varieties of ^ryZZe are enumerated, 
of which Var. " B " is columba. By the names " Colymbus minor " and " troile" 
the author probably intends to distinguish two species of Murre, but his syno- 
nyms are inextricably confused. The var. "^" of troile is, however, unmis- 
takeably r<ngvia of Briinn. 

Such was the general status of A.lcidine literature as it came from the hands 
of the writers of the eighteenth century. We have fourteen well-known valid 
species, and indications of the fifteenth {Uria columba). 

(1801.) Lepechin, JYova Acta Petrop. xii. — Alca camtschatica described. 
(Species now fifteen.) 

(1811.) Pallas, Zoographia Rosso- Asiatica. — Dr. Pallas for the second time 
comes forward to take a long step in advance of his contemporaries, with nu- 
merous new species from the North Pacific, and with a more extensive sub- 
division of the family. Six valid new species are described : to wit, " Cepphus " 
columba^ " Cepphus " carbo, " Alca" monocerata, " Uria" aleutica^ "Uria " dubia, 
and " Uria " pusilla. Four known species are re-named : the Antient Auk 
being called " Uria senicula," the Camtschatkan Auk "Uria mystacea," the 
thick-billed Guillemot " Cepphus arra," and the marbled Guillemot "Cepphus 
perdix." "Cepphus lomvia," Pallas, equals "Uria lomvia," Briinnich, equals 
" Colymbus" troile, Linnaeus. As in 1769, Dr. Pallas calls the Guillemots all 
" Cepphus;" all the other Auks are consigned to " Uria" except the Puffins, for 
which the generic name " Lunda " (after Gesner) is employed. Alca psittacula 
is ranged in this genus. (Species now twenty-one.) 

(1811.) Illiueb, Prodromus. — Genus Mormon instituted for the Puffins. 

(1816.) Vieillot, Analyse. — Genus Mergulus (after Ray) adopted for Alca alle 
Linn. Genus Larva instituted for the Puffins. Genus Alca " Linn." adopted 
fcr cristatella. 

(1818.) Transactions of the Linnvenn Society, xii. — Sabine re-names tlie thick- 
billed Guillemot, as " Uria Briinnichii ;" Leach, a few pages further on, bestows 
another name on the same bird, — " Uria Francsii." 

(1819.) Mekrem. — Genus Si7norhynchu3 instituted, with Alca crittatella'PaXi&s, 
as type. (Fide G. R. Gray.) 



(1820.) Temminck, Man. Orn.^ ii. — Genus Phaleris instituted, with psittacula 
Pall, as type ; containing this species and cristatella Pall. 

(1821.) Naumann, Isis^ p. 779, pi. 7. — The three known species oi Fratercula 
("Mormon," 111.) are reviewed, with figures of the heads. A fourth species, 
Mormon corniculatum, is added. (Species now twentj-two.) 

(1823.) LiCHTENSTEiN, Verzeichuiss, etc. — Alca camtschatica Lepechen is re- 
named " Mormon superciliosum." A certain " Uria Mandtii" is established, 
which is frequently quoted as a synonym of Uria columba, but appears to be 
rather an imperfect state of plumage of grylle. 

(1824-5.) Stephens. Continuation of Shaw's Gen. Zool., xii., xiii.— The species 
of the sub-family Urinse are all included in the genus Uria ; the type of the 
genus — grylle — is re-named " scapularis." Phaleris Temm. is adopted for the 
Starikis, comprehending ;?.?i7^«cM^a, tetracula, cristatella and " pygmaea," the 
latter being the same as Gmelin's species of that name. Fratercula Briss. is 
adopted for the Puffins, though Synthliboromphus antiquus is included in the 
same genus. F. glacialis Leach appears.* Ray's specific name for Mergulus 
alle — raelanoleucus— is adopted. Utamania n. g.,-j- based upon A. torda, is in- 
stituted ; Alca " pica" is also ranged under it as a valid species, — making its 
last appearance upon the ornithological stage. (Species now twenty-three.) 

(1827.) Bonaparte, Zoological Journal, iii. — Alca monocerata Pall., redes- 
cribed as " Phaleris cerorhynca." 

(1828.) Bonaparte, Syn. Birds U. S. in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y. ii. — Alca 
monocerata Pall, redescribed as " Cerorhinca occidentalis." In a foot note, 
under head of " Phaleris cristatella Temm.," Bonaparte quotes : "Alca cristatella 
et pygmaea, crested or flat-billed Auk, Lath. syn. iii. pi. 95, fig. 4. Phaleris 
cristatella PI. Color. No. 200. J Alca cristatella Vieill. Gal. Ois. p. 297." (!) 

(1828.) Vigors, Zoological Journal, iv. — " Uria brevirostris" named. This is 
undoubtedly the young of a previously known species of Brachyrhamphus, but 
has never been positively identified. It is usually regarded as the young B. 

(1829.) EscHSCHOLTZ, Zoological Atlas. — Genus Chimerina instituted upon 
Alca monocerata, Pall., and the species called " Chimerina cornuta." Genus 
Ombria instituted upon Alca psittacula, Pall., upon which Temminck had pre- 
viously based his Phaleris. 

(1829.) Kaup. . — Genus Cyclorrhynchus instituted upon Alca /Jat^^acwZa 

Pall. (Fide G. R. Gray.) 

( — ?) Temminck, Planches Color iees. (No. 579). — "Uria" Wurmizusume des- 
cribed and figured. (Species now twenty-four.) 

(1837.) Brandt, Bull. Sc. Acad. Imper. St. Petersburg, ii. — During the time 
between the close of Dr. Pallas' labors and the appearance of Prof. Brandt's 
paper, there was a great deal of subdividing and re-arranging of the Alcidse, and 
much sawing of the air in a variety of ways; but, beyond the addition of three 
species, nothing new or specially noteworthy was put forth. Prof. Brandt 
originates a new classification of the Auks, (the first one which lays claim to 
any truly scientific character), institutes several new genera, and describes four 
new species, besides re-naming some others. 

The Auks are primarily divided into two " tribes," called " Pterorhines " and 
" Gymnorhines." Under the former are ranged the true Auks, the Guillemots, 
and the Sea-dove ; the latter comprehends all the rest of the family. The cha.- 
racter is found in the feathering or nakedness of the nostrils. This scheme is 
spoken of more at length further on, and therefore need not be here criticised. 

♦ This species must have been previously named elsewhere, since Naumann has it in 
the Isis in 1821 ; perhaps in the Trans. Linn. Soc. of 1818, or thereabouts, 
t Named in 1816. 
i PI. Color. No. 200 represents camtschatica Lepechin, not cristatella Pallas. 



The new genera are numerous. Of these Brachyrhamphus^ (type marmoratus,) 
Lomvia, (type troile,) Synthliboramphus, (type antiquus,) and Ptychoramphus, 
(type aleuticus,) are all valid, and were much needed. On the contrary, Tylo- 
rhamphuSy (type cristatellus,) Ceratoblepharum, (type arctica,) and Gymnoblepha- 
rum, (type cirrhata,) were not called for, being antedated respectively by Simo- 
rhynchus Merrem, (1819,) Fratercula Brisson, (1T60,) and Lunda Pallas, (1811.) 

The founding of a subgenus, Apobapfon, upon the type of Brachyrhamphus, is 
out of order. In the choice of names for the two subdivisions of Uria the au- 
thor is unfortunate in taking the specific designation of the types of these ge- 
nera, particularly in the case of Lomvia, which must stand for the genus of 
which troile is typical, necessitating a change in the specific appellation of one 
species of that genus, whose synonymy was already overburdened. 

The four new species are Phaleris microcerqs, Brachyrhamphus Wrangelii, B. 
brachypierus, and B. Kittlitzii. Of the three last, Wrangelii is only to-day iden- 
tified ; the other two remain unknown, except by Brandt's description. Brachyp- 
ierus is said to have the tarsi longer than the middle toe, which distinguishes 
it from all the known species of the genus. Kittlitzii is evidently a young bird, 
and probably not a valid species. It is very near Uria brevirostris, Vigors, if 
not the same, and may be the young either of marmorattis or Wrangelii. The 
present monograph does not recognize it as valid, leaving only three really 
new species to be attributed to Brandt's paper. 

Brandt identifies and retains Uria dubia Pall, under name of Phaleris dubius ; 
Alca pygmsea Gm. as Uria pusilla Pall., under name of Phaleris pygmaea. Uria 
Wurmizusume Temm., PI. Color. 579, is renamed Brachyrhamphus {Synthlibo- 
ramphus) Temminckii. Alca monocerata Pall, is renamed Cerorhina " orientalis," 
probably through a lapsus calami for occidentalis Bp. (Species now twenty- 

(1836.) Bonaparte, Geographical and Comparative List. — Phaleris microceros 
Brandt is renamed as Phaleris " nodirostra." 

(1839.) Vigors, Zool. Voy. Blossom. — Alca antiqua Gm. is renamed as "Mer- 
gulus cirrhocephalus." 

(1839.) Audubon, Orn, Biog. v. — Colymbus marmoratus Gm. is renamed 
" Uria Townsendii." Audubon's figure of the supposed adult bird may be 
really Brachyrhamphus Wrangelii Brandt. His figure of the supposed young is 
really the adult B. marmoratus. 

(1845.) Gambel, Froc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. — Uria aleutica Pall, is renamed 
as " Mergulus Cassinii." 

(1849.) Gray and Mitchell, Genera of Birds, iii. — A great blemish is the 
inclusion of the Penguins as a subfamily of the Alcidic, coming in between the 
Starikis and the Murres. Otherwise the arrangement here adopted of the Al- 
cidae is as faultless as any ever proposed. Three subfamilies are recognized : 
Alcinse for the true Auks and the Puffins ; Phaleridince for the Starikis ; and 
UrincB, for the Guillemots. (This arrangement is noticed further on in con- 
nection with Prof. Brandt's paper, under head of the general characters of the 
family). Fratercula Briss. is adopted for the Puffins ; Phaleris Temm. for all 
the Starikis, except Alca monocerata Pall., for which Cerorhina Bp. is used; 
Brachyrhamphus Brandt, in the same acceptation as used by its founder ; Uria 
Briss. for the Guillemots ; and Arctica Moehring, for the Sea-doves. Under the 
head of the latter, besides alle, are ranged cirrocephalus, Vigors, and Cassinii, 
Gambel, with the exception of which, the lists of species are very accurate 
and very full. Alca pygmaa Gmel. is identified with Uria puaill a Pallas; 
Uria Mandtii Licht. is used for Cepphus columba Pallas. 

(1851.) Bonaparte, Proc. Zool. Soc. London. — A now genus and species 
described — Sagmatorrhina Lathami, with which Alca labradoria Gm. is 
identified. (Species now twenty-eight.) 

(1856.) Bonaparte, Comptes Jiendus, xlii. — That portion of the Tableau 


Comparatif des Pelagiens which regards the Auks represents very nearly the 
classification now most in vogue, founded by Mr. G. R. Gray. The family is 
divided into three subfamilies—^^cmas, embracing only two species; Phaleridince, 
comprising all the Starikis ; and Urinse, including the Guillemots. It is thus 
the same as Gray's arrangement, except in excluding the Penguins ; but in its 
minor details it is unique in several features. The genus Pinguinus, Bonna- 
terre, is adopted, and Alca left for torda. Simorhi/nchus, Merrem, is taken for 
its type, (cristatellus) and Phaleris, Temminck, for its type, (psittacula ;) the 
other small Phaleridines are ranged under Tylorhamphus Brandt, except micro- 
ceros, which is put under Ciceronian Reichenbach. Uria is subdivided into 
Lomvia Brandt for the larger species, and " Cephus " Pallas for the smaller 
ones. Most of these points are tenable, but some are not. Some very obvious 
improprieties are evident in the handling of the species. Thus Bonaparte in- 
sists on retaining " occidentalis " and " nodirostra," two names of his own 
that he knew were antedated, one by monocerata Pallas, and the other by 
microceros^ Brandt. Uria columha is ranged as a synomym of grylle, while 
Mandtii is allowed to take its place. The Uria " unicolor " Benicken, 
which, according to the best authority, is only a state of plumage of grylle, 
is given as a valid species, and referred to a diiferent subgenus. In this 
paper, as in others written towards the close of the life of the great ornithol- 
ogist, may be discerned an inclination to lead opinion by the mere weight of a 
name, or force of personal authority. 

(1858.) Cassin, in Baird's Birds of North America. — Bonaparte's article just 
spoken of is made the basis, in a general way, of Mr. Cassin 's paper, but with 
some important modifications. Only two subfamilies are admitted, Alcinse and 
Urinse^ the former comprehending the Auks proper and the Starikis. Chenalo- 
pex Moehring is used as a subgeneric appellation for Alca impennis. Harmon 
Illiger is used for the Puflins, with Lunda Pall, and Fratercula Briss. as sub- 
generic divisions. Phaleris Temm. is employed generically for.the majority of 
the Phaleridine forms, with Simorhynchus Merrem, Tylorhamphus Brandt, and 
Ciceronia Reichenbach, as subgeneric divisions. The erroneous assignment of 
Tylorhamphus is the same as that made by Bonaparte. The forms not included 
under Phaleris are each given independent generic rank, A new species of 
Cerorhina is described — 0. SucMeyi — for a discussion of which the reader is re- 
ferred further on. Among the Urince, the genus Uria Moehring is subdivided, 
after Keyserling and Blasius, into two subgenera — Uria proper and Cataractes 
Moehring. Brachyrhamphus Brandt is adopted for the Murrelets,* with Apohap- 
ton Brandt as a subgenus. 

This article treats of all the known species of the family, and is, in fact, a 
monograph of the subject, at once very accurate, and, as far as it goes, com- 
plete. Excellent descriptions, in most cases original, are given, together with 
many synonyms, lists of specimens in the museum of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution and Philadelphia Academy, and critical and explanatory remarks. 
Although the present writer does not endorse all of the opinions maintained 
in this article, he considers it as by far the best that has ever appeared in 
print. (Species now twenty-nine.) 

(1859.) Xantus, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. — Brachyrhamphus hypoleucus, 
a new species, described. (Species now thirty.) 

(1861.) Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. — " A monograph of the genus 
Cataractes Moehring," with full lists of synonyms, and very accurate descrip- 
tions. The family is named " Plautidfe " after Klein. The genus is considered 
in its restricted sense, including only troile Linn., ringvia Briinn., and lomvia 
Linn., to which a new species, C. Californicus^ is added. This is a very valua- 
ble contribution. (Species now thirty-one.) 

* The present writer proposes this English name for the species of Brachyrhamphus. 



(1862.) Newton, Ibis, Oct. From among the many contributions to the 
Natural History of the Great Auk, this admirable paper is selected for special 
mention, both as embodying about all that Avas known upon the subject pre^ 
vious to its publication, and as containing the results of the diligent and care- 
ful researches of the author and Mr. J. Wolley, in Iceland. It is probably the 
best article upon the subject extant ; to which the reader may refer in full 
confidence that he will find an epitome of our present knowledge. Mr. New- 
ton is of opinion that the Great Auk may still live. He attributes the extinc- 
tion to which it is surely doomed, mainly to direct human interference. The 
paper is again referred to, and quoted, in the present memoir. . 

(1867.) ScHLEGEL, Catalogue of the Museum of the Pays-Bas, livraison ix. 
The article " Alca" is in one sense nearly a monograph of the subject, since 
the greater part of the species of the family are represented in the Museum of 
the Pays-Bas, and therefore admitted as valid by the author. Unfortunately, 
however, the author's ultra-conservatism, on matters specific as well as 
generic, does not allow him to keep pace with the progress of science, and as 
a consequence, his system of nomenclature and classification is simply curious. 
One seeks in vain to divine the reason for the maintenance and expression of 
such peculiar views, unless it be the author's intention to administer a sort of 
counter-irritant as a remedy against Brehmomania, or to launch a severe 
satire against the "furor genericus," and other crying evils of the day. Such 
extreme views, if discreetly indulged for either of the charitable purposes just 
suggested, are perhaps excusable ; the only question is, whether the remedy is 
not worse than the disease. 

Aside from its value as a Museum Catalogue, the present article is chiefly 
useful for its accurate indications of different stages of plumage, of differences 
in dimensions of variable species, and as affording some interesting data in 
the way of locality. The *' genus Alca " is made to hold all the Alcinse and 
all the Urinse. The Starikis appear under the genus Simorhynchus ; the Puffins 
under Lunda. It is impossible to subject this arrangement to criticism, since 
in it there is nothing approaching a classification, and arbitrary illogical 
opinion is not to be brought under critical review. The common Guillemot 
appears as " Alca lomvia," though no point of synomymy is more incontestible 
than that its proper specific name is troile. Ringvia is considered as a variety 
of the same. Uria columha is not regarded as valid, apparently because the 
wing-patch of Uria grylle is well known to vary in its characters. Alca 
pygmaea Gm., Uria pusilla Pall, and Phaleris microceros are thrown together 
under the common name of " Simorhynchus pygmaeus." Alca tetracula Pall., 
and Uria dubia Pall., are both regarded as the young of cristatellus. Sagma- 
torrhina Lathami, Bonaparte, and Cerorhina Suckleyi, Cassin, are both referred 
to Alca monocerata, Pallas. Mormon glacialis Leach is not recognized. The 
Brachyrhamphi are not included ; but the highly characteristic remark occurs, 
(p. 21) "II convient d'^tudier de rechef les oiseaux decrits sous les ^pithetes 
de Kittlitzii, Wrangeli et brachyptera, et meme PAlca marmorata " I 

(1867.) Salvadori, Descr. Alt. Nuov. Ucc. Mus. di Torino.— Uria Craveri 
described. This a new Brachyrhamphus from California, closely allied to B. 
hypoleucus. (Species now thirty-two.) 

Of the thirty-two species noted in the preceding paragraphs, and held to be 
valid, twenty-eight are contained in the various American collections to which 
the writer has had access, and are in the present paper identified and described 
directly from the specimens themselves. The four species not examined are : 
"Uria" dubia Pallas; Brachyramphus hrachypterus Brandt; Sagmatorrhina 
Za^Artmi Bonaparte ; and " Uria" Craveri Salvadori. Of the two last the writer 
has received some information through private channels, beyond that con- 
tained in the published papers ; of the two first he knows nothing, except from 
the original descriptions. 



A new and very curious species of Simorhynchus is described in the following 
pages, making a total of thirty-three. 

II. Of the characters of the Family, and its sub- divisions. 

The Auks form a very natural family of birds, distinguished by marked and 
unmistakable characters from any other. With a single exception,^ there is 
no bird found to present in any notable degree a leaning towards the pecu- 
liarities of the Alcidse ; and the members of the family, without exception, pre- 
serve intact those characters which define the group so trenchantly, showing 
in no single instance a tendency to aberration. The rigidness with which it is 
possible to circumscribe the Alcidse is in the highest degree satisfactory, in a 
class of animals in which the recognition and definition of subordinate groups 
is peculiarly difficult. 

The natural place of the family in our ornithotaxis appears as definite as the 
characters which separate its forms from other birds. By common consent, 
the Alcidse are regarded as next to the lowest of birds. The degradation of the 
type or ideal bird which the Auks represent is only carried further in one 
family— the Spheniscidse. From the latter, which is at the bottom of the scale, 
we ascend one step to Alcidse; another brings us to the Colymhidse and Podici- 
pidse. These four families constitute the order Pygopodes, or the Brachypterous 
Natatores. The position occupied by the Auks in this order is so evident as 
not to admit of question. 

It is only necessary to allude to the wings of the Spheniscidse, without dwell- 
ing upon the point, to separate this family from the Auks. The tetradactylous 
feet of the other two families distinguish them with equal facility. Auks are 
brachypterous, brachyurous, tridactylous natatores, with lateral nostrils. This 
expression is a perfect diagnosis. 

The Auks are confined to the northern hemisphere. Some representatives 
have been found as far north as explorers have penetrated. The great major- 
ity live in more temperate latitudes. A more or less complete migration takes 
place with most species, which stray southward, sometimes to a considerable 
distance, in the autumn, and return north again to breed in the spring. A few 
species appear nearly stationary. The most southern recorded habitat of any 
member of the family is about latitude 21° N., on the Pacific coast of North 
America, but this is rather exceptional. The species are very unequally divided 
between the two oceans. The Atlantic has but few representatives compared 
with the Pacific. On the northern coasts of the latter the family reaches its 
highest developement ; the greatest number of species, of the most diversified 
forms, are found there, though the number of individuals of any species does 
not surpass that of several Atlantic species. Comparatively few species are 
common to both oceans. All the members of the family are exclusively ma- 
rine.f They are decidedly gregarious, particularly in the breeding season, 
when some species congregate in countless numbers. Usually one, often two, 
rarely if ever three eggs are laid, either upon the bare rock or ground, or in 
crevices between or under rocks, or in burrows excavated for the purpose. 
Auks are all altrices, and are believed to be chiefly monogamous. The young 
are at first covered with long soft wooly down ; rarely stiffish hairs appear on 
some parts. The moult is double. The young of the year usually differ from 
the adults ; the latter usually differ in their summer and winter plumages. A 
very prevalent feature is the possession of crests or plumes, or elongated fea- 
thers of a peculiar shape on the sides of the head. All the species walk badly ; 
some scarcely walk at all. The position of the legs with reference to the axis 
of the body necessitates an upright position when standing. The birds appear 
to rest on their rumps, with the feet extended horizontally before them, most 

* The genus Pelecanoides, of the Hdlodrominse (Pi-ocellariidse), in all details of external 
form, except those of the bill, is essentially like Mergulus. 

t Uria grylle is found on the southern shores of Hudson's Bay; but this fact can hardly 
furnish an exception to the statement. 



of the tarsus touching the ground. The Puffins, however, and a few others, 
stand well on their feet. All the species but one, fly well, with rapid vigorous 
motion of the wings, in a straight, firm, well-sustained course. All progress 
on or under the water with the utmost facility. They are very silent birds ; 
the voice is rough and harsh ; the notes are monotoned. They feed exclusively 
upon animal substances procured from the water. 

The uniformity of structure which obtains throughout the family has already 
been mentioned ; the following paragraphs describe this structure in a general 
way, so far as the details of external form are concerned :* 

The general form is stout, compact and heavy. The body is depressed, flat- 
tened underneath. The neck is short and thick. The head is large and heavy, 
usually oval in shape, more or less flattened laterally, more or less drawn out 
anteriorly, and sloping gradually on all sides to the bill, but sometimes ending 
abruptly. The plumage about the head is very soft, dense, and short, except 
those feathers which constitute the peculiar crest or lateral plumes already 
mentioned. That of the upper parts is very closely imbricated ; that of the 
lower is very thick, compact, elastic, and otherwise eminently fitted to resist 
the action of water.-j- 

The bill, though constantly preserving certain characteristics, varies to a 
remarkable degree in the details of its shape. The broad statement may be 
made, that no two speciesj of the family have bills identical in shape. So un- 
ending is the variation in the bill, that in some cases great differences in shape 
seem of scarcely more than specific consequence, as is especially the case in 
the genus Simorhynchus. The bill in the great majority of species is more or 
less compressed, sometimes excessively so ; it is frequently, however, nearly as 
wide as high at the base, and more or less subulate. The contour of the bill 
in many instances deviates from an ordinary standard so much that the shape 
may almost be called monstrous. A striking peculiarity of the bill in several 
genera is the presence of supernumerary elements or accessory pieces, taking 
the form of salient protuberances. These are usually developed on the culmen ; 
in one instance on the gonys ; in one at the angle of the rictus ; in several 
along the feathered base of the bill. Besides these appendages, there are often 
found grooves and ridges on the sides of one or both mandibles. The culmen 
is always more or less convex ; in one instance it is bi-convex. The tomiiil 
edges of the mandibles are more or less sinuate ; sometimes nearly straight; 
usually decurved at the tip, and slightly notched ; in one instance recurved. 
The rictus is ample. ^ The mandibular rami approach each other with a very 
narrow angle, and soon join, producing a long gonys, which is usually nearly 
Straight. One genus has a very convex gonys ; in two others the gonys runs 
the whole length of the bill, there being no mandibular rami proper. The bill 
is entirely horny, except in two species, in which a soft membrane overlaps the 
base of the upper mandible ; and in a third, where a peculiar knob is not 
strictly corneous. 

Tlie nostrils are basal, lateral, marginal, impervious; usually linear, or nar- 
rowly oval ; in a few instances placed further from the commissural edge of 
the upper mandible, and nearly circular. The nasal fossae are usually very 
evident ; are sometimes hidden by feathers ; at others are wholly wanting. 
The extension of the feathers into the nasal fossae varies in degree, when it 
occurs. In just about half the species the nostrils are naked ; these usually 
have no true nasal fossae. In the other half fossae occur; entirely obtected by 
feathers in three genera ; partially covered in the rest. The significance of 
these features will receive further attention below. 

• The writer hopes to bring forward, at some future time, a memoU" on the anatomy of 
the family. 

iCf. NltzHoh'8 PtGrylocraphy for ptorylosis of Utamania tarda. 
Ih f/rta riw/ZDia speeiflnally distinct from U.lroilef 
In two genera, in whicli the ex(!OH.sive compression of tl»o bill produces a very con- 
stricted riutuH, its aniplitioation in pa-ovided for by means of a dilatable skin at the angle 
of the mouth. 



The wings are short. In no instance do they, when folded, reach to the end 
of the tail. In one species they are so undeveloped in their terminal segments* 
that the power of flight is abrogated. The first primary is always longest ; the 
rest rapidly and regularly graduated ; all taper to a sufficiently fine point. The 
secondaries are very short, and broadly rounded. The primary coverts are 
very long, reaching much more than half-way from the carpus to the end of 
the first primary. The first row of secondary coverts reach nearly to the end 
of the secondaries. The under wing coverts are very long. The axillars are 
short or wanting. The wing as a whole is convex above, concave below, nar- 
row, sharp, stiff, somewhat falcate. These points of structure are constant 
throughout the family. 

The tail is very short ; its length is contained, on an average, about three 
times in the length of wing from the carpal joint. It is usually slightly round- 
ed, sometimes nearly square, in a few instances pointed ; in a few more the 
central rectrices are slightly shorter than the next pair. The individual feathers 
are usually very obtuse at the end. Both sets of coverts are long ; the inferior 
usually reach nearly or qiiite to the end of the tail. 

The feet are small, and placed far back, as has been said. The thighs are 
contained within the general skin of the body. The legs are feathered nearly 
or quite to the tibio-tarsal joint. The tarsus is short, sometimes excessively 
abbreviated, rarely equal to the middle toe without its claw, never (?f ) longer. 
It is usually much compressed, is sometimes almost as sharp as that of Colym- 
bus, is frequently nearly as broad laterally as antero-posteriorly. Its covering 
varies with different genera. It is usually reticulate behind and laterally, with 
a row of scutellaj in front, which rarely, however, if ever, extend its whole 
length. In some genera it is entirely reticulate ; in others, the scutellation 
extends on one or both sides. The tarsal envelope varies so much that it is 
not available as a character for subdivisions higher than generic. The toes 
are very long; the outer and middle always of nearly the same length ; the 
inner shorter, its claw just reaching the base of the middle claw. There is no 
hind toe. Dissection reveals the rudiment of a hallux, which, however, is never 
developed sufficiently to make even a well-marked prominence. The webbing 
of the toes is complete. The claws are all moderately arched, compressed and 
acute ; the inner edge of the middle is more or less dilated ; the middle is al- 
ways the largest, except in two genera, which present the peculiarity of having 
a very large semi-circular inner lateral claw, which, moreover, lies horizon- 
tally instead of vertically. 

That rigid adherence to the type of structure just described which all the 
species maintain, while facilitating the recognition of the family as a family, is 
a serious obstacle in the way of defining its subdivisions with precision. With 
no very abrupt transition from one form to another, and without any very 
marked modification of general features, the minor groups seem to be formed 
mainly by the varying combination of the few differences in structure which 
obtain in the family. The assemblage of characters, rather than the presence 
or absence of particular features, in most cases determines the genera ; and no 
two species are absolutely alike in all points of form. 

" Facies non omnibus una, 

Nee diversatamen, qualis decet esse sororum." 

In one of the ablest papers that has appeared upon this subject, Professor 

Brandt divides the Alcidse into two subfamilies : those with feathered, and 

those with naked nostrils. In this arrangement the Guillemots stand next to 

the typical Auk — ,4. torda. Viewed from any other standpoint the two forms 

*Cf. Mr. A. Newton's article in the " Ibis " for October, 1862. As there stated, the hu- 
merus of AIca impmnis is of normal size; the antibrachium, carpus and metacarpus, and 
their quills, are shortened. 

^Brachyrhamplms brachypteiiis is said by Brandt to have the tarsus longer than the middle 



appear to represent the extremes of structure in the family ; particularly in 
regard to the bill, cultriform in one, subulate in the other. The two types are 
by most authors placed at opposite ends of the generic chain, and separated 
by all the Starikis. Attentive consideration of all the bearings of the case 
may very likely result in the opinion, held by the present writer, that the dif- 
ference between the views of Prof. Brandt and other writers is rather apparent 
than real. It should be borne in mind that th« Alcidse are a family very rigid- 
ly circumscribed, and one showing no tendency to aberration, or to connect 
itself intimately with the families standing next to it on either side. Whether as 
cause or consequence of this, the fact is indisputable, that the genera of Alcidse 
are not strung along in a chain whose ends seem as it were to be linked with 
the genera of other families ; they tend, on the contrary, to aggregation in a 
circle about a common centre. We may take any genus — it matters not 
which — we shall find its closest ally to the right and to the left; and the cir- 
cuit shall be complete when all the genera have been considered. To illustrate 
this point : Prof. Brandt, like all other writers, takes the typical Alca as his 
starting point. With the feathering of the nostrils as a fundamental feature, 
Uria and its subdivisions must come next, then Brachyrhamphus ; this leading 
through Mergul'is into the true Phaleridines, \>j means of Plychoramphus. Be- 
ginning with those Phaleridines with the simplest bills, he progresses to those 
with more complex bills, ending with Ombria, which last, through C'erorhina, 
conducts to Fratercula, which ends the series. There is nothing strained or 
forced in this ; the succession of the genera is perfectly natural. But it so 
happens that Fratercula is as closely, or even more closely, allied to Alca pro- 
per than Uria is. We cannot disturb in any essential degree the generic series 
of Prof. Brandt, but we could with entire propriety go directly from Alca to 
Fratercula^ and thence backwards over the same track, ending with Uria^ 
which would then be at the opposite extreme of the series. It is asserted, 
without fear of reasonable contradiction, that to begin anywhere in this natural 
series of genera and progress through it, is to be brought back to the starting 

It is not, perhaps, possible to divide this generic circle without the exercise 
of some arbitrary jurisdiction. If there be included in it two or more sub- 
families capable of precise definition, the fact has eluded the writer's research. 
There are, however, in the series two places where a dividing line may be 
drawn. Prof. Brandt drew but one, relying upon the single character which he 
found to apply so well, albeit it may be an arbitrary one. Other writers have 
made likewise but two subfamilies, differently framed however ; the Alcinie, in- 
cluding the true Auks, together with the Phaleridine forms, united because of 
their short, stout, high bills ; and the Urinx, separated on the ground of their 
long, slender subulate bills. Others again, particularly Mr. G. R. Gray and 
Prince Bonaparte, have drawn two lines, recognizing three subfamilies ; and 
this course appears to be the one that holds closest to nature, provided the 
family be really susceptible of subdivisions higher than generic. By simply 
reducing Prof Brandt's fundamental character to the level of one drawn from 
the general structure of the bill, three subfamilies stand forth with tolerable 
distinctness. The Alcinse have feathered nostrils and cultriform bills ; the 
PhaleridintB, naked nostrils and cultriform bills; the Urinae, feathered nostrils 
and subulate bills. This certainly appears to be a distinction with a difference, 
and will be so held in the present paper. 

The arrangement of the Alcidce here submitted is a modification of Professor 
Brandt's, providing for the recognition of three in place of two subfamilies. 
In this particular it is substantially the same as Mr. Gray's, but the sequence 
of the genera is entirely different, and is nearly that of the first mentioned 
author. Beginning with typical Alca it passes to Fratercula, and ends with 
Lomvia, instead of passing to Lomvia and ending with Fratercula. But in 
either case the collocation of the genera is essentially the same. It is believed 



that this sequence of geaera cannot be broken in upon to any considerable 
degree, without the rupture of a natural series as a consequence. 

Family ALCID^. 
Ch. — Tridactylous, brachypterous, brachyurous Natatores, with lateral 

A, — Subfamily Alcin^. — Not crested; with feathered nostrils; compressed 
cultriform bill, much higher than wide at base, without appendages, but 
grooved on the sides ; tail pointed. 

1. Alca. — Wings rudimental, not admitting of flight. 

2. Utamania. — Wings fully developed, admitting of flight. 

B. — Subfamily Phaleridin^. — Usually crested, or with elongated feathers 
on head ; with naked nostrils ; bill variable, always compressed, higher than 
wide at the base, often with appendages ; tail nearly even. 

3. Fratercula. — Inner lateral claw very large, semi-circular, acute, hori- 
zontal ; bill excessively thin, its base ridged, its culmen simple, with one 
curve; under mandible grooved ; no crest; palpebral appendages ; a furrow 
in plumage behind eyes ; tarsi anteriorly scutellate. 

4. Lunda. — As in Fratercula; culmen with an accessory piece, and two 
curves ; under mandible smooth ; long crests ; no furrow in plumage ; no 
palpebral appendages. 

5. Ceratorhyncha. — Inner lateral claw normal ; bill without a basal rim ; 
base of upper mandible with a prominent upright horn ; i-ami of lower man- 
dible with an accessory piece ; head with elongated feathers ; tarsus ante- 
riorly scutellate. 

6. Sagmatorrhina. — Base of upper mandible overlapped by a soft mem- 
brane ; no accessory piece on lower mandible ; otherwise as in Ceratorhyncha. 

7. Simorhynchus. — Bill variable, usually with irregular outline or with 
appendages ; head with a crest or elongate feathers ; tarsi reticulate. 

8. Ptychorhamphus. — Bill stout, conico-elongate, wide at base, acute at tip ; 
base of upper mandible with transverse striae ; upper border of nostrils 
dilated, flaring ; no crests. 

C. — Subfamily Urin^. — Nostrils more or less completely feathered; bill 
elongated, more or less slender and subulate, without appendages or vertical 
grooves ; head not crested, (except in one species.) 

9. Mergulus. — Nostrils nearly circular, not completely feathered ; bill 
stoutest and shortest in this section ; tail much graduated ; tarsi scarcely 
compressed, anteriorly broadly scutellate. 

10. Synthliborhamphus. — Nostrils broadly oval, incompletely feathered ; bill 
stoutish, but much compressed ; tail nearly even ; tarsi excessively com- 
pressed, anteriorly and internally scutellate. 

11. Brachyrhamphus. — Nostrils oval, feathered ; bill small, very slender; 
tail short, little graduated ; tarsi reticulate, very small and slender, not 

12. Uria. — Bill about equal to tarsus ; gonys half the culmen ; nasal fossae 
wide aad deep, not entirely filled with feathers ; upper mandible with no 
groove at tip ; outer lateral claw grooved ; tail contained 2^ times in the 
wing; tarsi reticulate; no fuiTow in plumage of head. 

13. Lomvia. — Bill much longer than tarsus ; gonys much more than half 
the culmen; nasal fossae long and narrow, completely feathered; upper 
mandible with a groove at tip ; outer lateral claw smooth ; tail contained 
3* times in wing ; tarsi anteriorly scutellate ; a furrow in plumage behind 
the eyes. 



* III. — Descriptions of Genera and Species. 

1. Subfamily ALCiNiK. 

ALCA, Linnseus. 

Chenalopez, Moehring, Av. Gen. 1762, p. 65, No. 68. 
Alca^ Linnseus, Syst. Nat. i. 17.^8 ; and of authors. 
Pinguinus^ Bonnaterre, Ency. Method. Orn. 1790, p. 28. 

Size largest in the family. Form heavy, compact, robust. Head large, 
ovate, produced forwards. Neck moderately long, thick. Wings morpho- 
logically perfect, teleologically rudimental, not admitting of flight, in length 
from carpal joint to end of longest primary scarcely twice as long as tail ; when 
folded not reaching the tail. Tail short, pointed. Legs short and stout. 
Webs broad and full. Tarsi compressed ; their anterior ridge and superior 
surfaces of toes scutellate, lateral and posterior aspects reticulate, the plates 
on the latter very small. Tibiae feathered nearly to the joint. Bill about as 
long as the head, large, strong, very deep, exceedingly compressed. Upper 
mandible with culraen about straight for half its length, then regularly con- 
vex, tip obtuse, declinate, scarcely overhanging; a deep groove on its side at 
base, parallel with the outline of feathers ; its side then perfectly smooth for a 
space, then deeply impressed with six to ten oblique curved sulci. Gape very 
large, running far back ; line of commissure nearly following that of culmen. 
Eminentia symphysis slight; gonys nearly straight. Lower mandible two- 
thirds as deep as upper, its sides impressed with six to ten straight, vertical 
sulci. Feathers about base of mandibles short, very compact: extending 
downwards from base of culmen, a little forwards, to commissural edge of 
upper mandible ; reaching much further on sides of lower mandible ; wholly 
covering the moderately long, very narrowly linear, impervious nostrils, which 
are situated just above the commissure. 

It is unnecessary to compare this genus with any other. Utamania, most 
closely allied, is at once distinguished by its teleologically perfect wings, 
though nearly identical with Alca in other points of structure. The only 
known representative of the genus is remarkable, both for its large size, and 
for not possessing the power of flight, in consequence of which it may be said 
to represent, in the Northern Hemisphere, the numerous Penguins of the 
Southern. By many ornithologists it is believed to have very recently become 
nearly or quite extinct. 

Rigid adherence to the law of priority would necessitate the use of a differ- 
ent name for this genus. " Alca" was first applied by Linnajus, in 1744, to the 
genus of which the bird now called Fratercula or Mormon arcticus is typical ; 
and even as used by Linnaeus in 1758 it has torda as its recognized type, ac- 
cording to that rule which regards the species first mentioned as type, when 
none is otherwise indicated ; so that it cannot, with strict propriety, be used 
at all in this connection. But the name has become so firmly established by 
common consent and long usage, that it would be ruthless, as well as profit- 
less, to attempt its supercedure by Chenalopez of Moehring, 1752 ; particularly 
as this latter word has come into extensive employ for an Anserine genus. 
The genus Alca^ as framed by Linnaeus in 1758, included both torda and im- 
pennis ; and when restricted, by the generic separation of these two types, there 
seems no good reason why the first mentioned should be regarded as more 
peculiarly typical of the genus than the last. Should Alca be reserved for 
Fratercula arctica, or for Utamania torda, it will be apparent that numerous un- 
warrantable innovations necessarily follow ; while its employ in connection 
with impennis entails no such consequences. 

Alca impennis Linn. 
Chenalopez, M(chring, Av. Gen. 1762, p. 65, No. 68. "Rostrum conoides, 
conuexum, ad latera compressum, aliquot sulcis transuersis caualicula- 



turn," etc. Quotes Anser magellanicus, Clus. Worm. Rail, Will. Orn. 242, 
and Alcse species^ Linn. ed. vi, gen. 52. 
Alca [Chenalopex) impennis^ Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 900. 
Mergus americanus, " Charleton, Onom. Zoic. p. 96, No. 10." "^Jieremb. Exot. 

lib. 10, c. 2T," fide Donndorff. Not Mergus americanus Cassin, 1853. 
Alca major ^ Brisson, Ornithologia, vi, 1760, p. 85, pi. 7. 

Alca impenniSj Linnaeus, S. N. ed. x, 1758, p. 130, No. 2. Id. ibid. ed. xii, 1766, 
p. 210, No. 2. Quotes Alca major Briss. and Mergus americanus Clus. Exot. 
103. Brunnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 26, No. 105. Gmelin, S. N. 1788, i, pt. 
ii, p. 550, No. 3. Lath. Ind. Orn. ii, 1790, p. 791, No. 1. Donndorff, Bey- 
trage Zoologische, ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 817. Sander, Grosse u. Schonh. Natur. 
i, p, 243. Hermann, Tab. Aff. Anim. p. 150. Temminck, Man. Orn. ii, 1820, 
p. 939. Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, 1825, p. 51. Bonaparte, Synop- 
sis, 1828, p. 432. Audubon, Orn. Biogr. 1838, iv, p. 316. Brandt, Bull. 
Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 345. Fleming, Hist. Brit. Anim. 1842, p. 129. 
Gray, Genera Birds, iii, 1849, p. 637. Thompson, Nat. Hist. Trelaqd, 1851, iii, 
p. 238. Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. Birds, 1852, ii, p. 359. Steenstrup, "Vi- 
densk. Middell. for Aaret, 1855; Kjobenhavn, 1856—57, pp. 33—116." 

Newton, Ibis, 1862, p. , (Historical.) Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays- 

Bas, livr. ix, 1867, p. 13. 
Pinguinus impennis, Bonnaterre, Ency. Method. Orn. 1 790, p. 29. Bonaparte, 
Consp. Gav. Comptes Rendus, 1856, p. 774. 

Description (from the specimen in the Philada. Acad.) — The white spot be- 
tween the eye and bill is ovate in shape, its upper border a little straightened, 
its small end towards, but not quite reaching, the bill, its large end extending 
to, but not around, the eye ; the width of the black space between it and its 
fellow is rather more than half an inch. The back is dusky-black ; other dark- 
colored parts with a good deal of clear brown, especially on the head. The 
under parts, including the tail coverts, are white, this color running far up on 
the front of the neck in a narrowly acute angle. The under wing coverts are 
ashy-gray. The secondaries are narrowly but distinctly tipped with white. 
The bill is deep black, its sulci dull white. The feet are dark, their precise 
color at present undefinable. 

Dimensions. — "Length about 30 inches ;" wing 5-75 ; tail about 3-00; bill 
along gape 4-25; chord of culmen 3-15; greatest width of bill -de; greatest 
depth of upper mandible 1-00, of lower -66 ; tarsus 1-66 ; middle toe and claw 
3-25 ; outer 3-00 ; inner 2-25. 

The occurrence of this species on the coast of North America has not been 
authenticated of late years. Perhaps the last instance on record is that given 
by Audubon on page 316 of the fourth volume of " Ornithological Biography." 
"The only authentic account of the occurrence of this bird on our coast that I 
possess, was obtained from Mr. Henry Havell, brother of my engraver, who, 
when on his passage from New York to England, hooked a Great Auk on the 
banks of Newfoundland, in extremely boisterous weather." This specimen was 
not preserved. " When I was in Labrador," continues Audubon, " many of 
the fishermen assured me that the ' Penguin,' as they name this bird, breeds on 
a low rocky island to the south-east of Newfoundland." The present writer 
received similar assurances when in Labrador in 1860 — the place designated 
being the " Funks." Audubon also states that " an old gunner residing on 
Chelsea Beach, near Boston, told me that he well remembered the time when 
the penguins were plentiful about Nahant and some other islands in the Bay." 
Two specimens only are known to exist in any American museum. One is 
in the Philadelphia Academy; its history is uncertain. The other, in the 
Vassar College, at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., is the original of Audubon's plate and 
description, as stated in the following note from Prof. Sanborn Tenny, favored 
in reply to questions regarding it : " The Great Auk, presented to Vassar Col- 
lege by J. P. Giraud, Jr., Esq., is in a perfect state of preservation. This spe- 
cimen is the one from which Audubon made his drawing, and it was presented 



to Giraud by Audubon himself. Neither Giraud nor myself has further know- 
ledge of it than what is contained in Audubon's works.'' 

Concerning Mr. Audubon's specimen, Mr. Cassin remarks (B. N. A., p. 901), 
that it was " obtained by him (Mr. A.) on the banks of Newfoundland ;" upon 
which statement Mr. A. Newton (Ibis, Oct., 1862) observes: "In 1857 I was 
assured by Mr. Bell, the well-known taxidermist at New York, who knew Mr. 
Audubon intimately, that he never possessed but one specimen of this bird ; 
and if we turn to Prof. MacGillivray's ' History of British Birds ' (vol. v. p. 359), 
we find him saying that he never saw but two examples of the species, one in 
the British Museum, and ' the other belonging to Mr. Audubon, and procured 
by him in London.' " This serves to throw some little light on the history of 
the specimen now in the Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

In the Annals and Magazine of Natural History for 1864, p. 235, is given, by 
Mr. Robert Champley, "a list of the present possessors of the birds, skeletons 
and eggs of the Alca impennis ;" this gentleman being cognizant of the exist- 
ence of twenty-seven skins, six skeletons, and fifty-three eggs. Dr. G. Hart- 
laub (Bericht iib. d. Leist. in d. Naturg. der Vogel for 1864) remarks upon this 
enumeration : " Es ist dieses Verzeichniss indessen sehr unvollstandig. So z. 
B. geschicht des schonen Exemplares der Bremer Sammlung so wie des pracht- 
voUen Ei's im Museum zu Oldenbung keine Erwahnung." Mr. A. Newton, 
on the subject of existing specimens, has (1. c.) the following: "If all the 
stories we received can be credited, the whole number would reach eighty- 
seven. I should imagine sixty to be about the real amount ;" and again : " It 
is pretty evident that most of the specimens of the Great Auk and its eggs, 
which now exist in collections, were obtained from Eldey between the years 
1830 and 1844.* 

Two eggs are contained in the Philadelphia Academy's collection. 

Mr. Alfred Newton's paper in the "Ibis" for October, 1862, entitled "Ab- 
stract of Mr. J. WoUey's Researches in Iceland respecting the Gare-Fowl or 
Great Auk (Alca impennis, Linn.)," is exceedingly valuable, being one of the 
most complete and satisfactory histories of the bird ever published; and may 
be consulted with the greatest pleasure and profit. The writer is at special 
pains to correct the very prevalent erroneous impression, that the Great Auk 
is a bird of high latitudes. His researches warrant his belief that " the Gare- 
fowl has probably never once occurred within the arctic circle." Mr. Selby's 
statement (Brit. Orn., ii. p. 433) of its occurrence in Spitzbergen is shown to 
be unfounded ; and notices of its occurrence in Northern Norway and in Green- 
land are proven to be not wholly worthy of confidence. Mr. Newton brings 
his extremely interesting history of the bird, as an inhabitant of Iceland, down 
to the year 1844, when the last birds known to have occurred were caught and 
killed ; and as these may be regarded by some as the last of their race, he gives 
the particulars of their capture. Mr. Wolley and himself obtained many spe- 
cimens of bones, but found no traces of the living birds, though he says : " I 
think there is yet a chance of the Great Auk still existing in Iceland." 


Alca, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 1768 ; and of most authors. Type A. torda L. 
Diomedea, Scopoli, 1777, fide G. R. Gray. Not of authors. 
Torda, Dumeril, Zool. Anal. etc. 1806. Same type. 

Ulamania, Leach, " Syst. Cat. etc. 1816 ;" Steph. Cont. Shaw's Gen. Zool. 
xiii. 1825; and of many authors. Same type. 
Size moderate ; form stout, compact, heavy ; head moderate, anteriorly pro- 
duced, neck thick. Wings of moderate length, but fully developed, admitting 

♦"Lists of these, which are in the main correct, though 1 know of a few that are omitted, 
have lately appeared in the 'Zoologist' for the present year [1862], pp. 73fi3 and 738»i, nud 
almost simultaneously in the 'Field' newspaper (Noh. 423 and 424, pp. 93, 114). Further 
remarks on them will be found in the former journal (pp. 7387 and 7438j."— Newton, 1. c. 

1868.] 2 


of flight, reaching when folded beyond base of tail ; more than twice as long 
as tail from carpal joint to end of longest primary. Tail rather short, pointed, 
of somewhat stiffened, acuminate feathers, of which the central pair are elon- 
gated and tapering. Legs short, stout ; tibiae bare for a short space above joint ; 
tarsi compressed, anteriorly with a single row of scutellae, posteriorly and late- 
rally finely reticulate, shorter than the middle toe. Toes long, outer nearly 
equal to middle, inner much shorter ; interdigital membranes broad and full ; 
claws short, stout, obtuse. Bill about as long as head, densely feathered for 
half its length ; feathers on upper mandible extending beyond middle of com- 
missure, nearly as far as those on lower mandible. Bill greatly compressed, 
its sides flat, with several transverse sulci, its culmen ridged, regularly con- 
vex ; tip of upper mandible declinate, rather acute ; its base encircled by a pro- 
minent ridge ; gonys about straight ; commissure straight to tip, then sudden- 
ly deflected. Nostrils just above cutting edge of bill, in its feathered portion, 
just posterior to basal ridge, impervious, narrowly linear. 

Comprising a single species, upon the varying plumages of which numerous 
nominal species were established by the earlier authors. The employ of the 
present name for the genus, instead of Alca of Linnaeus, 1758, is perhaps de- 
fensible, upon the grounds alluded to ; although the reason for the non-accept- 
ance by authors of Torda of Dumdril as a generic designation is not apparent. 
It would be easy to find, among the synonyms of the species, a trivial name 
to replace Torda, should it become necessary to use this as a patronym. 

Utamania torda, [L.) Leach. 

Alca torda, Linnaeus, S. N. ed. x. 1758, i, p. 130, adult. Id. ibid. ed. xii. 1766, 
i. p. 210 ; adult. Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 25, No. 100 ; adult. Gmelin, 
S. N. i. pt. ii. 1788, p. 551. Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. 1790, p. 793, No. 5. Donn- 
dorff, Beytr. Zool. ii. pt. i. p. 819. Scopoli, Bemerk. Naturg. i. p. 81, No. 
94. Miiller, Zool. dan. Prodr. p. 16, No. 136. Pallas, Zoogr. R.-A. ii. 1811, 
p. 360. Temminck, Man Orn. ii. 1820, p. 936. Bonaparte, Synopsis, 1828, 
p. 431. Audubon, Orn. Biogr. iii. 1835, p. 112; v. p. 428, pi. 214. Gould, 
B. Eur. V. 1837, p. pi. 401. Brandt, Bull. Acad. St.-Petersb. ii. 1837, p. 
345. Peabody, Rep. Nat. Hist. Massach. 1840, ii.. Birds, p. 401. Fleming, 
Hist. Brit. Anim. 1842, p. 130. Gray, Genera Birds, iii. 1849, p. 637. Thomp- 
son, Nat. Hist. Ireland, iii. 1851, p. 235. Bonaparte, Consp. Gav. Comptes 
Rend. 1856. Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. May, 1861, p. 73. Schlegel, 
Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, 1867, p. 13. Samuels, Ornith. and 061. of New 
England, 1867, p 564. 

Alca [Utamania) torda, Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 901. 

Pinguinus torda, Bonnaterre, Ency. Method. Orn. 1790, p. 29. 

Utamania torda. Leach, Stephens. Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. 1825, p. 27 ; quotes 
^^Alca Hoieri, Ray, Syn. 119." Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. Birds, ii. 1852, p. 346. 
Coues, Pr. A. N. S. Philada. Aug. 1861, p. 249. Boardman, Pr. Bost. S. N. 
H. Sept. 1862, p. 131. Verrill, ibid. Oct. 1862, p. 142. Verrill, Proc. Essex 
Inst. iii. 1863, p. 160. 

Alca pica, Linnaeus, S.N. ed. xii. i. 1766, p. 210 ; immature or winter plumage. 
Pallas, Spic. Zool v. 1769, p. 12. Fabricius, Fn. Groen, 1780, No. 51. Gme- 
lin, S.N. i. pt. ii. 1788, p. 551. Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. 1790, p. 793, No. 5 ; 
var. /? and y. Donndortf, Beytr. Zool. ii. pt. i. 1794, p. 818; quotes '■'■ Mergns 
Bellonii, Johnston, Av. p. 225." Muller, Zool. Prodr. p. 17, No. 138. 
Hermann, Tab. Affin. Anim. p. 225. Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. 1811, ii. p. 361. 

Pinguinus pica, Bonnaterre, Ency. Method. Orn. 1790, p. 30. 

Utamania pica, Leach, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. 1825, p. 30. 

Alca balthica, Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 25, No. 101; immature, wanting 
white line from eye to bill. Gmelin, S. N. i. pt. ii. 1788, p. 551. Miiller, 
Prodr. Zool. p. 17, No. 137. Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. ii. pt. i. 1794, p. 819. 

Alca unisulcata, Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 25, No. 102; young, not having 
obtained full size and markings of bill. 



Alca minor, Brisson, Ornithologia, vi. 1160, p. 92, No. 3, pi. 8, fig. 2. 
Alea glacialis et microrhyncka, Brehm. 

Habitat. — European and American coasts of the Atlantic, from the higher 
latitudes, in summer, to the 40°, or thereabouts, in winter. Very abundant. 
Specimens in all the American museums, and most private collections. Breeds 
in great numbers on the islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and on the coasts 
of Labrador and Newfoundland ; in winter strays south to New Jersey. Arctic 
seas of both hemispheres. Rare, or accidental in the North Pacific. Japan ! 
(Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas.) 

Adult, in summer. — Iris bluish. Mouth chrome yellow. Bill, feet and claws 
black ; the former with a conspicuous curved vertical white line occupying the 
middle sulcus of both mandibles, continuous from one to the other. A straight, 
narrow, very conspicuous white line from eye to base of culmen, composed of 
a series of very short stitf setaceous feathers, sunk below the level of the others. 
Secondaries narrowly but distinctly tipped with white. Head and neck all 
around, and entire upper parts black ; this on the sides of the head, chin and 
throat lustreless, velvety, tinged with fuliginous or brownish ; on the upper 
parts glossy and more intense in color. Inner webs of primaries light brownish- 
gray at base. Entire under parts from the throat, including under surfaces of 
wings white. • 

Adult in winter. — Upper parts lighter, duller, more brownish-black ; the white 
of the under parts extending to the bill, and on the sides of the head and neck, 
sometimes quite to the nape. 

Young, first winter — Similar to the preceding ; smaller, the bill weaker, 
shorter, less elevated, less decurved at the tip, the culmen, rictus .' nd gonys 
straighter, the sides of both mandibles smooth, except in the presence of one 
sulcus ; bill brownish-black, the sulcus white. Legs and feet reddish or 

Fledgelings. — Billvery small and slender ; body clothed with smoky brown or 
black down, lighter, or tending more or less to grayish-white below. 

The white stripe from the eyes to the bill is very variable, though present in 
the great majority of individuals. It always exists in the adults in summer 
plumage, but is sometimes absent in specimens, apparently perfectly adult, in 
winter plumage. Its presence does not seem to be amenable to any very gene- 
ral or constant law : since it may be very evident in very young birds, not yet 
fully fledged, and again absent in apparently mature specimens, as just stated. 
In winter specimens it is frequently interrupted and irregular, wanting the 
sharpness of definition which it has in all cases of adult specimens in summer 

Dimensions: Adult. — Length (average) 18-00, extent about 27-00, wing 7-75, tail 
3-50, difference between outer and inner feathers 1-25 ; tarsus 1*25 ; middle toe 
and claw 2-00, outer do. the same, inner do. 1-40 ; chord of culmen 1-30, its 
curve 1-50 ; rictus 2-25 ; gonys -75 ; nostrils to tip -85 ; greatest depth of bill, 
(just anterior to nostrils,) -90; greatest width of the corneous portion -30. 

youn^.— Length 15-00; extent 2200; wing 7-00; tail 3-00; tarsus 1-00; 
chord of culmen 100; rictus 1-75, gonys -60; greatest depth of bill -60; 
greatest width -20. 

No one of the many synonyms of this species involves any doubtful point, 
all being based upon the winter plumage, or upon the absence of the white 
line, or upon an undeveloped condition of the bill. " Alca pica" was the 
most firmly established of these, having held its ground until 1825 or there- 

2. Subfamily Phalkridin.b. 

Alca, L'mnm\s,Syst. Nat. 1744; and in part of subsequent editions ; and of 
the older authors. 



Spheniscus, Moehring, Av. Gen. 1752. Not of authors. 

Fratercula, Brisson, Ornith, 1760 ; and of many authors. 

Lunda, Pallas, Zoog. R-A. 1811 ; in part. 

Mormon, Illiger, Prodromus, 1811 ; and of most authors. Type Alca 

arctica L. 
Larva, Vieillot, Analyse, 1816. (Type Alca arctica L. fide Gray). 
Geratoblepharum, Brandt, Bull. Acad. Imper. St. Petersb. ii. 1837, p. 348. Type 
Alca arctica L. 
Bill rather longer than the head, or than the middle toe and claw, nearly as 
high at the base as long, exceedingly compressed, the sides nearly vertical, the 
base of the upper mandible with an elevated horny ridge, entirely surrounding 
it ; the basal moiety of the upper mandible with its sides perfectly smooth, 
forming an elongated oblique triangle with two curved sides ; terminal moiety 
with three or four deep very oblique curved grooves, from commissure to 
culmen, their convexity looking forwards. Under mandible without a basal 
ridge, the basal moiety smooth, the terminal with grooves, in continuation of 
those of the upper mandible. Culmen commencing on a level with the fore- 
head, thence regularly declinate, very convex, with unbroken curve, its ridge 
sharp, the tip acutely pointed, overhanging. Rictus perfectly straight, except 
at the end ; the angle of the mouth occupied by a circular callosity of mem- 
branous tissue; gonys ascending, slightly sinuate, the keel sharp, terminating 
posteriorly in a thin, elongated, almost hamular process. Nostrils placed just 
over the commissure, linear, long, reaching nearly across the base of the 
smooth triangular space of the upper mandible. No nasal fossae ; both eyelids 
furnished with prominent callosities, in one species developing into a slender 
acute process. No crest ; a peculiar furrow in the plumage behind the eyes, 
as in Lomvia. "Wings of ordinary length and shape. Tail contained two and 
three-fifths times in the wing; the lateral feathers slightly graduated, the cen- 
tral pair shorter than the next ones. Tarsus very short, only equal to the inner 
toe without its claw ; stout, scarcely compressed, covered with minute reticu- 
lations, except for a short space in front, which is scutellate. Outer toe about 
equal to the middle ; its claw shorter than that of the middle ; middle claw 
much dilated on the inner edge ; middle and outer claws slightly curved, not 
very acute, upright ; inner claw very large, greatly curved, forming a semi- 
circle, exceedingly acute, usually lying horizontal, not upright.* 

A very peculiar, though well known genus of Alcidse, without an intimate 
ally except Lunda. The essential characters lie in the structure and config- 
uration of the bill, the rictal and palpebral appendages, and the shape and po- 
sition of the inner claw ; although there are other features involved. Lunda 
is crested, with no furrow in the plumage, no palpebral appendages, and a 
very differently shaped bill. 

Three distinct species represent the genus, as far as known. They are 
all peculiarly boreal birds, not coming far south even in winter. One is ex- 
tremely abundant on the shores of the North Atlantic ; another inhabits the 
North Pacific exclusively ; another is more particularly a denizen of the Arctic 
Ocean at large. They may readily be distinguished as follows : 

Species, (3). 
I. A slender acute upright horn on the upper eyelid. Black of 

throat extending to bill 1. corniculaia. 

* The peculiar position, no less than unusual shape of the inner claw of this genus is a 
strongly-marked character, not found in any other except Lunda. The great curvature 
and extreme sharpness of the claw could not be maintained were it vertically placed like 
the other claws, as it would be worn down by constant impaction against the rocks which 
the birds habitually alight upon. But in the usual attitudes and movements of the birds 
it lies perfectly flat on its side, and is so preserved intact. The birds make great use of 
this claw in digging their burrows or in fighting; and the preservation of the instrument 
for these purposes IS evidently the ulterior design of the peculiar direction of its axis. 
The birds have the power of bringing it, on occasion for use, into a vertical position. 
These facts, mayhap, are not generally known. See Pr, A. N. S., Phila., 1861, p. 254. 



II. A short blunt process on the upper eyelid. A black ring 
around the neck, not extending to bill. 

Bill moderate; chord of culmen 2-00, the curve 2-10, 
the ordinate -30 ; depth at base 1*40 (average), wing 

6*50 2. arctica. 

Bill large ; chord of culmen 240, the curve 2'60, the or- 
dinate -45; depth at base l-lO (average), wing 7-25... 3. glacialis. 

Fratercula. arctica (L.) Steph, 

Alca arctioi, Linnaeus, S. N. x. ed. 1758, i. p. 130, n. 3. Linnaeus, S. N. xii. 

ed. 1766, i. p. 2Ii, n. 3. Quotes Anas arctica, Clus., Lunda, Gesner, 

Pica marina, Ray, Psittacus marinus, Anders. Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, 

p. 25, No. 103. Gmelin, S. N. i. pt. ii. 1788, p. 549, No. 4. Latham, Ind. 

Orn. ii. 1790, p. 792, No. 3. Blumenbach, Handb. Naturg. p. 228, No. 1. 

Miiller, Prodr. Zool. p. 17, No. 140. Hermann, Tab. Affin. Anim. p. 150. 

Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. ii. pt. i. 1794, p. 815. 
Ltmda arctica, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. 1811, ii. p. 365, pi. 83. Schlegel, Urinatores 

Mus. Pay-Bas. livr. ix. 1867, p. 28. (In part. Confounds glacialis Leach 

with the present species.) 
Fratercula arctica, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii. 1825, p. 37. Quotes 

^'labradora Gm. Lath." as syn. Fleming, Hist. Brit. Anim. 1842, p. 130. 

Thompson, Nat. Hist. Ireland, iii. 1851, p. 221. Gray, Gen. Birds, iii. 1849, 

p. 637. 
Fratercula (Ceratoblepharum) arctica, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii. 

1837, p. 348. 
Mormon arctica, Illiger, Prodroraus, 1811, p. Naumann, Isis. v. Oken, 1821, p. 

783, pi. 7, figs. 5, 6, 7. Audubon, Orn. Biog. iii. p. 105, pi. 213. Oct. Ed. 

vii. pi. 464. Nuttall, Man. Orn. ii. 1834, p. 548. Bonaparte, Synopsis, 1828, 

p. 430. Peabody, Rep. Nat. Hist. Mass. 1840, ii. Birds, p. 401. Macgillivray, 

Hist. Brit. Birds, 1852, ii. p. 365. Coues, Pr. A. N. S. Phila. Aug. 1861, p. 

251. Boardman, Pr. Bost. Soc. N. H. Sept. 1862, p. 131. Verrill, Proc. 

Bost. Soc. N. H. Oct. 1862, p. 142. Verrill, Proc. Essex Inst. iii. 1864, p. 160. 

Samuels, Ornith. and Ool. of New England, 1867, p. 566. 
Mormon [Fratercula) arctica, Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, ipr. 1856, p. 774. 

Cassin, Birds N. A. 1858, p. 903. 
Mormon fratercula, Temminck, Man. Orn. ii. p. 933. Gould, Birds Europe, v. 

1837, p. pi. 403. 
Mormon polaris et Orahse, Brehra. 

Alca deleta Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 25, No. 104. Young. 
Alca lahradorica, Gmelin, S. N, i. pt. ii. 1788, p. 550, No. 6. Based upon the 

" Labrador Auk " of Pennant, A. Z. 1785, ii. p. 512, No. 428 ;^ and Lath. 

Syn. iii. i. p. 318, No. 4. "Hab. in terra Labrador ; Arcticm magnit. 12 fere 

poll. long. Rostr. angustum, mand. sup. obscure rubra, inf. albida nigro 

maculata ; tempora obscurfe alba, gula, alae, et cauda brevis obscurae, pedes 

rubri." Bonnaterre, Ency. Method. Orn. 1790, p, 33. Donndorff, Beytr. 

Zool. ii. pt. i. 1794, p. 817. 
Alca labradora, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. 1790, p. 793, No. 4. Same basis as that 

of Gmelin. " Rostro carinato, mand. inf. gibba, ad apicem macula nigra, 

oculorum orbita teraporibusque albidis, * * color corporis fere ut in 

arctica," etc. — ii ot Sagmatorrhina labradora Cassin, which is iS. Lathatni Bp. 
Spheniscus, Moehring, Av. Gen. 1752, p. 62, No. 64. Based on " Colymbi species 

et Alcae species " of Linnaeus' sixth edition. " Rostrum subouatum, lateri- 

*The following 1b Pennant's description:— "With the bill an inch and a quarter long> 
miuih earliiated iit top, not vorydeoj), a little convex; uppormandihle dusky, lower whitish, 
marked with a hlufk HT)ot., and aiimilatod like that of a nuW; crown and upper part of the 
body, wings and tail, dusky; lowtn- ixirt white; legs rod. Size of the former, (Arctica.) 
"■ Inhabiis the Labrador coast?— Br. Mas." 



bus angustissime et pei'pendi«ulariter corapressis, cutis callosa dura in basi 

mandibuli superioris. Ad supercilia cornu breue," etc. 

Coasts and Islands of the North Atlantic, very abundant. Rare in the North 

Pacific, (Pallas,) where replaced by F. corniculata. In winter, south on the 

American Coast to Massachusetts. Breeds on the islands in the Bay of Fundy, 

(Boardman). Numerous specimens in all American Museums. 

Adult (^breeding plumage.) — Iris hazel brown. Eyelids vermillion red, the 
fleshy callosities bluish ash. Base of bill and first ridge dull yellowish, the 
smooth contained space bluish, rest of bill vermillion red, the tip of the lower 
mandible and the two terminal grooves yellowish. Legs and feet coral red, 
claws black. Crown of head grayish black, the edges of which are sharply 
defined against the color of the sides of the head, chin and throat, and the pos- 
terior edge of which is separated by a very narrow but distinct transnuchal 
stripe of ashy from the color of the back. Sides of head, with chin and 
throat ashy white ; nearly white between the eyes and bill, and with a max- 
illary stripe or area of blackish ash on either side of the throat. A narrow, 
distinct line of white along the anterior edge of the antibrachium. Entire 
upper parts glossy black, with a bluish lustre, continuous with a broad collar 
of the same around the sides and front of the neck. Under parts from the 
neck pure white, the elongated feathers of the flanks and sides blackish. Under 
surface of wings pearly ash-gray ; inner webs of primaries and secondaries 
dull gray-brown, the shafts brown, blackish at tip and whitish towards the 

Length 13-50, extent 24-00, wing 6-50, tail about 2-25 ; tarsus 1-00 ; middle 
toe 1-40, its claw -40 ; outer toe 1-40, its claw -30 ; inner toe 1-00, its claw -40 ; 
bill — chord of culmen 2-00, its curve 2-10 ; depth of bill at base 1-40 ; rictus 
1-25; gonys 1-45 : greatest width of bill (which is at base of nostrils) -60; 
length of nasal slit -35. 

Young. — Bill much smaller and weaker than in the adult ; without the basal 
ridge, and with only slight indications of the warty callosities at angle of ric- 
tus ; the terminal grooves wanting, or faintly indicated ; the culmen much 
less convex ; the gonys convex and ascending posteriorly, without the sharp 
hamular process at base. Such are the general characteristics of the young, 
though full-grown bird. Birds not grown have their bill much smaller still, 
entirely without grooves or ridges, acute at the apex, the culmen and gonys 
perfectly straight ; the lateral aspect of the bill is almost an equilateral trian- 
gle. Bill basally blackish ; terminally yellowish. Legs and feet reddish yellow, 
obscured with dusky. The eyelids want the fleshy processes. In colors of 
plumage the young birds are almost exactly like the parents, except that the 
ashy of the sides of the head is tinted with sooty black, more or less directly 
continuous with the black of the crown, and lightening into a dusky ash on 
the auriculars and lower parts of the sides of the head. 

Nestlings are covered with blackish down, becoming whitish on the under 
parts from the breast backwards. 

This species presents little variation in any respect from the conditions as 
above described. The dimensions do not vary much, and even the bill is very 
constant in size, shape and colors. The plumage of the adults scarcely pre- 
sents appreciable variation. 

The protuberance on the lower eyelid is horizontal, and occupies the whole 
length of the lid. That on the upper eyelid is nearly perpendicular, and 
higher than broad ; but is short, obtuse and never developed into an acute 

There is absolutely no difference between American and European speci- 
mens. The footnote on page 251, Pr. A, N. S. Phila. for 1861, is to be can- 
celled as wholly erroneous. 

No bird of the family of Alcidse is better known than the present species. It 
is the type of the Linnaean genus Alca of 1744, but not of 1758, nor of subse- 



quent editions of the " System." Though so long known, it has few synonyms 
beyond those resulting from its reference to divers genera. Alca " deleta " 
Briinnich, is the young bird. So also, beyond a doubt, is the Alca " labra- 
dorica" of Gmelin, which has been so differently interpreted by various 
authors. Bonaparte even says it is certainly his Sagmatorrhina Lathami, though 
he does not adopt the name labradora, as it would imply a geographical error. 
Mr. Cassin, however, uses it in connection with the Sagmatorrhina. It is based 
upon the " Labrador Auk " of Pennant. The diagnosis of this author, and 
that given by Gmelin and Latham, are reprinted above, for facility of reference. 
If the reader will take the trouble to study these three descriptions, he will 
not be likely to regard them as diagnoses of Sagmatorrhina Lathami. 

This species is the type of Moehring's genus Spheniscus ; and a person ad- 
dicted to iconoclasm in the matter of nomenclature might cut a fine dash on 
the strength of this fact. 

Fratercula glacialis, Leach. 
Mormon glacialis, "Leach," Naumann, Isis, 1821, p. 782, pi. 1, fig. 2. Not of 

Audubon and Gould, who figure and describe corniculala. Newton, Ibis, 

1865, p. 212. Malmgren, Cab. Journ. f. Ornith. xiii, 1865, p. 394j critical 

discussion of relationships to arctica. 
? Mormon glacialis, Bonaparte, Synopsis B. U. S. 1828, p. 429. Probably only 

arcticus. Boardman, Pr. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. Sept. 1862, p. 132 ; and Ver- 

rill, Proc. Essex Inst, iii, 1864, p. 160. Grand Menan, Bay of Fundy. 

These two authors rely for the locality upon Audubon's authority, very 

questionable in this instance. 
Fratercula glacialis, Leach, Stephen's Cont. Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, 1825, p. 40, 

pi. 4, fig. 2. Gray, Genera Birds, iii, 1849, p. 637. 
Mormon {Fratercula) glacialis, Bonaparte, Tab, Comparatif Pelagiens, Comptes 

Bendus, xiii, 1856, p. 774. Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 903. 
Lunda arctica, Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, ix. livr. 1867, p. 28, in part; 

" Specimina aliquantulum majora ex insula Spitzbergen." 

Coasts of the North Atlantic ; but a more boreal species than F. arcticus ; 
Arctic Ocean. Spitzbergen. Near Port Foulke, Greenland, (Mus. Smiths. Inst.), 
" Europe," Greenland, (Mus. Acad. Philada.) Not authenticated as occurring 
on the coast of Maine. 

(No. 24,302, Mus. Smiths., near Port Foulke, Greenland, Aug., 1861 ; adult ; 
Dr. I. I. Hayes.) With the colors, and much the general aspect of F. arcticus. 
Larger than that species. Protuberance on upper eyelid more decidedly aci- 
cular; in fact intermediate in size and pointedness between that oi F. arctica 
and F. corniculata. Bill much larger, comparatively and absolutely, than that 
of arctica, and differently shaped ; its colors about the same. Bill very deep 
at the base, the basal ri'ige rising high on the forehead; culmen much arched, 
towards the end dropping nearly perpendicularly downwards, so great is its 
convexity. Upper mandible with four decided grooves ; the lower with three, 
being one more on each than is usual in arctica. Gonys more convex in out- 
line, yet not produced posteriorly into so acute a hamular process. Length 
14-50; extent about 26-00; wing 7*25 ; tail 2-25; tarsus 1-20; middle toe 
and claw 1-90, outer do. 1-90, inner do. 1-45; bill: chord of culmen 2-40, its 
convexi'y 2-60, ordinate of the curve -45 ; depth of bill at base 1-70, length 
along rictus 1-50, along gonys 1-60; greatest width of bill -65; length of nasal 
aperture '40. 

The developement of the bill, changes of plumage, and individual variations 
of this species are doubtless identical with those of arctica. Young birds of 
the two species might not be satisfactorily distinguishable. 

Though this species is so very near arctica it is probable that the majority 
of authors would accord to it specific rank. It is apparently larger in all its 
parts ; the callosity on the upper eye-lid tends in shape towards that of corni- 
culata; the bill is not only much larger every way than that o( arctica, but has 



a decidedly different shape, owing chiefly to its greater depth at base, as com- 
pared with its length, and much greater convexity of culmen. The only ques- 
tionable relationship is with arctica ; the bird is certainly not corniculata. 

This species is usually cited by New England writers as occurring off the 
coast of Maine in winter. (Grand Menan, entrance of the Bay of Fundy.) In 
this, however, they only quote Audubon's authority, which is not reliable in 
this instance, as he himself says that he " rather supposed than was actually 
certain that the birds observed were large-billed Puffins." The case is ren- 
dered still more problematical by the fact that Audubon's " Large-billed 
Puffin, Mormon glacialis Leach," is really the corniculata Naumann, described 
and figured from specimens procured in London, from Mr. Gould, who also, in 
the "Birds of Europe," mistakes the true glacialis Leach for corniculata Nau- 
mann Subsequent writers will do well to expunge the name of this species 
from their local lists of the birds of New England. It is exceedingly improb- 
able that the true corniculata occurs on the New England coast. 

This species is usually cited as having been introduced in Stephens' Con- 
tinuation of Shaw's General Zoology (18*25) ; but must have appeared some 
years previous, since Naumann quotes " Mormon glacialis Leach," in the Isis, 
1821. It was probably named by Leach about 1816-18. 

Fbatercula corniculata, {Naumann), Gray. 

Mormon corniculata, Naumann, Isis v. Oken, 1821, p. 782, pi. 7, figs. 3, 4. 

(Kamtschatka.) Cassin, Pr. A. N. S. Philada. 1862, p. 324. (Behring's 

Mormon [Fratercula) corniculata, Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, 1856, p. 774. 

Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 902. 
Fratercula corniculata, Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, p. 637, pi. 174. 
Fratercula [Ceratoblepharum] corniculata, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 

1837, p. 348. Quotes " Mormon corniculatum, Kittlitz, Kupfer, i." 
Mormon glacialis, Audubon, Orn. Biogr. iii, 1835, p. 599, pi. 293, fig. 1. Id. B. 

Amer. vii, p. , pi. 463. Not of authors. Gould, Birds Eur. v, 1837, pi. 

404. Not of authors. 
f Fratercula glacialis. Vigors, Zool. Voy. Blossom, 1839, Ornith. p. 33. Prob- 
ably not true glacialis. 
Lunda corniculata, Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. ix, 1867, p. 28. 

Coasts and Islands of the North Pacific and Arctic oceans. Kamtschatka, 
(Mus. Acad. Phila.) Sitka, (Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas.) Kotzebue Sound, and 
St. Michael's, Russian America, (Mus. Smiths. Inst.) Southern extension on 
west coast of America not determined. Not recorded from the North Atlantic. 

Adult, breeding plumage. (No. 46,503, Mus. Smiths., St. Michael's, Russian 
America, June 27, 1866; H. M. Bannister.) Bill very large, especially high at 
the base for its length, the height being about equal to the chord of the cul- 
men, exclusive of the width of the basal rim ; base of culmen and angle of 
gonys both produced far backward, giving a greatly curved outline to the base 
of the bill along the feathers of the sides of the head; sides of the bill not dis- 
tinctly divided into two compartments ; nearly plane and smooth in their entire 
length, with only three faintly pronounced short grooves ; culmen exceedingly 
convex, regularly arched in the arc of a perfect circle ; the tip of the upper 
mandible acute, moderately overhanging, the basal rim broad and prominent ; 
rictus (not including the part beyond the basal rim of the upper mandible) 
very short, only equal to the height of the upper mandible at base ; gonys 
sinuate, at first convex in outline, then slightly concave ; its length but little 
less than the chord of the culmen.* 

Appendage of the upper eye-lid produced into a long, slender, acutely pointed 

* The lower mandible in this specimen is so thin near the angle of the gonys as to be 
transparent. Ordinary type can be read through it. 



upright spine; that of the lower eye-lid much as in other species of the 

Form otherwise as in F. aretica and gladalis. Larger than the former, about 
the size of the latter. 

Crown of the head deep grayish black ; the patch of this color triangular ia 
shape, narrowing anteriorly to a point at the base of the culmen. Sides of the 
head white ; the furrow in the plumage behind the eye, and the sides of the 
lower jaw tinged with dark ash. A narrow distinct line of white along the 
edge of the fore-arm. Entire upper parts very glossy blue-black ; a duller, 
more fuliginous shade of black encircling the neck before, and running for- 
wards on the throat and chin quite to the bill. Other under parts pure white^ 
except a few elongated blackish feathers on the sides and flanks. Under sur- 
face of wings dark pearly ash. Legs and feet orange red, the webs tinged 
with Vermillion. Claws brownish black. Palpebral appendages apparently 
ashy black. Bill yellow, tinged with red, the terminal portion blackish. Eic- 
tal callosities brilliant yellow orange. 

Length 14-50; extent 24-50; wing •7-25; tail 2'75 ; tarsus 1-10; middle toe 
and claw 2-00 ; outer do. 1-90; under do. 1.35 ; bill : chord of culmen 2-00, 
its curve 2-25 ; rictus from basal rim to tip 1-20 ; gonys 1-75 ; depth of bill at 
base 1-80; its greatest width -60; length of nasal slit -40; length of superior 
palpebral appendage •35. 

This interesting species may be recognized at a glance by the prominent 
horn over the eye, and the extension of the black collar on the throat to the 
bill. The bill also differs from that of either of the other species in its short- 
ness, compared with its great depth at the base, and the nearly smooth sides, 
which are not distinctly divided by a ridge or groove into two compartments. 
The bill is also comparatively thinner than that of the other species, and dif- 
ferently colored. 

Prof. Naumann first described this species from Kamtschatka in his valu- 
able memoir on the genus in the Isis, as above cited. It has been occasionally 
confounded with glacialis Leach, which is quite a different bird. It is a North 
Pacific and Arctic species, not recorded from the Atlantic. Excellent speci- 
mens are contained in the Philadelphia Academy and Smithsonian Institution ; 
one of those in the collection of the last named is probably the original of 
Audubon's plate of " glacialis." 

LUNDA, Pallas. 

Alca, Pallas, Spic. Zool. v, 1769 ; in part; and of some older authors. 
Lunda, Pallas, (ex Gesn.) Zoog. R.-A. 1811. Type Alca cirrhata, Pallas. 
Mormon^ Illiger, Prodrome, 1811 ; in part ; and of most authors. 
Fratercula^ Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, 1825; in part; not of Brisson. 
Gymnoblepharum^ Brandt, Bull. Acad. Imper. St. Petersburg, ii, 1837, p. 349. 

Type Alca cirrhata, Pallas. 

With somewhat the general aspect of Fratercula. No horny appendages to 
the eyelids. No furrow in the plumage behind the eyes. An extremely 
elongated crest on each side of the head. Upper mandible with only an indi- 
cation of a basal ridge along its sides ; the culmen divided into two parts, 
whereof the basal is surmounted by a prominent widened ridge, ending ab- 
ruptly ; sides of upper mandible with three well marked curved grooves, 
widely separated, whose convexity points backwards. Under mandible with 
its sides perfectly smooth, and its base very convex, not concave. Rictus very 
sinuate ; gonys slightly curved. Feet, wings and tail as in Fratercula. 

The above diagnosis indicates only the princii)al features wherein this 
genus — or subgenus, as might be contended with some reason — differs from 
Fratercula. Except in the bill, eye-lids and crest, the genus is exactly Frater- 
cula, but the differences in these points seem sufficient to warrant generic 




Alca cirrhata, Pallas, Spic. Zool. 1769, v, p. 7, pi. 1, and pi. 2, figs. 1, 2, 3. 
Quotes Steller, Nov. Comm. Petrop. iv, p. 421, pi. 12, fig. 16. Gmelin, S. 
N. i, pt. ii, 1788, p. 553. Quotes Pennant, A. Z. ii, p. 513, No. 432. Latham, 
Ind. Orn. ii, 1799, p. 791, No. 2. DonndorfF, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, p. 822, No. 
10. Quotes Anas arctica cirrhata^ Steller. Sander, Grosse u. Schonh. in 
Natur. i, p. 244. Hermann, Tab. Aff. Anim. p. 150 ; and of the other early 

Lunda cirrhata, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 363, pi. 82. Schlegel, Urina- 
tores Mus. Pays-Bas, 1867, p. 27. 

Mormon [Lunda) cirrhata, Bonaparte, Comptes Rend., 1856, p. 774. Cassin, 
Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 9«2. 

Mormon cirrhata, Bonaparte, Syn. 1828, p. 429. Audubon, Orn. Biogr. iii, 
1835, p. 36;, pi. 249, figs. 1, 2. (Kennebec R., Me.) Audubon, B. Amer. 

vii, 1844, p. , pi. — . Boardman, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1862, p. 132. 

(Maine). Verrill, Proc. Essex Inst, iii, 1864, p. 160. (Maine). Heermann, 
Pac. R. R. Rep. x, 1859, Route to California, Birds, p. 75. Cooper and Suck- 
ley, Pac. R. R. Rep. xii, pt. ii, 1859, p 283. 

Mormon cirrata, Naumann, Isis, 1821, p. 781, pi. 7, fig 1. 

Fratercula cirrhata, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, 1825, p. 40. Vieillot, 
Gal. Ois. ii, 1825, p. 240, pi. 296. Vigors, Zool. Voy. Blossom, Ornith. 1839, 
p. 33. Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, p. 637. Cassin, Pr. A. N. S. Phila. 1862, 
p. 324. 

Fratercula [Gymmohlepharum) cirrata, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, 
p. 349. 

Arctic Ocean ; Coasts and Islands of the North Pacific ; on the American 
side south to California ; of occasional occurrence on the Atlantic Coast of 
North America, (Kennebec River, Audubon : spec, obtained ; Bay of Fundy, 
in winter, Verrill,) Spec, in Mus. Acad. Philada., Mus. Smiths., Cab. Geo. N. 
Lawrence, author's Cab., etc. 

Bill very large and heavy, much longer than the head or middle toe and 
claw, its depth at base three-fourths its length ; excessively compressed, the 
sides nearly perpendicular, except at base of upper mandible, where they bulge 
a little. Upper mandible divided into two portions ; the basal part with its 
Bides perfectly smooth, bounded along the base by a slight oblique ridge of 
subcorneous tissue, which is scarcely, however, elevated above the common 
plane, and is minutely studded with points ; bounded above by a prominent 
wide ridge formed of an accessory corneous piece which surmounts this por- 
tion of the culmen ; bounded below by the nasal slit ; bounded anteriorly by 
a deep groove whose convexity looks backwards ; these four boundaries en- 
closing a subtrapezoidal space. The terminal part smooth, except in the 
presence of three widely separated, oblique, curved, deep grooves, whose con- 
vexity looks backwards. Lower mandible with the sides perfectly smooth, the 
base convex, the convexity looking backwards, with slight indication of a 
ridge of punctulated subcorneous tissue. General outline of culmen convex ; 
this convexity, however, interrupted near the middle by a notch, forming a re- 
entrant angle between the two parts of the culmen, each of which, taken 
separately, is convex in outline — the anterior part the most so. Rictus exceed- 
ingly sinuate, the tip of the upper mandible being almost perpendicularly hung 
over that of the lower; the angle of the mouth occupied by a large fibrous 
or membranous excrescence, nearly circular in outline, turgid in life; in the dry 
state shrunken and minutely punctulated. This peculiar warty excrescence 
seems of nearly the same structure as the base of the bill itself, with which it 
is directly continuous. Nasal slit short, linear, subbasal, placed close to the 
commissural edge of the upper mandiJole. Palate and floor of mouth both 
deeply excavated ; the cutting edge of both mandibles exceedingly sharp. 

The eyelids are naked along the edge, but present no thickening or unusual 



fleshiness. The crest springs chiefly from what would otherwise be a naked 
linear groove in the plumage from the eyes to the extreme occiput. Some of 
the feathers begin to grow much above, if not a little anterior to, the eyes. 
The crest in perfectly adult birds is more th&n four inches long. The feathers 
have exceedingly slender, delicate shafts, and loose, entirely disconnected, 
though quite lengthy fibrillaR ; and a peculiar silky glossiness. 

The wings are of the usual size and shape in this family. The tail is com- 
paratively somewhat longer, perhaps, than in any other Alcidine bird ; the 
lateral feathers a little graduated ; the central pair shorter than the next, pro- 
ducing an emargination. The legs are as in Fratercula. The claw of the inner 
toe presents the curious character which has already been dwelt upon in con- 
nection with F. arctica. 

Adult. — Bill orange-red; the basal moiety of both mandibles livid horn or 
enamel color ; the punctulated basal ridge, and rictal callosities more yellow- 
ish. Legs and feet obscure reddish ; the webs bright coral red ; claws brown- 
ish-black. Edges of eyelids red ; " iris pale blue." Crests pale straw-yellow ; 
some of the posterior feathers, which grow from the black part of the head, 
black at base. Face pure white, abruptly defined. This white occupies the 
lores and sides of the head to the base of the crest, and encircles the bill, 
broadly on the sides, narrowly above and below. The black of the crown 
comes down the forehead to within a fourth of an inch of the culmen ; just fill- 
ing the crown between the crests, and ending with a directly transverse out- 
line. The white on the side of the lower jaw extends to within about the same 
distance from the under mandible. A narrow, very distinct pure white line 
along the anterior edge of the fore-arm. Entire upper parts, and under tail 
coverts glossy black ; sides of head and neck, and throat and breast fuliginous 
brownish-black ; other under parts the same, but more grayish ; under surfaces 
of wings smoky gray. Wings and tail black ; the inner webs of the feathers 
brownish-black ; the shaft of the first primary whitish on its under surface to- 
wards its base. 

The preceding description is taken from an unusually fine specimen (No. 
46,494, Mus. Smiths, (j^, Sitka, May, 1867), representing the very highest con- 
dition of maturity. The crest is more than four inches long. It is not often 
that such very perfect specimens are met with in collections. 

Length between 15-00 and 1600 ; wing 7-75 ; tail about 2-00 ; tarsus 1'30 ; 
middle toe 200, its claw -50 ; outer toe 1-80, its claw -40; inner toe 1-25, its 
claw -50 ; bill : greatest depth (a little in front of extreme base) 1-90 ; greatest 
width (at angle of mouth) -90 ; chord of culmen 2-40, of which the terminal 
portion is 1-40 ; rictus about 1-90 ; gonysl-60; greatest depth of upper mandi- 
ble 1-15; nostrils -25 long. 

Young {full grown). — Bill smaller than in the adult, and not so deep at the 
base ; sides of terminal moiety of upper mandible perfectly smooth ; chord of 
culmen 2-00 ; depth of bill at base 1-40. No crest; slight indications of it inf 
some short yellowish filamentous feathers on the auriculars. White line on 
fore-arm imperfect. White about head as in the adult ; but the black reaches 
nearly or quite to the base of the culmen and gonys. Otherwise like the adult ; 
the under parts rather more grayish. The bill and 'feet appear to have been 
less brightly colored. 

This strange bird fairly disputes with Phaleris paittacula the claim to be re- 
garded as the oddest of the odd species of this family. The peculiar configura- 
tion of the bill strongly characteri/.es it at all ages, independently of its re- 
markable head-markings. Though known for about a century, it has received 
no specific synonyms from any of the writers whose works have been examined 
in the preparation of the present memoir. Specimens are contained in nearly 
all the American collections. The bird is authenticated as occurring ou the 
coast of Maine. 




Alca, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811. in part; not of authors. 
Phaleris, Bonaparte, Zool. Journ. iii, 1827 ; not of authors. 
Cerorhinca,^ Bonaparte, Syn. U. S. Birds, 1828. Type C. occidentalis, Bp. =^. 

monocerata, Pall. 
Chimerina, Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, 1829. Type C. cornuta, Esch. =A. mono- 

cerata, Pall. 
Uria^ Audubon, B. Am. vii, 1844, in part ; not of authors. 
Simorhynchus, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 1867, livr. ix, in part; not of Merrera. 

Base of upper mandible with a large upright horny protuberance. Under 
mandible with an accessory corneous piece interposed between its rami, near 
their symphysis. Bill shorter than the head, stout, very deep at the base, 
tapering rapidly to the tip, much compressed, the sides erect, smooth, the cul- 
men very convex, the rictus gently curved, the gonys nearly straight, except at 
symphysis, where it is bulging. Nostrils short, linear, subbasal, marginal, 
impervious. Eye small ; no palpebral appendages. No crest ; no furrow be- 
hind the eyes ; slender elongated feathers on each side of the head. Inner 
lateral claw of usual size, shape and position. Other details of form almost 
exactly as in Fratercula. Size large ; general form robust. 

This curious genus may readily be distinguished from all others of the family 
by the characters indicated in the two first sentences of the above diagnosis. 
The intercalation of an accessory corneous element at the mandibular sym- 
physis is an entirely unique feature in this family. It seems very much like 
the " interramicorn," as the writer has elsewhere called it, which is found in 
the albatrosses, as one of the characters which distinguish those birds from 
other Frocellariidse. In the present instance, it is a feature of especial import- 
ance and value, as it helps greatly to distinguish this genus from Sagmatorrhina, 
or, to be more explicit, to separate S. Suckleyi from C.monocerata in every siage 
of growth. 

The affinities of this genus are decidedly with Fratercula, after Sagmatorrhina, 
of course. Aside from the peculiarities of the' bill, it agrees with the former in 
most points of structure, except the eyes and inner lateral claw. It does not 
require comparison with any other genus. It is represented by only a single 
species, according to the writer's way of thinking, — Suckleyi falling most 
naturally, as well as can be judged at present, in Sagmatorrhina. 

Ceratorhyncha monocerata (Pall.) Cass. 

Alca monocerata, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 362, No. 41 i. 
Cerorhina monocerata. Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 905. Cooper and Suck- 
ley, Pacific R. R. Rep. xii, pt. ii, 1859, p. 284. 
Simorhynchus monocera^ws, Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. ix, 1867, p. 26. 

Cites Sagmathorina [lege Sagmatorrhina] Lathami Bp. and Cerorhina Suckleyi 

Cass, as young. 
Phaleris eerorhynca, Bonaparte, Zool. Jour, iii, 1827, p. 53. 
Cerorhinca occidentalis, Bonaparte, Syn. Am. Birds, Ann. Lye. N. Y. iv, 1828, p. 

428. Nuttall, Man. ii, p. 538. Vigors, Zool. Voy. Blossom, 1839, Ornith. 

p. 33. 
Ceratorhyncha occidentalis, Bonaparte, Corap. List, 1838, p. QQ. Bonaparte, Consp. 

Gav. Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 744. 
Ceratorhina occidentalis, Audubon, Orn. Biog. 1839, v, p. 104, pi. 402, fig. 5. 
Cerorhina occidentalis. Gray, Genera Birds, iii, 1849, p. 639. Heermann, Pac. 

R. R. Rep. X, 1859, Route to California, Birds, p. 75. 
Uria occidentalis, Audubon, B. Am. vii, 1844, p. 364, pi. 471. 

* This word ia spelled in a great variety of ways, both by Bonaparte himself, and other 
authors. We find Cerorhina. Cerorrhina, Ceratorhina, Ceratorrhina, Cerorhinca, Cero- 
rhynea, Cerorhyncha, Ceratorhyncha, Ceratorrhyneha, etc. The orthography above cited 
is that apparently first given by Bonaparte, but is obviously erroneous. 




Cerorkina orimtalis, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St.-Petersb. ii, 183Y, p. 348. By a 

lapsus calami for " occidentalis." 
€himerina cornuta, Escbscholtz, Zool. Atlas, 1829, iii, p. 2, pi. 12. 

American and Asiatic coasts and islands of the North Pacific. Japan (Perry's 
U. S. Expl. Exped.), Kamtschatka (Mus. Acad., Philada.), Pacific coast of N. 
A. from Russian America to Farralone Islands, Cal. (Mus. Smiths. Inst.) Breeds 
as far south as Japan and California. 

Pig. 1.— C moneccrato. 

Nat. size. Adult female. 

Pig, 2.—C. nwnocerata. 
Nat. size. Young scarcely fledged. 

Adult, breeding plumage, (No. 46,617, Mus. Smiths. 9 > Sitka, May, 1866).— Bill 
TDrange-yellow, culmen and base of upper mandible dusky ; horn dull yellowish. 
Feet apparently dusky yellow ; below, with the tarsi posteriorly, blackish ; claws 
black. Crown of head, back of neck, and entire upper parts glossy blue-black . 
Sides of head and neck, and of body along under the wings to the flanks, with 
chiw, throat and upper part of breast, and under surfaces of wings, clear gray- 
ish ash, pretty trenchantly defined along its line of junction with the black. 
Under parts from th€ breast pure white ; this color shading insensibly into the 
ashy on the breast and sides. A line of white along the edge of the fore-arm. 
Exposed portions of wing and tail feathers black; their inner webs greyish- 
brown, basally lighter, the shafts of the primaries dull whitish at base. A 
series of elongated, stiffish, acicular feathers on the side of the head from the 
rictal angle ; another similar series from the eye backwards to the sides of the 
nape, pure white. The individual feathers are about an inch, more or less, in 
length ; the length of the white stripes produced by them collectively is about 
two inches. 

Length 15-50; wing 7'25; tail 2-60 ; tarsus 1*20; middle toe and claw 1-85, 
outer do. 1-YO, inner do. 1-40; chord of culmen, excluding width of horn, 1-00, 
including it 1-40 ; rictus 2-00 ; gonys, including length of accessory piece, 1-10 ; 
height of bill from tip of horn to protuberance at symphysis 1'25 ; from culmen 
at base of horn to same -80 ; nostril to top of horn 'VS. 

Immature, but with a perfectly developed horn, and accessory symphyseal 
piece (No. 23,391, Mus. Smiths., Straits of Fuca). — Colors somewhat as in the 
preceding ; but the white of the under parts everywhere obscured by ashy-gray, 
which tinges the tips of the feathers, giving a marbled aspect to the parts, 
lightest on the middle of the belly, shading insensibly on all sides into the 
uniform ashy«gray of the other under parts. Black of upper parts, especially 
on the head, with a decided brownish tinge. Only traces of the acicular white 
feathers on the sides of the head. Bill smaller than before ; the horn, how- 
ever, perfectly developed, rising nearly half an inch above the culmen. Rather 



smaller than the preceding ; length between 14 and 15 inches, wing barely 7, 
bill along rictus 1-60, its depth at base, exclusive of height of horn, -65. 

Young. (No. 23,392, Mus. Smiths., Straits of Fuca). — This specimen is jnst 
not quite fully feathered, patches of down adhering here and there. The bill 
is small and weak, hardly more than half the size of that of the adult; its 
general shape, however, is nearly attained. The base of the upper mandible 
is covered with a soft skin, about as far as the end of the nostrils. That part 
of the culmen formed by the ridge of this skin is sunken below the level of the 
rest. Unmistakable indications of the future horn are present, in a small knob 
on the ridge of this skin. In the present dried state this knob is shrunken, 
presenting the appearance represented in the plate. In life it was probably 
a small full rounded protuberance, rising a little above the level of the culmen. 
Between the mandibular rami, at the symphysis, there is a slight fold or ridge 
of skin, evidently the matrix of the future accessory corneous element. The 
upper mandible is mostly blackish ; the lower dull obscured reddish. The legs 
and feet appear to have been colored much like those of the adult. The colors 
of the plumage are precisely those of the specimen last described ; the patches 
of down are smoky brown. There is no trace of white about the head. 

Nestling, about 5^ inches long. (Farralone Islands. Mus. Acad. Phila.) 
All over smoky brown, lighter and more grayish below. 

The horn of this bird, always present in the adult, and always indicated, 
even in the scarcely feathered young, as we have just seen, varies a great deal 
in the details of its size and shape. It is usually nearly upright, but fre- 
quently projects a little obllqely forward. Its average height is between 
four and five-tenths of an inch, measuring from the level of the culmen at 
the anterior edge of the root of the horn. The real roots of the horn begin a 
little above the nasal aperture ; the nostril opening just beneath the lower 
edge. The horn is thus bifurcated, as it were, at the base, and saddled on the 
base of the upper mandible. The anterior outline is usually straight, or 
slightly curved, the apex rounded, and the posterior border irregular in out- 
line. The figure represents what is perhaps an average horn. It would be 
impossible to indicate all the variation in detail; scarcely two horns are pre- 
cisely alike. 

The frontal feathers ascend a very little way up the back of the horn in 
the majority of instances ; sometimes, however, they end abruptly at its base. 
From their foremost point they sweep downwards and backwards along the 
side of the upper mandible with a gentle regular curve, to the rictal angle, 
leaving the tomial edges of the upper mandible bare. The chin feathers begin 
at the accessory symphyseal piece, rise quickly on the sides of the under man- 
dible, and reach its tomial edge in advance of the rictal angle. 

The symphyseal piece, which is developed from the skin at the apex of the 
interramal space, is, when fully formed, as hard as the rest of the bill. Anteri- 
orly it is directly continuous with the mandibular symphysis. On its sides, a 
groove indicates its line of cohesion with the mandibular rami. The horn, 
when mature, is perfectly corneous and hard to its extreme base ; there being 
no soft skin even about the nostrils. Its main shaft is hollow ; a tube is dis- 
closed when the top is worn off or broken off. 

The white feathers on the side of the head differ from those of other Phaleri- 
dines (except S. Suckleyi) in not being very slender, filamentous and wavy. 
They are straight, short, acutely pointed, stiflBsh, standing discreet from each 
other, like so many narrow spear-points. 

The very large series of this bird examined warrant the belief that the horn 
is always present, accidents of course not considered ; that it begins to be ap- 
parent even before the bird is fully fledged, as a slight knob. That, in like 
manner, the accessory symphyseal piece is always developed ; and that its be- 
ginning may be detected at a very early age. These facts must be borne in 
mind in discussing the unusually interesting points connected with Sagmator- 
rhina as compared with the present genus. The opinion relative to the season- 



al or sexual character of the horn (page 905, Birds of N. A.)* would probably 
not have been expressed, had the writer enjoyed the opportunity of examining 
such an extensive series as have been at command in the preparation of the 
present monograph. 

This species was first named Alca monocerata by Pallas in 18 II. Prince Bo- 
naparte called it " Phaleris occidentalis " in 1827; which name has been 
usually adopted, Pallas' description being overlooked or disregarded. Brandt 
appears to have accidentally misquoted Bonaparte's name in calling the bird 
" Cerorhina orientalis, Bp." Eschscholtz called it " Chimerina cornuta " in 
1829. These are the only synonyms which the writer has been able to collate, 
except, of course, those resulting from the reference of the bird to diverse 
genera, as has been already noted. 

Sagmatorrhina, Bonaparte, P. Z. S. Lond. ISal, p. 202. Type -S'. Latkami, Bp. 

" Bill twice as long as high, upper mandible straight at the base, covered 
with a very large cere, incurved at the tip ; lower mandible ascending imme- 
diately beyond the middle, forming an obtuse angle ; nostrils linear, margi- 
nal." — Bp. 1. c. 

The above is a translation of the diagnosis of a genus framed by Bonaparte 
for the reception of a bird he calls S. Lathami. It apparently differs from 
Ceratorhyncha in the contour of the bill, the presence of a soft cere saddled on 
the base of the upper mandible in the place of a horn, and, it may be pre- 
sumed, in the absence of the peculiar accessory corneous element at the man- 
dibular synphysis, as no mention is made of such a character. The type and 
apparently only known specimen is in the British Museum. 

The possession of a soft flat cere in place of an upright horn, and the want 
of the accessory mandibular piece are precisely the features which characterize 
Cerorhina Suckleyi Cassin ; and in fact are about the only ones by which the 
latter can satisfactorily be distinguished, specifically, from C. monocerata. It 
therefore seems a procedure of obvious propriety to refer Suckleyi to the pre- 
sent genus. At the same time Suckleyi can by no possibility be confounded 
with Lathami ; nor is the latter by any means a young C. monocerata, as some 
authors have ventured to hint, and others have boldly assumed. An inspec- 
tion of the figures accompanying the present memoir ought to set all doubts at 

Species — (2.) 

" Length 16 inches ; wing 7-50 ; bill 2 long, 1 high, five-eighths 

wide at the base" I. Lathami. 

Length 14-50; wing 6-50; bill along culmen 1-30, depth at 

base -60, width at base four-eighths 2. Suckleyi. 

Sagmatorrhina Lathami, Bonaparte. 

Ill Alca labradoria, Gmelin, S. N. i, pt. ii, 1788, p. 550. Very doubtful. 
Rather referable to Fratercula arctica, which see. 

Sagmatorrhina lahradoria, Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 904. 

Sagmatorrhina Lathami, Bonaparte, P. Z. S. London, 1851, p. 202, pi. 44. 

'^ Largest among its allies ; blackish, beneath pallid fuliginous ; bill and 
feet red ; cere and webs black. Length ItJ inches ; bill 2 inches long, 1 inch 
high, five -eighths wide at the base, three-eighths in the middle ; wing 7 J 
inches; tail 3^; tarsi l\] longest toe 2 and 3-eighths inches. 
Hab. — •' North-west Coast of America. 

• Spec. No. 10G98, there enumerated, seems to have called forth the remark above allu- 
ded to. This specimen, however, is believed to be the adult of S. SuokUyi, of which only 
the young bira was at that time recognized. 




" This species is the largest of the subfamily, which is well known to con- 
tain the dwarfs of the water birds ; it is one-third larger than Ceratorrhina 
monocerata, of which it has precisely the coloring, wanting only (at least in 
the state we have it) the little white feathers above the eye and at the corners 
of the mouth. The proportions of the wings, tail, feet and toes are the same ; 
the bill and toes must have been reddish ; the cere and membranes black. 
Like the Ceratorrhina, it seems to be confined to the north-western Arctic 
region of America ; and we are led to believe it does not extend to the Sibe- 
rian shores, from the circumstance of its not having been noticed by Russian 

Pig. Z.-^Sagmatorrhina Lathami, By. Nat. size. 

The preceding is Bonapftrte's notice of the species, containing all that is 
known about it by American ornithologists. The writer takes pleasure in 
acknowledging his indebtedness to Dr. P. L. Sclater, of London, for the accom- 
panying figure, drawn from the type specimen in the British Museum. Dr. 
Sclater says very positively that th'e bird is a perfectly valid genus and species, 
and the figure evidently warrants the assertion. Independently of the differ- 
ence between the cere and the horn, the shape of the bills of (J. monocerata and 
S. Lathami are quite diverse. The dimensions of the latter are much larger 
thaa those of the former. 

Sagma.*obrhina Suckleyi, i^Cass.) Ooues, 

Ceroffiina SucMeyi, Gassin, Baird's B. N. A. 185-8, p. 906. Based on spec. No. 

4579, Mus. Smiths. Young. Puget Sound. Cooper and Suckley, Pacific R. R. 

Rep. xii, pt. ii, I860, p. 284. Refers to same specimen. 

American and Asiatic Coasts of the Pacific Spec, in Mus. Smiths Inst — 
Young, (type of the species, Puget Sound ;) adult, breeding plumage (San 
Diego, Cal.) Adult, (Hak<odadi, Japan.) 

Adult! breeding plumage! (No. 319G8,* Mtis. Smiths, $, San Diego, Cal. 
Feb. 3, 1862, J. G. Cooper.) "Iris white; bill black and orange; feet pale 
yellow, black below," (label.) Bill n-ow obscure yellow, tiie culmen and basal 
membrane blackish. Feet dull whitish ; tarsi behind and feet below blackish ; 
claws black. Colors of the plumage almost precisely as in the adult monoce- 
rata ; white feathers on sides of head exactly the same. Breast rather deeper 
grayish-ash, the color extending a little further, and more abruptly defined 
against the white of the other under parts. 

Figured ia Elliot's Birds of North America. 




Fig. 6.—S. Suckleyi, Juv. Nat. size. 
Fig. 4.-5. Suckleyi, Adult. Nat. size. Cassin's type specimen. 

No vestige of a horn at base of upper mandible ; this being covered with a 
soft skin, overlapping the culmen, extending to the nostrils, which open be- 
neath its lower border. That part of the bill occupied by tlie membrane is 
depressed below the level of the rest, both on the ridge and sides. The mem- 
brane is shrunken and shrivelled in its present state. There appears to have 
been a slight tumidity, in the fresh state, of this membrane, just on the ridge, 
which may have elevated it to the level of the rest of the culmen, and which 
could possibly even have been inadvertently called a '' knob " by one who re- 
garded it as the beginning of a horn. No trace of an intercalated piece be- 
tween the mandibular rami, which have thin, sharp, smooth edges, and come 
together in a fine point at the symphysis. Bill much smaller, weaker, and 
particularly less deep at the base than that of C. monocerata; but not much 
shorter, nor comparatively even so much compressed as in the latter bird. 
Culmen regularly decurved from base to tip ; the latter moderately overhang- 
ing ; rictus at first nearly straight, then gently declinate ; gonys nearly straight, 
slightly concave ; outline of mandibular rami about straight. 

Decidedly smaller than monocerata; the wing comparatively longer. Length 
about 14-00 ; " extent 25-50," (label) ; wing 725 ; tarsus 1-10 ; middle toe and 
claw 1-90, outer do. 1-80, inner do. 1-45; bill: chord of culmen 1-30, of which 
the membranous part is -30 ; rictus 1-85 ; gonys .75 ; depth of bill at base -60 ; 
its width at same point -45. 

Young. (No. 4579, Mus. Smiths. Fort Steilacoora, W. T. Jan. 8, 1856. 
Dr. G. Suckley. Mr. Cassin's type of the species, as described I. c.) " Membrane 
at base of upper mandible grayish dusky black ; middle of both mandibles 
dingy orange, their tips dusky ; iris pale hazel ; under surface of the webs of 
the feet, and the posterior aspect of the tarsi dusky black ; upper surface of 
the toes bluish white, darker about the articulations ; nails black." (Suckley, 
1. c.) The colors of the plumage are precisely as described for the young C. 
monocerata ; possibly a shade darker, with rather more white on the under parts 
than in the corresponding age of the other species. 

Much smaller than the adult; length "about 12.50; extent 24.00 ;" (Suck- 
ley, 1. c): wing 6-50; tail 2-00; tarsi 1-00 ; bill along culmen 1-20, of which 
the membranous portion is -30; along rictus 1-60; along gonys -60; its depth 
at base -40. The bill is small and slender; its general shape calls to mind the 
bill of a young gull of one of the smaller species. The several outlines, par- 
ticularly that of the culmen, are straighter than in the adult ; the tip is less 
decurved. The bill is much longer, relatively and absolutely, than that of the 
corresponding age of monocerata ; it is comparatively more slender. There is 
no trace of a knob '* the membrane has precisely the same characteristics as 

* Dr. Suckley (1. c), speaking of this specimen, usos the word "knob" in connection 
with it. His expression is to be taken as indicating merelv the turgidity of tlio soft 
membrane during the life of the bird ; which raises the membrane to or above the level 
of the rest of the culmen. The membrane, being very soft, shrinks and shrivels in dry- 
ing, and the prominence disappears. 

1868.] 8 


that of the adult bird above described. There is no trace of an accessory 
piece between the rami. 

The bird above described was first indicated as a distinct species by Mr. 
Cassin in 1858; that gentleman founding his specific characters mainly upon 
the small size, somewhat darker colors, and much smaller, slender bill, as com- 
pared with monocerata. The species has always been looked upon with con- 
siderable mistrust, and very generally regarded as only a young monocerata. 
At the time of the introduction of Suckleyi, C. monocerata was not known in all 
its ages and stages of plumage, as it is at present. The horn which charac- 
terizes it was believed to be frequently wanting, particularly in the yeung 
bird. The accessory symphyseal piece had not received attention. These 
facts, together with the almost perfect identity in plumage of the two birds, 
very naturally led to the suspicion above mentioned ; seemingly borne out, 
too, by the fact that the type of Suckleyi was a very young bird, the adult of 
which was unknown, or at least unrecognized. But it has been shown in the 
preceding article that indications both of the horn and of the accessory inter- 
ramal element appear in monocerata even before it is fully feathered, and that 
these two distinguishing features are preserved in all ages, at all seasons, 
with both sexes. The discovery of Suckleyi in perfectly adult breeding plum- 
age settles the question of its identity witli monocerata. Specimen No. 31,908, 
above described, has no trace of a horn or accessory symphyseal piece ; and is 
smaller, and otherwise conspicuously different from monocerata, though of 
almost precisely similar colors of plumage. 

There is something highly interesting, very singular, and, with our present 
information upon the subject, totally inexplicable, in the fact that the plumage 
of the two birds is so nearly identical as not to be satislactorily distinguished 
in any particular ; while the bills differ in such radical characteristics. The 
suspicion comes unbidden, that the whole truth in the matter of C. monocerata, 
and S. Suckleyi — and S. Lathami, too — remains to be developed ; while it is 
certain, at the same time, that nothing but the truth appears upon these pages. 

In the reference of this species to the genus Sagmatorrhina, the writer is 
guided simply by Bonaparte's diagnosis, and by the figure of the head of ^S*. 
Lathami, kindly furnished by Dr. Sclater. The dimensions of S. Lathami and 
the form of the bird are sufficient to distinguish S. Suckleyi from it. 


Alca, Pallas, Spic. Zool. v, 1769, in part ; and of some authors. 

TJria, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, in part. 

Lunda^ Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, in part. 

Simorhynchus, Merrem, , 1819. Type Alca cristatella, Pall. Fide G. R. 

Gray. (Where is this genus named ?) 
Phaleris, Temminck, Man. Orn. ii, 1820. Type Alca psittacula, Pallas. (Also 

moXvLdiQ^ cristatella.) And of most authors. 
Mormon, Lichtenstein, 1823, in part. (if. superciliosa = camtschatica, Lep.) 
Ombria, Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, 1831. Type Alca psittacula, Pallas. 
Cyclorrhynchus, Kaup, 1829. Type Alca psittacula. Pall. Fide G. R. Gray. 
Tylorhamphus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. Imper. St. Petersburg, ii, 1837. Type'^Zca 

cristatella. Pall. 
Ciceronia, Reichenbach, 1853. Type Phaleris microceros, Brandt. 

Of moderate and very small size ; general form stout. Usually with a crest, 
or with elongated feathers about the head. Bill variable : sometimes simple, 
oftener irregular in form, with various elevations and depressions, often with 
nodules or other accessory elements ; always stout, compressed, shorter than 
the head, the culmen very convex, the tip acute. Nostrils entirely unfeathered. 
Wings and tail of the ordinary shape and length. Feet small and short ; tar- 
sus compressed, entirely reticulate, shorter than the middle toe. Toes long, 
outer and middle about equal in length, the claw of the latter largest. Claw 



of inner toe reaching base of middle one. Claws much arched, compressed, 
acute, the inner edge of the middle one scarcely dilated. 

The genus as above defined is framed to include a number of species, all more 
or less closely allied, yet presenting differences from each other in form in 
almost each instance. The various species are all nearly identical in the 
structure of the wings, feet and tail ; in the bill no two entirely agree. Each 
presents suae speciei characters in the shape of the bill ; but the very fact that 
this organ varies so much seems to indicate that the diflferences are no more 
than of specific consequence. A glance at the synonyms above adduced will 
show what forms have been made indicative of genera. Psittacula is perhaps 
the species which has been most generally separated from the others, in view 
of its oval upper, and falcate under, mandible. But if this bird is to be gen- 
erically distinguished, so also must cristatellua ; for the latter differs in still 
greater degree, in the presence of an anomalous accessory element in the bill. 
This one being taken out, what to do with camtschaticus, so very closely allied? 
It is almost identical with cristatellus in all points of structure, except in the de- 
tails of the configuration of the bill, and in these points it stands intermediate 
between this species and some others. Then microceros a.nd pusillus would have 
to stand by themselves. So also would tetraculus and Cassini. These two, par- 
ticularly, differ more from all the rest, in their short, simple conic bills, than 
any of the rest do from each other. In fine, if psittaculahe allowed generic rank, 
so also must cristatellus, and pari passu must no less than three more genera 
be recognized. It seems much the most philosophical to group all these forms 
together in a single genus, regarding the differences in the bills as specific. 

In such an acceptation, the genus comprises eight species, which may be 
thus analysed : 

Species — (8.) 

I. Phaleris Temm. Upper mandible oval, under mandible 

falcate ; rictus curved upwards. No crest. 

Blackish ; white below from the breast ; a white spot 

below the eye 1. psittaculus. 

II. Simorhynchus, Merrem. Upper mandible triangular, 

under mandible nearly straight; rictus horizontal, 
sinuate. A long recurved crest. 

Angle of the mouth with a supernumerary corneous 
piece. Sides of under mandible unfeathered. One 

series of white feathers on the head 2. cristatellua. 

Unknown. (See Pallas' description, infra) 3. dubius. 

Angle of mouth without a supernumerary piece. 
Sides of under mandible feathered. Three series 
of white feathers on head 4. camtschaticus. 

III. ( Unnamed subgenus.) Bill very small, short, conic, 
simple, destitute of any irregularities whatever. 

Large ; bill moderately compressed ; a long re- 
curved crest; fuliginous black above, fuliginous 
gray below. Wing 5-50 ; rictus -TO ; width of 
bill at base -30 ; tarsus, middle toe and claw to- 
gether '2-50 5. tetraculus. 

Small ; bill excessively compressed ; no crest (?) ; 
uniform plumbeous, lighter below, whitish on the 
abdomen. Wing 4-25 ; rictus -60 ; width of bill 
at base -151 Tarsus, middle toe and claw to- 
gether, 2*00 6. Cassinif n. a. 

IV. {Ciceronia, Reich.) Smallest of the genus. Short 
white hair-like feathers over the forehead. 



Length about 6-50 ; height of bill at base -30. Up- 
per mandible with a basal knob ; bill stout and 
wide for its length. No decided white patch on 

scapulars ., 7. microceros. 

Length about 5-50 ; height of bill at base -20. Up- 
per mandible without a knob; bill slender and 
narrow for its length. Conspicuous white patch 

on scapulars 8. pusillus. 

The first distinctive name of this genus is said, by Mr. Gray, to be Simorhyn- 
chus of Merrem, with cristatcUus as type. This genus is not in general employ. 
The present writer does not know where it is instituted, but adopts it upon 
the authority just mentioned. Phaleris of Temminck is usually adopted. This 
genus was framed, in 1820, to include both psittaculus and cristateUus : the char- 
acters as laid down apply best to the latter ; the former is mentioned first. It 
cannot be used for cristateUus, however, being antedated by Merrem's name. 
If psittaculus is separated from the present genus, it must be called Phaleris, 
Temm., which antedates Omhria Esch., though the latter is usually applied to 
that bird. Tylorhamphus Brandt is simply a duplication of Merrem's genus ; 
Cyclorrhynchus Kaup merely repeats Temminck's. Ciceronia Reichenbach is 
based upon the smallest species of the genus — section four in the preceding 
analysis. iSection three of the foregoing synopsis, comprehending tetraculus 
and Cassini, is really the most distinct of any, and is the best entitled to 
generic rank. The chance to run in a name is left open to any one who may 
be ambitious in that line. 


Alca psittacula, Pallas, Spic. Zool. v, 1769, p. 13, pi. 2, and pi. 5, figs. 4, 5, 6. 
Gmelin, S. N. i, pt ii, 1788, p. 553. (Based on Pallas and Pennant.) Latham, 
Ind. Orn. ii, 1790, p. 794. (Same basis.) DonndorfF, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, 
1794, p. 822. Quotes Steller, Nov. Act. Petrop. iv, p. 426, pi. 13, tigs. 25, 
26 ; and other authorities. 
Lunda psittacula, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 366, pi. 84. 
Fhaleris psittacula, Temminck, Man. Orn. i, 1820, p. 112. Stephens, Shaw's 
Gen. Zool. xiii, 1825, p. 44. Bonaparte, Synopsis, 1828, p. 426. Gray, 
Genera Birds, iii, 1849, p. 638. Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. 
Ombria psittacula, Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, 1831, iv, p. 3, pi. 17, Brandt, Bull. 
Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 348. Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 910. 
Elliot, B. N. Am. 1866, part i. 
Simorhynchus psittaculus, Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, 1867, livr. ix, p. 24. 
Asiatic and American coasts of the North Pacific ; Aleutian Islands ; Kamt- 
schatka, (Mus. Acad. Philada.) ; Russian America, (Mus. Smiths. Institution) ; 
Behring's Sea, (Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas.); Japan? 

Bill moderately large, much compressed, 
densely feathered for some distance at base 
of upper mandible and sides of lower. Up- 
per mandible almost perfectly oval in its 
lateral aspect, its culmen gently curved, 
and its tomial edges more decidedly con- 
vex, the former descending, the latter rapid- 
ly ascending to meet at an obtuse angle. 
Lower mandible extremely slender, falci- 
form in shape, strongly curved upwards, 
its tip very acute, its tomial edges concave, 
corresponding to the convex tomia of the 
Yi^.Q.— Simorhynchus psittaculus {V&W,) upper mandible; the gonys much and 
Kat. size. regularly curved. Nasal fossae long and 

wide, but rather shallow ; the nares rather broadly linear, or narrowly oval, 
overhung by a slightly projecting scale. Frontal feathers embracing culmen 



in a slightly reentrant angle, thence descending about perpendicularly to the 
very edge of the upper mandible. Feathers on side of lower mandible not 
extending quite so far as those on side of upper. Interraraal space fully 
feathered, but in consequence of the peculiar shape of the rami, there is a 
small pit or fossa between them, just at their junction, which is unfeathered. 
Wings and tail of the usual length and shape ; the length of the latter con- 
tained about three and two-thirds times in the length of the former from the 
carpal joint to the end of the longest feather. Tarsus shorter than the middle 
toe without its claw. 

Adult — Without a crest. A series of elongated very slender filamentous 
white feathers from the eje backwards and downwards, white. Entire upper 
parts, with chin, throat, breast, and flanks, fuliginous or brownish-black, 
lighter or grayer below than above ; other under parts pure white, pretty 
trenchantly defined against the darker color of the breast. Bill orange or 
coral red, becoming enamel yellow at the tip, and along the cutting edges. 
Legs and feet dull greenish, darker posteriorly, (in the dried state.) 

The above is the state of plumage of apparently most mature birds; 
but is much more rarely met with than the succeeding : Upper parts as 
just described, but no whitish feathers below and behind eye. Entire under 
parts white, marbled on the throat, breast and sides with dusky or blackish ; 
this color usually occupying chiefly or wholly the tips of the feathers, whose 
bases are white. The mottling is thickest on the breast, most sparse on the 
abdomen ; but it varies in degree with almost every specimen. A state of 
plumage is described as that of the young, in which the white occupies nearly 
the whole under parts, and is scarcely mixed with dusky, even on the throat 
and breast. This stage is not represented in American Museums. The ten- 
dency of the mottling, as the bird grows older, seems to be to increase on 
the throat, breast, perhaps on the sides and flanks, and to disappear from the 
other under parts, leaving the latter pure white, in marked contrast. The 
under wing coverts are always dark ashy brown; the short tibial feathers 
the same. 

Length about 9-00 ; wing 5-40 to 5-T5; tail 1-50 to 1 60 ; tarsus (average) 
l-OO ; middle toe MO. Bill: chord of culmen -60, chord of gonys just about 
the same ; depth opposite posterior end of nostrils -45 ; width at same point 
•30 ; rictus nearly or about 1-00. 

This very curious species may be instantly recognized, in whatever state of 
plumage, by the remarkable configuration of the bill; the rictus being 
strongly curved upwards, the upper mandible oval, obtuse, the lower falci- 
form, acute. It is one of the longest and best known of the North Pacific 
representatives of the family, and is apparently a vei'y common bird, though 
specimens do not occur in collections so often as might be expected. It 
seems to be decidedly boreal in habitat, and is not recorded, on the Ameri- 
can coast, so far south as the United States, though occurring at Sitka, R. A., 
and probably off the coast of British Colombia. It has no specific synomyms, 
though it has been referred to several different genera. It is one of Dr. 
Pallas' species. It is the type of M. Temminck's genus Fhaleris. 


Alca cristateUa, Pallas, Spic. Zool. v, 1769, p. 20, pi. 3, and pi. 5, figs. 7, 8, 9, 
Gmelin, S. N. i, pt. ii, 1788, p. 552. No. 7. Latham, lad. Orn. ii, 1790, p. 
794, No. 6. Donndorff, Beylr. Zool. ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 821. Vieillot, Gal. 
Ois. ii, 1825, p. 242, pi. 297. 

Uria cristateUa, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 370, pi. 86. Erroneously 
cites as synonymous Alca camtuchatica, Lepechin. 

Simorhynchas cristatellus, Merrem., Bonaparte, Tab. Comp. Pelajf. Coraptes 
Rendus, xlii, 1856, p. 774. Schlogel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. ix, 
1867, p. 25. (Considers if. duhia and tetracula Pall., young of this species.) 

Phaleria cristatellus, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, 1825, p. 47, pi. 5. Not 




of Temminck, PI. Color. 200, which is Alca camtschatica Lepechin. Bona- 
parte, Synopsis, 1828, p. 426.— Id. Compt. and Geog. List. 1838, p. 66. 
Vigors, Zool. Voy. Bloss., 1839, Orn. p. 33. Gray, Gen. B.. iii. 1849, p. 638. 
PhaUris (Simorhpnchus) cristatella, Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 906. 
Tylorhamphus cristatellus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1867 p. 348. 
Phaleris superciliata, Audubon, Orn. Biog. pi. 402 ; oct. ed. pi. 437. Not 
Mormon superciliosa Licht., nor Phaleris superciliosa Bonap., which refer to 
Alca camtschatica Lepechin. 

Asiatic and American coasts and islands of the North Pacific, to Behring's 
Straits ; perhaps into the Arctic Ocean. Kamtschatka and Behring's Straits, 
(Mus. Acad. Phila.) Japan, and north-west coast of America, (Mus. Smiths. 
Inst.) Not known to occur on the American coast so far south as Washing- 
ton Territory, U. iS. 

Bill surpassing that of all other spe- 
cies of the genus in the extent and di- 
versity of the irregularities of its sur- 
face and contour ; these irregularities 
chiefly centered in the base and com- 
missural edges, and produced by the 
addition of a supernumerary corneous 
element to the base of the upper man- 
dible just at the angle of the rictus, as 
well as the expansion and projection 
upwards and outwards of the sides of 
the lower mandible towards and at its 
base. Bill, except in the length of its 
unfeathered commissure, rather short 
and wide, the length of culmen scarcely 
surpassing the width of bill at its 
base. Upper mandible with the cul- 
men short and regularly very convex 
from base to tip, which latter is rather acute, and slightly overhangs the 
lower mandible: its tomial edge extremely sinuate and irregular, lightly 
notched just behind the tip, at the base widened and somewhat everted, for 
the reception of the cutting edge of the lower mandible; lower mandible not 
nearly so deep as the upper, somewhat ascending towards the tip, which 
latter is slender and acute ; the gonys short, perfectly straight, moderately 
ascending, the sides of the lower mandible elongated, everted, their tomial 
edge elevated and dilated at the base, posteriorly corresponding in contour to 
the antero-inferior outline of the supernumerary piece. The latter is a sub- 
circular or subquadrate corneous plate, slightly concavo-convex, wedged in 
between the bases of the tomial edges of the two mandibles, and forming the 
angle of the rictus ; in color and texture it resembles the rest of tlie bill, of 
which it is a true component element. Nasal fossae small and inconspicuous, 
not deeply furrowed, filled in by corneous substance like the rest of the 
upper mandible; the nostrils small, short, linear-oblong, placed close by 
the tomial edge of the mandible, overhung by an arched and much dilated 
corneous scale. Feathers extending on culmen to a point opposite the angle 
of the gonys, thence descending perpendicularly along the sides of the bill, 
just past but not touching the posterior extremity of the nostrils ; thence fol- 
lowing the sinuosities of the commissural edge of the upper mandible to the 
supernumerary piece, and around the borderof the latter,* but not encroaching 
upon it. Interramal space of lower mandible densely feathered ; but no 
feathers encroach upon the sides of the lower mandible, contrary to the usual 
rule in this group. 

* This supernumerary corneous element is not attached by its whole surface to the sub- 
cumbent bone; but a part of its upper border is free and projects a little away from the 
skull. The fossa down behind this free raised border is fully feathered. 


Fig. 7. — Simorhynchus cristatellus, (Pallas.) 
Nat. size. 


Wings and tail of the usual shape and structure of this group ; the length 
of the latter contained three and a half times in the length of the former 
from the carpal joint to the end of the longest primary. Legs short, stout, 
little compressd. Tarsus entirely reticulate, shorter than middle toe without 
claw ; outer toe as long as the middle one ; its claw shorter and smaller than 
that of the middle one. Inner lateral toe extremely short, the tip of its claw 
falling far short of the base of the middle claw. 

Adult. — An elongated crest of twelve to twenty slender feathers springing 
in a bundle from one point at the extreme forehead, far in advance of the 
angle of the rictus, and curving over forwards in the greater part of a circle. 
These feathers are not truly filamentous, having well developed, though short 
barbs, and appear narrower than they really are, from the slight obliquity of 
the barbs from the shaft. A slender bundle of filamentous feathers from the 
posterior canthus of the eye over the auriculars and sides of the neck. A 
very few shorter filamentous feathers forming a sparse interrupted superciliary 
series. All these filamentous feathers white or whitish; the crest concolor 
with the plumage of the upper parts. General color of the crown, nape, 
wing, tail, and whole upper parts glossy blackish, with a good deal of a fuli- 
ginous or brownish (not plumbeous or cinerous) tint ; under parts a diluted 
shade of the same, or much more brownish gray, tending on the abdomen 
and posterior under parts generally to ashy gray. Under surfaces of wings 
and tail like abdomen. Bill and appendages orange or vermillion red, 
yellowish towards the tip. Feet dusky greenish, an undefinable color, in the 
dried state. 

Length about 9-00; wing 5-25; tail 1-50; tarsus 9 00; middle toe and 
claw 1-15 ; outer toe and claw about the same, or slightly less ; inner toe and 
claw 1-00; bill; chord of culmen -45; tomia of upper mandible, excluding 
supernumerary piece -70 ; greatest width of the latter '25 ; tomia of under 
mandible -90; gonys -40; depth of bill opposite posterior end of nares -45; 
width at same point '35. 

Young. — Similar to the adult, except in the following points: — The bill is 
smaller, weaker, less irregular and sinuous in outline, less brightly colored, 
wanting the expansion and eversion of the tomial edges of the two mandi- 
bles near their base, and with little or no trace of the supernumerary piece 
at the angle of the mouth. Even in the youngest specimens the bill shows 
unmistakable signs of its fuure character, and cannot be confounded with 
the simple conic bill of tetraculus^ etc. The crest and white setaceous feath- 
ers are wanting, or only traces of them are apparent. The color is less 
blackish, more inclining to a fuliginous dusky above, and to a light dull 
brownish gray below. 

This species never acquires a distinct parti-coloration like that of most 
species of the genus. With the exception of the w'hitish filamentous feathers 
on the head, the colors are uniform over the whole body, varying in shade 
on differeut parts ; and the transition from the darkest, that of the upper 
parts, to the palest on the lower is effected by imperceptible degrees. The 
brilliantly colored bill is a conspicuous feature. The color of the feet cannot 
be accurately defined in the dried state ; but the tints are probably not very 
striking. The crest only makes its appearance after the bird is full grown, 
is at least nearly a year old, and has acquired pretty much the perfect shape 
of the bill. The same is true of the white supra- and post-ocular filaments ; 
and generally among the Phaleridine birds, the presence of these peculiar 
head-ornaments may be relied on as indices that the bird is adult, and that 
its bill has acquired its mature form. It is just possible, however, that these 
remarks may not apply to the setaceous /ronfaZ feathers of aS'. microceros and 
pusillm. The crest of S. cristatellus first appears as a little bundle of short 
straight feathers shooting out backwards from the plumage of the fore- 
head. These plumes, in an early state of their growth, are much broader, 



that is, with more distinct barbs or fibrillae, than subsequently ; considerable 
time elapses before they begin to curl over forwards, and they may continue 
straight until they are an inch or rather more in length. When full grown, 
they are nigh unto two inches long, curve until they almost make a circle, 
drooping gracefully, helmet-wise, upon the bill itself. The crest of this and 
other species is doubtless moved by peculiar muscles, and entirely subject to 
the control of its wearer, like the very similar crests of the birds of the genus 

Simorhynchus camtschaticus is obviously the species most likely to be con- 
founded with the present. In fact, such has been its fate at its hands of so 
distinguished an ornithologist as M. Temminck. It would be wasting words 
to institute a comparison between the adults of the two species at this late 
day. In the youthful condition, before the distinctive head-ornaments are 
apparent, and even before the bill has attained its perfect form, so character- 
istic in each case, the two species may be distinguished with equal facility. 
I^ camtschatica, the basal moiety of the sides of the lower mandible is always 
feathered ; in cristateUus this part of the bill is in its whole length always per- 
fectly bare of feathers. This latter feature is, in fact, the most excellent 
diagnostic character of cristateUus ] by the aid of which alone the species 
may always be recognized, be it in never so immature condition, with never 
so undeveloped a bill. The relationships of this species to dubius and tetra- 
culus need not be noticed here, as they are given in all necessary detail under 
the head of these species respectively. 

This species was introduced into the records in ItGQ, by Dr. Pallas, who 
fortunately gave it a binomial name, thereby securing it from appropriation 
by Gmelin, who contrived to filch so many species from Pennant, Latham, 
and other contemporaneous writers. Dr. Pallas first described it as an Alca, 
but afterwards removed it to the genus Clria — a very unwarrantable proce- 
dure. It is the type of Merrem's genus Simorhynchus, and of Brandt's genus 
Tylorhamphus ; but not, as generally supposed, of Temminck's genus Phaleris, 
which is based upon Alca psittacula Pall. Though thus referred to so many 
different genera, it has hardly a specific synonym, unless the name on 
Audubon's plate 402 be regarded as such. 

Numerous excellent specimens of this bird are in the collections of the 
Philadelphia Academy and of the Smithsonian Institution, from the various 
localities quoted at the head of this article. It is decidedly a boreal species, 
not recorded from the coast of the United States, though occurring on the 
Asiatic shores as far south, at least, as Japan. 

Simorhynchus dubius, (Pallas) Cones. 
Uria dubia, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 371, pi. 87. " U. rostro fusco 
simplici, crista frontis pennacea recurva, * * sexu vel aetate tantum a 
praecedente [^cristaiellal videtur deferre, licet deficientes ad oris angulos 
calli carnei, et rostrum minus hiulcum differentiam insignem constituant. 
Cum praecedenti in mari extra Awatscham portum observatur. Irides can- 
didae. Rostrum sanguineo-fuscura. Pedes coerulescentes. Caeterum A. 
cristatellse magnitudine et colore simillima." 
Phaleris dubia, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 347. Gray, Gen. 

Birds, iii, 1849, p. 638. 
Tylorhamphus dubius, Bonaparte, Tab. Comp. Pelag. Comptes Rendus, 1856, 
xlii, p. 774. 

This species, if it be really such, appears appropriately named, since there 
is nothing to distinguish it from cristateUus beyond certain differences in the 
bill which might with propriety be attributed to an immature condition of 
the specimen upon which the species was based. And yet the mention of a 
recurved crest of feathers upon the forehead by Dr. Pallas militates against 
the supposition that his specimen was not adult. The great reliability which 
the scientific writings of Dr. Pallas claim, and justly deserve, from their 



uniform excellence and accuracy, necessitates no small degree of caution in 
a decision against the validity of one of his species. It will be evident upon 
the least reflection that, for example, such a perfectly valid species as tetra- 
culuf, might be so described, in a few sentences, that no striking impression 
of its difference from cristatellus should be conveyed. It is also to be borne 
in mind that Prof. Brandt, probably unsurpassed by any one in the accuracy 
and extent of his knowledge of the Aicidse, and particularly well fitted to 
judge of Dr. Pallas' works, admits the species in question as distinct. And 
in the present instance it seems preferable to Coincide with the views of these 
naturalists, and to allow the species to hereafter stand upon its own merits, 
until the proof that it has none is forthcoming, notwithstanding Dr. H. 
Schlegel's summary assignment of it (as well as of tetraculus) to cristatellus. 
There is no specimen purporting to represent this species in any Americaa 
Museum ; and the only information regarding it which can be furnished at pre- 
sent writing is embodied in the above citation from the " Zoographia." It is 
hardly, if at all, noticed by other writers than those here cited. Mr. Cassin, 
however, queries it as a synonym of cristatellus. 


Alca kamtschatica, Lepechin,Nova Acta Petrop. xii, 1801, p 369^ pi. 8. 

Fhaleris camtschatica, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 347. Gray, 
Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, p. 638. Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 908. 

Tylorhamphus camtschaiicus, Bonaparte, Tab. Comp. Pelag. Comptes Rendus, 
1856, xlii, p. 774. 

Simorhynchus camtschaiicus^ Schlegel, Urin. Mus. Pays-Bas, 1867. livr. ix, p. 25. 
Uria mystacea, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 372, pi. 89. Quotes Alca camt- 
schatica Lepechin, having just previously cited it for cristatella. 

Phaleris cristatella, Temminck, PI. Color. No. 200. Not of authors. 

Mormon superciliosum, Lichtenstein, Verzeich. 1823, p. 89. 

Fhaleris superciliosa, Bonaparte, Comp. and Geog. List, 1838, p. 66. 

North Pacific Coasts. Unalaschka, (Pallas.) Kamtschatka, (Mus. Bost. Nat. 
Hist. Soc.) North-west coast of America, (Mus. Smiths. Inst.) 

Bill much smaller, simpler, and differently 
shaped from that of S. cristatellus, though not 
distantly resembling the juvenile undeveloped 
condition of the latter. Width at nostril 
very slightly less than depth at same point, 
about two-thirds of the length of culmen ; bill 
regularly >• shaped in lateral outline ; culmen 
very convex, regularly arched from base to 
tip ; gonys nearly straight, rapidly ascending ; 
commissure slightly sinuate^ a little curved 
upward at tip ; apices of both mandibles acute, 
fairly meeting each other on the level of the 
commissure ; tomia of upper mandible slightly 
nicked near the tip of the bill. Wings and 
tail of usual shape for this genus ; the length 
of the latter contained about three and a half 
times in the length of the former from the car- 
pal angle to end of first primary. Tarsus 
Fig. 8.—Simorhynchug camtschaiicus, ranch shorter than middle toe and claw; 
(Lep.) Nat. size. middle toe a little shorter than outer toe ; 

middle toe and claw just as long as outer toe and claw ; inner toe and claw 

a little shorter than middle toe without its claw. 

The form of the bill alone is characteristic; the other details of structure 

are shared by the rest of the Simorhynchi. 

A very long recurved crest of exceedingly slender, delicate, filoplumaceous 



feathers, six (to ten?) in number, springing from the anterior part of the 
forehead, about opposite the anterior edge of the orbits, brownish-black; a 
single series of slender filamentous feathers from each side of the base of the 
culmen, and thence to the superior border of the orbit; a second similar but 
shorter series from the edge of the commissure, and thence along the lower 
part of the side of the jaw; a third similar series from the posterior can hus 
of the eye, and thence adown the side of the neck; yellowish white. Body 
colors almost uniform ; brownish black, sometimes with more of a grayish, 
sometimes with more of a fuliginous hue ; the wings and tail most intense in 
color, frequently nearly black ; the under parts, particularly the belly, lighter 
and more grayish brown, inclining to mouse color. Bill orange red, its apex 
salmon color, or more decidedly yellowish. Legs (in the dried specimen) 
posteriorly dark brown, anteriorly lighter, more reddish-brown ; feet dull 
brown ; claws reddish-brown. 

Length of body (approximately) 8-00 inches; wing 5-60; tail 1-60; bill: 
chord of culmen -45; depth at base -28, width at base nearly the same; 
length of rictus -95; tarsus 1-00; middle toe 1-25, its claw -35; outer toe 
1-30, its claw -30 ; inner toe and claw 1-10 ; length of outstretched crest 1-40 ; 
length of longest whitish feathers over eye 1-00. 

Os hyoides examined : The apohyals are slender cylindrical bones -6 long, 
slightly knobbed at the end, devaricating at an angle of about 40°. The 
ceratohyals are absent in the specimen. The urohyal is a delicate style for 
•10 of an inch, then suddenly expands into a broad, flat, very thin spatulous 
lamina, subrectangular in shape, or rather cordate, transversely concavo-con- 
vex. This lamina is as long as the rest of the urohyal, and its breadth is 
rather greater than the length of the stylous portion. The basi-hyal is '15 
of an inch long, slender and cylindrical; bearing upon its apex an exceed- 
ingly thin, expanded, somewhat cochleariform glosso-hyal. No opportunity 
has presented itself of examining the tongue bones of other species of the 

The present is a long and well known species. First made known, at the 
beginning of the present century, by Lepechin, (see above) it wasredescribed 
as Uria mi/stacea, in the Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica, by Dr. Pallas, whose ex- 
pression " * * pennulis setaceis albis elongatis superciliaribus mysta- 
ceisque,^' leaves no room for doubt as to the species he had in view. It was 
redescribed in 1823 by Prof. Lichtenstein, under the name of Mormon super- 
ciliosum. Unfortunately, it furnished the subject of Planche Coloriee, No. 
200, at the hands of M. Temminck, under the palpable pseudonym of Phaleris 
cristatella ; which event might have been the occasion of confusion and un- 
certainty, were the bird a less strongly characterized species. As it is, 
there is no difficulty in detecting and correcting M. Temminpk's error. S. 
camtschatica is so very distinct from cristatella, that no special comparisons of 
the two are required. It is only necessary to point to the configuration of 
the bill, and the presence of superciliary and maxillary filoplumes, for their 
ready discrimination. For the rest, the present is a much smaller species 
than cristatellus ; and the plume is perhaps longer, certainly less recurved, 
usually composed of fewer feathers, which are rather more filamentous. The 
setaceous feathers are essentially arranged, as may be seen above, in three 
distinct sets or bundles ; one from the side of the bill along the commissure 
and lower part of the cheeks ; one from the culmen over the eye, and a third 
from the posterior canthus of the eye backwards over the auricular region 
and side of the neck; though the first and last sets may appear more or less 
directly continuous with each other. It is possible that the plumage described 
above may not be the most perfect one ; still, the perfect development of the 
crest and other ornamen^ts warrants the belief that the bird from which it 
was taken is an adult. Authors speak of the under parts, particularly the 
abdomen, as being frequently nearly white ; which may be the coloration of 
those parts in very mature or very old birds. 



At present writing only one perfect specimen of this species is known to 
exist in any American Museum. The Boston Natural History Society possess 
this one ; No. 9209 of the Museum Register, No. 8135 of the Fresuaye collec- 
tion, now owned by the Society. The Smithsonian Institution has a mutilated 
specimen, (ah ead only), from the north-west coast of America, presented by 
Mr. John Gould. As far as can be judged, it belongs to a bird rather more 
perfectly plumaged than the Boston Society's specimen. 


Alca tetracula, Pallas, Spic. Zool. v, 1769, p. 23, pi. 4, and pi. 5, figs. 10, 11, 
12. Gmelin, S. N. i, pt. ii, 1788, p. 552, No. 8. Quotes Dusky Auk, Pen- 
nant. Arct. Zool. ii, p. 515, No. 435. Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, 1790, p. 794, No. 
7. Quotes Pallas, Spic. Zool. Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 821. 
Uria tetracula, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 371, pi. 88. 

Phaleris tetracula, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, 1825, p. 46. Brandt, Bull. 
Acad. St. Petersb, ii, 1837, p. 347. Gray, Genera Birds, iii, 1849, p. 638. 
Elliot, B. N. A. 1867, part iii. 
Tylorhamphus tetraculus, Bonaparte, Tabl. Comp. Pelag. Comptes Rendus, 
1856, xlii, p. 774. Erroneous assignment of Brandt's genus Tylorhamphus, 
which is based upon cristatellus. 
Phaleris {Tylorhamphus) tetracula^ Cassin, Baird's B. N, A. 1858, p. 907. 

Asiatic (and American?) coasts of the North Pacific. "In mari orientali, 
praesertim Unalaschka," (Pallas.) Kamtschatka, (Mus. Acad., Philada., and 
Mus. Smiths. Inst.) Bay of Yedo, Japan, (Mus. Smiths. Inst.) 

Bill small, short, much com- 
pressed, regularly conical from 
a lateral view, simple, being 
without decided sulci, ridges, 
caruncles or other irregulari- 
ties of surface of any sort; cul- 
men narrow, regularly moder- 
ately convex from base to tip ; 
commissure and gonys perfect- 
ly straight in their whole 
length; the tip of the bill 
turned neither up nor down, 
but the points of both man- 
dibles almost meeting on the 
level of the commissure. Nasal 
fossae scarcely discernible as 
such, the upper border of the 
small, basal, linear nostrils 
being flush with the rest of the 
bill. Frontal feathers extend 
Fig. O.—Simorhynchus tetraculus (Pall.) Nat. size. forward with an obtusely 
rounded outline on the culraen, then rapidly recede backwards as they pass 
downward in a straight line just past the posterior end of the nostrils to the 
commissural edge of the upper mandible ; those on the side of the lower mandi- 
ble extending not quite so far, but the interramal space fully feathered Wings 
rather longer than usual in this group ; legs, feet, and tail as in other species 
of the genus, the legs perhaps a little longer, comparatively, than in other 
species. A crest of ten or more slender elongated feathers with loosened 
fibrillae springs from the middle of the forehead, just before the eyes, and 
curves forward in the greater part of a circle to near the tip of the bill. A 
very few filamentous feathers on the sides of the head, the slender series be- 
ginning at the posterior canthus, and thence extending downwards and back- 
wards. A small white spot just below the eye. Everywhere dull blackish, 
or dusky ; deepest on the back, becoming more of a smoky or brownish-gray 



on the under parts ; under wing coverts like the rest of the under parts ; crest 
colored like the back. Bill an undefinable dusky* in the dried specimen ; legs 
and feet livid gray, (probably greenish or bluish in life) ; membranes black ; 
claws black. 

Dimensions. — (Spec, in Mus. Acad., Phila.) Length about 8-50 ; wing 5-50 ; 
tail 1-60; chord of culmen -35; gape -60; gonys -25; greatest height of bill 
•33, greatest width -25 ; tarsus 1-00; middle toe and claw 1-50, outer 1-40, 
inner 1-25. 

Another specimen, (No. 22,258, Mus. Smiths. Inst.) Wing 5-60 ; tail 1-75 : 
chord of culmen -40 ; gape -80 ; gonys -40 ; height at base of bill -40 ; width 
at same point -30 ; legs and toes as in the preceding specimen. 

Three specimens of this species examined: one iti the Philadelphia Academy 
from Kamtschatka, which served as the subject of Mr, Cassin's description in 
the "Birds of North America;" another in the Smithsonian Institution, (No. 
22,258,) received from the Bremen Museum, labelled " Phaleris cristatella, 
(Pall.); Winterkleid ; Kamtschatka;" another also in the Smithsonian, (No. 
15,805,) labelled "Phaleris cristatella; Bay of Yedo, Japan ; Apr. 1854; eye 
gray ; iris black ; Rodgers' North Pacific Exploring Expedition." The last 
mentioned specimen is in a very poor state of preservation, and is a young 
bird, as evidenced by the short straight crest, directed backwards ; though the 
bill is nearly perfect in size and shape, aud the general aspect of the bird is 
precisely that of the adult. The other two specimens are in fine condition, 
and represent the perfectly mature state. These three include all that are 
known to exist in any American Museum. It is not a common bird in collec- 
tions, and is frequently mistaken for the young crista f.eltus, to which species, 
however, it bears only a distant and superficial resemblance. 

The bird here described is indubitably the "Dusky Auk" of Pennant, a 
species more perfectly and satisfactorily described and fig'ired by Dr. Pallas 
as Alca tetracula. It is a strongly marked species, not distantly allied to, 
and somewhat resembling cristatellus in everything but the bill, which is of a 
radically different formation, as will be impressed upon the mind by a 
perusal and comparison of the descriptions given under head of these species. 
Tetraculus requires no special comparison with cristatellus or with camtschaticus 
for the substantiation of its distinctness. S. Cassini of this paper is the most 
closely allied species, and might just possibly be confounded by a careless or 
ignorant observer. The differences will be found under head of the latter. 

The diagnostic points of this species lie chiefly in the small size and pecu- 
liar shape of the bill (cf. descr.) ; the length of the wings, proportionally 
greater than in any other species of the genus ; and the greater length of the 
feet and toes. The wings, tail, feet and toes are about of the same absolute 
dimensions as those of cristatellus^ although tetraculus is rather a smaller bird. 
The various shades of the dark color of the plumage are produced by admix- 
ture of black, brown and gray ; there is no pure cinereous or plumbeous on 
any part of the plumage. 

This is a species which entered at a very early day into ornithological 
literature, notwithstanding which it has not a single accredited synonym. 
Its claims to recognition as a valid species, distinct from cristatellus, have not 
been impugned, except by the learned Director of the Museum of the Pays- 
Bas. It has been the occasion of no confusion or conflict of opinion among 
writers, except in those few instances in which it has been erroneously sup- 
posed to have furnished the subject of Audubon's plate of cristatellus. The 
most cursory examination of the plate will convince the mind upon this 
point. Mr. Pennant, in virtue of his "Dusky Auk," which is this species, 
would have been entitled to the proprietorship of the bird, had he given it a 
binomial name ; but as it is. Dr. Pallas stands as its lawful sponsor, having 
christened it Alca tetracula in 1769. 

* Pallas gives its color as " fusco-rubrum ;" Gmelin, as "ex fusco-lutescens ;" Latham, 
as " luteo-fuscum." 



SiMORHTNCHUS Cassini, Coues^ n. sp, 
Pkaleris Cassini, Coues, mss. 

DiAG. — S. rostro parvo, breve, vald^ compresso, longitudlne vix altitadinem 
excedente, latitudiae dimidii altitudinis ; fere triangulare a spectu laterale ; 
simplice, nee uUis additamentis corneis instructo ; culmine leviter declinato- 
convexo, rictu recto, carinjl fere recta, a scendente; supra nigro-plumbeus, 
vertice, alis caudaque nigerrimis ; subtus griseo-plumbeus, abdomine cris- 
soque sensim albicantibus ; longitude tota corporis 7-75 (poll. Aug.) ; alse 
4-25; caudae 1-40 ; tarsi '80 j digiti medii cum ungue 1-20; rostri -40, alt. -30, 
lat. -151 rictQs -60. 

Typical and unique specimen, No. 46,564 of the Smithsonian Museum ; a 
male (adult?) collected Aug. 3, 1866, at Ounimak Pass, Russian America, 
by W. H. Dall. 

Bill very small and short, 
only half as long as the tarsus ; 
extremely compressed, being 
hardly more than half as wide 
as high at the base; its height 
at base three-fourths the length 
ofculmen; lateral aspect of the 
bill nearly triangular; culmen 
regularly lightly convex in out- 
line ; rictus perfectly straight ; 
gonys almost straight, ascend- 
ing; tip of bill rather obtuse ; 
no tubercles, sinuosities, or 
other irregularities of surface 
or of contour. Nasal fossae 
well marked, oval in outline, 
Fig. 10.— Simorhynchus Cassini, nov. sp. Nat. size, reaching the culmen at its base, 
separated by a ridge from the commissural edge of the upper mandible; nos- 
trils low down in the fossa, small, short, narrowly linear. Frontal feathers 
laid straight across the base of culmen, descending nearly perpendicularly 
along the posterior edge of the nasal fossae, just attaining the posterior end of 
the nostrils, then retreating obliquely backwards and downwards. Feathers on 
side of lower mandible extending to a point opposite those on culmen; some- 
what further into the interramal space, which is densely feathered. Wings 
and tail of usual size and shape. Feet small, tarsi moderately compressed, 
much shorter than the middle toe and without its claw; only two-thirds the 
middle toe and claw; outer toe as long as, or slightly longer than the middle, 
its claw much smaller than that of the middle ; tip of inner claw just reach- 
ing base of middle claw. 

Entire upper parts blackish-cinereous, or very dark lead color, deepest and 
very black on the crown, wings and tail. Entire under parts much lighter 
and more grayish plumbeous, insensibly blending with the color of the upper 
parts on the sides of the head, neck, and body, fading very gradually into 
whitish on the abdomen and under tail coverts. Inner webs of primaries, 
secondaries and tail feathers dusky gray ; the outer glossy black ; under sur- 
face of wings dusky gray, nearly black along the edge. Bill dusky, tinged 
with red ; tarsi behind and toes below black ; rest of feet an undefinable 
color in the dried state; perhaps reddish in life. ** Eyes white and black," 
(collector's label). 

This is a very strongly-marked species, differing to a remarkable degree 
from any other of the family. The chief peculiarity of form lies in the bill ; 
80 small, simple, extremely compressed, destitute of appendages, and otherwise 
unique, as will be seen by the description, and still more clearly by the dia- 
gram. As regards color, the tinge of clear plumbeous which pervades the 
uniform dark color is very characteristic. There is no trace of a crest, nor 



of elongated filiform feathers about the head. Their absence, however, is 
not to be regarded as a specific character, since it cannot be positively 
affirmed ihat the specimen is fully adult. 

The affinities of the species are clearly with S. tetraculus, which it resem- 
bles in the small simple compressed bill. But it is unnecessary to compare 
the two and point out the differences. A glance at the dimensions will alone 
suffice to show specific distinction. There is no other bird in the family that 
S. Cassini in the least resembles. 

? Alca pygmsea, Gmelin, S. N. i, pt. ii, 1788, p. 555, No. 12 ; and of the older 

authors. Based on the Pigmy Auk of Pennant. Not identifiable. 
Simorhynchus pygmoBus, Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, 1867, livr. ix, p. 
23. Identifies A.pygmcBa Gm. as Phaleris microceros Brandt or P. nodirostra 
Bonap., and Uria pusilla Pall, as young of the same. 
Phaleris microceros^ Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 346. 
Phaleris (Ciceronia) microceros, Cassin, B. N. A. 1858, p. 908. 
Ciceronia microceros, Reichenbach. 

Phaleris nodirostra, Bonaparte, Comp. and Geog. List, 1838, p. 66. Equals 
microceros Brandt. Audubon, Orn. Biog. v, 1839, p. 101, pi. 402. Audu- 
bon, B. Amer. vii, 1844, pi. 468. Gray, Genera Birds, iii, 1849, p. 644. 
Ciceronia nodirostris, Bonaparte, Consp. Gav, Comptes Rend., 1856, xlii. p. 774. 
'^fPhaleris corniculata, Eschscholtz," (Gray.) Doubtful citation. Perhaps 
Fratercula corniculata? or Cerorhina monocerata? 

Asiatic and American coasts of North Pacific; Kamtschatka ; Kurile 
Islands ; Plover Bay ; Sitka ; Japan. Numerous specimens in the Mus. Acad., 
Philadelphia, and Mus. Smiths. Inst., from various localities. Not known to 
occur as far south as Washington Territory, U. S., though found in the 
Japan Sea. 

Smallest of the Auks with the ex- 
ception of S. pusillus. Bill very short, 
not half as long as the head, stout, 
deep, wide, little compressed, obtuse 
at the tip ; its width at base nearly 
equalling its heighth at the same 
point, and but little less than the 
length of culmen. A small but con- 
spicuous globular tubercle arising 
from base of culmen, beyond which 
the culmen is strongly arched, very 
regularly convex, rapidly descending, 
its tip not very acute, obsoletely 
notched on the tomia, very slightly 
overhanging the tip of under mandi- 
Yig.n.-Simarhynchus microceros, (Brandt), ble. Commissure almost straight its 
Nat. size. whole length, the extremity very 

slightly ascending. Gonys short, rapidly ascending, very slightly convex. 
Nostrils in a short but wide and deep fossa, placed rather higher up above 
the commissure than in some species ; narrowly linear, not reached by the 
frotital feathers. Frontal feathers extending to the node on the culmen, 
then retreating obliquely backwards as they descend along the sides of the 
upper mandible ; feathers on side of lower mandible extendinjr farther than on 
upper mandible. Proportions of wings, tail, legs and feet as in other species 
of the genus. 

Adult. — Forehead and lores conspicuously marked with delicate hair lines 
of white, produced by numerous short, stiff, but very slender white setaceous 
leathers scattered thickly thereover ; a few of which filaments, more elon- 
gated and thread-like than the frontal ones, stretch adown the sides of the head 



to below the level of the jaw ; and a few more excessively delicate ones 
reach from the posterior canthu3 of the eye some distance along the sides of 
the occiput and nape. Entire upper parts, including the forehead, vertex, 
occiput, and sides of head, (with the exception of the white feathers just 
described) sides of neck, and wings and tail, glossy black. Inner webs of 
the primaries dusky gray. Under wing coverts, (except the smallest row 
just along the antibrachium and metacarpus,) white. Region about base of 
under mandible blackish plumbeous, and a few feathers along the sides 
under the wings and on the flanks blackish ; all other under parts white, 
mottled, especially on the breast and sides, with black, the throat alone re- 
maining immaculate. Bill red, tubercle and base of upper mandible dark 
bluish. Legs and feet an undefinable dusky in the dried state ; the anterior 
border of the tarsus, and superior aspect of the toes dull greenish. 

Length about 6-50; wing from carpus 3-75; tail 1-25; tarsus -70; middle 
toe and claw 1-00; outer do. the same; inner do. '85] bill : chord of culmen, 
(including width of knob) -40; along rictus '60; gonys -25; height at base 
•30 ; width at base slightly less. 

The preceding is a description of the perfect plumage of this species, 
which is of comparatively unfrequent occurrence. The usual state of plum- 
age of the bird as met with in collections is much as follows : — Bill as de- 
scribed above; filamentous feathers much as above described, but rather 
shorter and more sparse, and scarcely appearing behind the eye and along 
edge of side of lower jaw. Upper parts plumbeous black, sometimes slightly 
interrupted in its continuity by a few whitish feathers about the scapulars ; 
the primaries grayish black, paler on their inner webs ; secondaries grayish 
white at their tips. Under parts white, as before, but very sparsely marbled 
or waved with dusky; least so on the abdomen, most so on the sides and 
breast, where the blackish so increases in amount as to appear more or less 
continuous with that of the upper parts. Chin and sides of jaw as above de- 
scribed, but throat white, immaculate Tbe dusky mottling varies greatly in 
amount and in intensity with different specimens. Sometimes it is reduced 
to a few isolated touches here and there, and again it is found to give the pre- 
vailing color to the under parts. That specimens in this mottled condition 
are not immature, is proven by the fact that the bill is fully grown and pro- 
vided with a well developed tubercle ; and that the forehead is thickly 
covered with white setaceous feathers. The mottling, however, is confined 
to the tips of the individual feathers, whose bases are pure white ; and is 
thus apparently of a temporary and transient character, like that so frequently 
met with in young or winter specimens of gulls and petrels. It may be a 
seasonal feature, or one only found in birds of a certain age ; and yet nu- 
merous facts tend to indicate it as a character of perfectly mature birds. 
Were one to examine a specimen with the usual moderate amount of mottling 
on the under parts, and notice the fact that the blackish occupies only the 
tips of the feathers, he could not fail to be impressed with the analogy just 
now hinted at, and to conclude that with advancing age the mottling would 
grow less and less, and finally disappear, leaving tho under parts pure white, 
as in pusillus. Such, however, appears not to be the case. Specimens whose 
age is attested by a fully developed bill and well formed tubercle, are those 
most mottled below with blackish. And yet, no specimens have been found 
with the breast or any other part of the under parts uninterruptedly black, 
trenchantly divided from white areas. The peculiar kind of mottling exhib- 
ited by this species is so unusual as a condition of perfect maturity, that the 
suspicion arises that the very highest state of plumage is not yet known. 

Young. — Entirely similar in plumage to the bird as just described ; but the 
under parts whire, scarcely relieved by mottling ; and the white extending 
far around on the sides of the neck, leaving only a narrow median dorsal line 
black ; the bill smaller than that of the adult, and the tubercle wholly want- 


ing, or very imperfectly developed ; its place on the culmen being occupied 
by a soft skiany covering like that on the nasal fossae. 

Specimens frequently occur in this condition. An understanding of its 
precise import is somewhat complicated by the fact that, although the tuber- 
cle is entirely wanting, and the bill otherwise obviously undeveloped, the 
head is well provided with the whitish setaceous feathers. Birds in such 
condition might be confounded, on casual inspection, with S. pusillus. But 
more careful examination will result in the observation, that the bill is far 
too large, thick^ and heavy to be that of pusillus ; that there is no conspicuous 
white patch on the scapulars; that the size of the whole bird exceeds that of 
pusillus: which points, in connection with some others which might he enu- 
merated, will serve to distinguish the two species. Their relationships are 
dwelt upon more at length in the succeeding article. 

When old birds of this species are moulting, in the fall, the glossy black 
of the fresh feathers on the back is interrupted with dull grayish black 
patches, formed by the old feathers whieh have not yet been renewed ; and 
the old worn primaries and secondaries are dull grayish, fading almost into 
grayish white at their tips and along their edges. A specimen in such a con- 
dition, (No. 46,563, Smiths. Mus.) though palpably an old bird, has no trace 
of a caruncle on the biiU 

It may not, perhaps, be exceeding due bounds, to hint at the possibility 
that the nodule on the bill may be temporary in character, assumed after a 
certain age, at a certain season, and then lost, wholly or in part, by absorp- 
tion, to be again resumed at the same period of the following year, probably 
during the season of reproduction. This suggestion presents itself to the 
observer without straining on his part, and, in fact, is rather forced upon his 
attention, after examination of specimens, apparently adult, in which no 
trace of the tubercle is to be found. The tubercle is in essential character- 
istics an extrinsic formation upon the bill, differing radically in its structure 
from the rest of the organ. No good reason appears to forbid the supposi- 
tion that its growth and subsequent re-absorption, maybe periodical. Argu- 
ments for such a belief might readily be adduced in the periodical hyper- 
trophy and atrophy of the combs, wattles, caruncles, and the various other 
fleshy or cutaneous or semi'corneous growths about the head and bill of very 
many birds, which enlarge during the breeding season, and afterwards 
diminish or entirely disappear. It is also within the limits of possibility 
that caruncles of this species is a sexual characteristic. The specimen above 
mentioned, (No. 46,563,) is marked female. However close to, or remote 
from, the truth either or both of the foregoing suggestions may be, it is cer- 
tain that observed facts relating to the rostral knob of this bird are at vari- 
ance with generally received doctrines about it, and are explicable by the ap- 
plication of one or the other of the preceding hypotheses. At present we are 
very much in the dark in the matter. 

Various ages, conditions of plumage and bill, of this species are well 
represented by the numerous specimens in the Museum of the Philadelphia 
Academy and of the Smithsonian Institution, from various localities along 
the coasts and among the islands of the North Pacific. No specimens are 
contained in any other American collection. 

The only questions of synonymy which arise in this case are connected 
with the identification of Alca pygmoea^ Gm., and are treated of under head 
of S. pusillus. Prof. Brandt's name has priority over that of the Prince Bona- 
parte, although the latter has come into more general employ than the former, 


^Alcapygmxa, Gmelin. S. N. i, pt. ii, 1788, p. 555, No. 12 ; " rostro nigro, 
Venice, cervice, dorso, alls, cauda pedibusque obscuris, jugulo et pectore 
glaucis, abdomine sordide albo. * * alee minor, 7 poll, longa," 

etc.— Based upon Pigmy Auk, Pennant, Arct. Zool. ii, p. 513, No. 431. 



Habitat between Northera Asia and America. Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, 1790, 
p. 790, No. ii. Same as Gmelin's species. Bonnaterre, Eocy. Method. Orn. 
1790, p. 33. Same as Gmelin's species. Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, p. 
825. Quotes Pennant and Latham. 

? Phaleris pygmxa, Stephens, Shaws Gen. ZooL xiii, 1825, p. 48. Same as 
Alca pygvKBa^ Gm. Lath. 

Phaleris pygmcea^ Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 347. Quotes 
both Alca pygmxa Gm. and Uria pusilla Pall., which he considers as synony- 
mous. Gray, Genera Birds iii, 1849, p. 638. Quotes Uria pusilla, Pall. 

Tylorhamphus pygmxas, Bonaparte Consp. Gav. Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii. p. 
774. Same as pusilla, Pall. 

Uria pusilla, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 373, pi. 70, baud dubi^. •' Fronts 
brachiisque albo-notatis." 

Phaleris pusilla, Cassin,.Pr. A. N. S. Phila. 1862, p. 324. Elliot, B. N. Am. 
1867, part vi. 

Phaleris [Ciceronia) pusilla, Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1868, p. 909. 

Asiatic and American coasts of the North Pacific. Kamtschatka, (Pallas.)' 

Semiavine Straits (Mus. Smiths. Inst.) N. W. coast of America (Mus. Smiths. 

Inst.) Sitka, Russian Amer. (Mus. Pays-Bas, teste Schlegel.) 

In size the least of its genus, 
and the smallest known nata- 
torial bird. Length, (approxi- 
mately correct) 5-50 inches ; ex- 
tent of wings , wing from 

carpus to end of first primary 
3-50; tail MO; tarsus -75, mid- 
dle toe and claw 1-10 ; outer toe 
and claw TOO ; inner toe and 
claw -85 ; bill along culmen 
•40; along rictus, -65; along 
gonys '30; height at base -20; 
width at same point the same 
or slightly less. (Compare these 
measurements, particularly of 
Fig. 12.~Simorhynchus pusillus, (Pa.\]a.3.) the bill, with those of S. micro - 

Nat. size. ceros.) 

With the usual /orm of the genus, except as to the bill, the shape of which 
is specific. Bill without tubercles, or other irregularities of contour ; straight, 
comparatively slender, compressed ; height at base much less than length 
along culmen; width at base the same, or rather less than, height at same 
point; the apex more acute than that of microceros ; the outline of culmen 
at first straight, then slightly convexo-declinate ; commissure almost straight, 
a little ascending anteriorly, still not sinuous in any part of its length ; gonys 
lengthened, at first convex in outline, then rapidly ascending in a straight 
line. Nasal fossa large, extending along the basal moiety of the bill, reach- 
ing from the culmen nearly to the tomia ; not deeply excavated ; nostrils 
small, narrow, linear, one eighth of an inch long, basal, lyingjust above the 
commissural edge of the upper mandible. Frontal feathers running forward 
some distance in a rather narrow angle on the culmen, retreating very rapidly 
obliquely backwards and downwards on the sides of the upper mandible ; ex- 
tending on sides of the lower mandible a little further than on upper. (It is 
to be gathered from this description, more particularly, that the bill of pusil- 
lu8, compared with that of microceros, is fully as long; but slenderer, more 
acute at the tip, less convex along culmen and gonys, more compressed in its 
whole extent, and non-tuberculate.) 

Adult. — Entire under parts pure white ; entire upper parts pure black, 
only relieved as follows : The humoral and scapular feathers are, all of them 

1868.] 4 


or most of them, white or whitish in some portion or the whole of their 
extent ; producing two patches of this color, not inaptly comparable to the 
similar patches on the scapulars of Brachyrhamphus Wrangeli, or Collyrio 
borealis, in size, shape and general appearance. About half the secondaries, the 
innermost ones, are quite conspicuously white on the tips of the outer web 
for a fourth or a third of an inch. The forehead and lores, from the base of 
the bill to the eyes and vertex, are lineated (exactly as in microceros) with 
sparse, distinct, rery slender white setaceous feathers ; none are apparent, 
among several specimens, behind the eye, or from the commissural angle of 
the bill. Pallas tersely summed up these points of coloration of the upper 
parts in saying " Fronte brachiisque albo-notatis ;" and the white about the 
"arms" is a strong distinctive feature of the species in comparison with 
microceros. The white of the under parts reaches far around on the side of 
the neck ; on the side of the head it only extends on a level with the com- 
missure ; it does not quite attain the base of the lower mandible, being cut 
off from the bill by a small blackish-lead-colored area. There are indica- 
tion of a small whitish spot just above and below the eye. formed of feathers 
of the ordinary texture. The under wing coverts are wholly white, except 
just along the edge of the forearm. The short tibial feathers are dusky 
gray. Bill black, (as nearly as can be determined from the dried specimens,) 
the base, gonys and tip of lower mandible yellowish. Posterior aspect of 
tarsus, and inferior surface of toes and webs, blackish ; rest of legs and feet 
a dull undefinable greenish-dusky (in the dried specimens.) 

The changes of plumage of this species are not known ; no other condition 
than the one above described is represented by the specimens in the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and none are contained, as far as known, in any other 
American museum. No. 21,320 of the Smithsonian collection, obtained from 
Capt. John Rodgers' expedition to the North Pacific, collected at Semiavine 
Straits by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, is the one above described. No. 21,321, from 
the same locality, is a younger bird, but entirely similar to 21,320, except that 
it has a rather weaker bill, and only slight traces of the white setaceous feath- 
ers on the forehead. No. 46,562, collected Sept. 9th, 1866, at Plover Bay, by 
W. H. Dall, of the Western Union Company's Overland International Tele- 
graph Expedition, a young bird, as shown by the soft feel of the feathers and 
other features needless to detail, is referrible, with some degree of doubt, to 
this species. The scapulars are very conspicuously white ; the secondaries 
plainly tipped with white; the under parts pure white, unspotted as in 
typical pusillus. The black of the upper parts is tinted, especially about the 
head, with gray or plumbeous, and there are no traces of whitish setaceous 
feathers on the forehead ; both of which features are to be attributed to the 
juvenility of the specimen. The doubt in the case centres in the bill. This 
organ has no trace of a tubercle, and is very small and weak, as usual in the 
yonng pudllus : but it seems to be deeper, and especially wider at the base, 
compared with its length, than is the case with tyi[)ica\ pusillus ; in these 
points of shape approximating to microceros. But " seems to be" is the most 
definite expression to be used in this case, for in the preparation of the spe- 
cimen, or its subsequent drying or packing for transportation, the bill has 
been injured, and so much distorted, that its true form cannot now be de- 
termined with desirable precision. 

It cannot be denied that the relations that this species bears to microceros 
are extremely intimate. So closely, in fact, does it approach the latter, that 
its specific validity might fairly be called in question by one of conservative 
views ; especially in consideration of the well-known fact, not to be disputed, 
that the bills of all young Alcidse are much smaller and weaker, and even in 
more striking points of form, conspicuously different from those of adult 
birds ; and that a long time is required for their perfect development. This 
remark applies with especial force to the formation of the various knobs, 
ridges, sulci, rictal callosities, and the other irregularities of surface. The 



mere presence or absence, therefore, of the node upon the base of the culmen, 
cannot be allowed to constitute a specific character in the present case, and 
may be left out of consideration, as may be, also, the color of the bill. Too 
much stress should not be laid upon the presence of white scapulars and of 
white tips to the secondaries, since in some specimens of undoubted microce- 
ros unmistakable traces of the former are to be found, and the ends of the 
inner secondaries are decidedly lighter than the body of the feathers. All 
the observable differences in the quantity and distribution of the whitish se- 
taceous feathers upon the forehead and other parts of the head might readily 
enough depend upon a difference in the age of specimens. The pure unin- 
terrupted white of the under parts of /)Mst7/ws stands in apparently strong con- 
tradistinction to the black mottling of the same parts of micro cer us ; but it is 
to be remembered that the coloration in this respect of the latter species is 
very variable, ranging from a very sparse and scanty marbling to a nearly 
uniform black, particularly upon the breast, and is therefore not to be too 
implicitly relied upon, at least until it is more definitely ascertained than at 
present whether the black mottling tends to decrease or to increase with ad- 
vancing age. If wicroceyos grows more and more marbled with black as it 
grows older, we might with entire propriety presume upon the existence of a 
youthful state of plumage, in which the under parts are entirely white, like 
those of pusillus. Such is very likely the real state of the case ; for the 
youngest examples of microceros examined — those which have no trace of a 
tubercle — are nearly white below, only very sparsely and indistinctly mottled 
with blackish. Still, aside from all these varying and therefore uncertain 
points, there appear good grounds for separating the two species, as will be 
observed on comparing the descriptions given in this and in the preceding 

As the case stands with our present information upon the subject, P.pusiU 
lus is to be separated from F. microceros : first, by certain differences posi- 
tively known to occur : a, in size, which is decidedly less, as evidenced by 
the measurement of all its dimensions ; b, in form of bill, which is slenderer, 
more acute at the tip, not so deep at the laase, particularly not so wide at the 
base, yet not shorter, than that of microceros ; secondly, by certain differences 
very constantly observed, yet not proven to always hold good : a, absence of 
tubercle; 6, conspicuously white scapulars and tips of secondaries: c, pure 
white under parts, uninterrupted by blackish mottling, and extending around 
on the sides of the neck; d, shortness and scantiness of the white setaceous 
feathers on the forehead ; e, color of bill, mostly black, not mostly red. 

It only remains to notice the synonymy of this species , and all that is to 
be said on this score relates to the identification of Alca pygmxa Gm. This 
name is founded upon the "Pigmy Auk" of Pennant, — a small species first 
described very loosely and imperfectly by the latter writer, whose account 
Gmelin merely renders into Latin, in applying a binomial name. There is 
no doubt that the bird was one of the little Auks of the North Pacific, as its 
very name, and the dimensions assigned (seven inches), clearly indicate, but 
there is no possibility, at the present day, of identifying it with precision. It 
was very possibly based either upon the present species or the preceding 
(microceros), and should these two ever be united, as young and old of the 
same, the name jpy^masa might without undue violence be assigned to the 
species so constituted. So long as they are regarded as distinct, the name 
pygmseus must not be applied to either of them. As far as we can judge by 
the description, particularly the expression "jugulo et pectore glaucis," 
pygmiea may not impossibly have b«'en based upon Ptychoramphus aleuticus. 
But Mr. Cftssin's supposition is perhaps as near the truth as any that could be 
advanced: *' It is possible that the IMgmy Auk of Pennant, which is Alca 
pygmma Gmelin, may be the young of this species \_microceros'\, but it is more 
probable, judging from the descriptions cf Gmelin and Latham, that several 
small species have been confounded under this name." The same gentleman 



also calls attention to the fact, that some of the expressions in the diagnoses 
of the old authors have no basis in the characters of any Alcidine bird. Under 
the circumstances, it behooves us to ignore the name ^j.y^mcsa altogether, since 
it cannot be identified; and to accept pusillus of Pallas, to which no possibil- 
ity of doubt attaches, as the proper name of the present species. 

Uria, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. 1811, ii, p. 370, in part; not of authors. 
Ptychorhamphus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. Sc. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 347. Type 

Uria aleutica, Pall. 
Mergulus^ Gambel, Pr. A. N. S. ii, 1842, p. 266, in part ; not of Ray, Vieill. 
Arctica, Gray, Genera, iii, 1849, p. 638; in part; not of Moehring. 
Simorhynchus, Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, 1867, livr. ix, p. 26, in part ; not of 

Size moderate ; general form stout ; not crested, nor with any elongated 
feathers about the head. Bill about two-thirds as long as the head, three- 
fourths as long as the tarsus, very stout, straight, somewhat conical in shape, 
slightly if at all compressed, without nodes or irregularities, the tip a^^te ; 
culmen very moderately declinato-convex in outline, the ridge broad, more or 
less corrugated transversely at the base ; the sides of upper mandible bulg- 
ing, the tomial edges inflected ; sides of lower mandible nearly upright, flat, 
longitudinally grooved for the greater part of their length, their tomial edges 
somewhat inflected; rictus straight ; gonys straight, or nearly so, very long. 
Nasal fossai long and wide, shallow, filled in with soft skin ; that of the two 
fossae meeting over the base of the culmen, and there corrugated as just de- 
scribed ; nostrils rather long, narrowly oval, subbasal, opening at the lower 
border of the fossae, the edge of the membrane that overhangs them elevated, 
flaring. Frontal feathers in a nearly transverse line across the base of the 
culmen, thence descending a little obliquely backwards, just behind the nos- 
trils, to the commissure; those on lower mandible extending, in the inter- 
ramal space (which they completely fill), to a point rather beyond a perpen- 
dicular from those on culmen; then, encroaching very little on the sides of 
the lower mandible, they retreat in a s'raight line rapidly backwards and 
obliquely upwards. Wings moderately long, narrow, pointed, the primaries 
somewhat falcate, narrowing rapidly at the tip to an acute point, first longest, 
rest equably graduated. Tail short, broad, rounded, contained about three 
and a half times in the length of wing from the carpal joint; the feathers 
broadly rounded at their tips. Taisus much shorter than the middle toe 
without its claw; about two-thirds as long as the middle toe and claw; 
greatly compressed, covered with small, very irregularly shaped polygonal 
reticulations ; no large transverse scutellae. Outer lateral toe as long as, or 
slightly shorter than the middle; its claw not reaching the tip of the middle 
claw. Tip of inner claw reaching base of middle one. Claws compressed, 
acute, moderately arched, the inner edge of the middle one dilated. 

This genus was instituted in 1837 by Prof. Brandt, for the reception of the 
Uria aleutica of Pallas, its type and only species. It is strongly characterized 
by the bill, which is of a shape not even approximating towards that of any 
other Alcidine bird. Its points of structure in other respects are shared by 
the majority of the family. 

Ptychorhamphus aleuticus, (Pall ) Brandt. 
Uria aleutica, FsiUsiS, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 370. '' Corpore supra fusco, 

subtus albo liturato, rostro producto, triplici plica inter nares." 
Ptychorhamphus aleuticus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 347. Bo- 
naparte, Tabl. Comp. Pelag. Compt. Rend., 1856,xlii,p. 774. Cassin, Baird'a 
B. N. A. 1858, p. 910. Heermann, Pac. R. R. Rep. x, 1859, Route to Gala. 
Birds, p. 75. Elliot, B. N. Am. part iv, 1867. 
Phaleris aleutica, Gray, Genera Birds, iii, 1849, p. 638. 



Simorhynchus aleuticus, Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, ix livr. 1867, p. 26. 
Merguius Cassinii, Gambel, Pr. A. N. S. Philada. ii, 1845, p. 266. Id., Journ. 

A. N. S. Phila. 2d series, ii, 1850, pi. vi. 
Arctica Cassinii, Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, p. 638. 

Pacific coast of North America, south to San Diego, California. Breeds on 
the Farralone Islands. Aleutian Islands (Pallas), Russian America, and whole 
weet coast of the United States. (Mus. Smiths. Inst, and Acad. Philada.) 

Adult.— Bill black, base of lower mandible whitish or yellowish. Legs 
anteriorly, and toes superiorly bluish ; legs posteriorly, and toes inferiorly, 
with the membranes, blackish. A slight touch of white about the eyes. En- 
tire upper parts blackish-plumbeous, the head, wings and tail nearly black. 
This color, gradually diluted until it is much more grayish-plumbeous, ex- 
tends around the under parts and sides of the head, the throat, upper part of 
the breast, and whole sides of the body under the wings. Greater part of 
breast, with abdomen and under tail coverts pure white ; the grayish plum- 
beous of the upper breast merging very gradually into the white of the belly. 
Under surface of wings dark lustrous gray. 

Young. — Very similar to the adult ; differing chiefly in being more decided- 
ly blackish on the upper parts. 

Moulting specimens have the upper parts much duller and grayer, the old 
wing and tail feathers faded, especially towards their tips, into light brown- 

Length 8-00 to 9-50 ; extent 16-00 to 18-50 ; wing 4-T5 to 5-25 ; tail 1-50 to 
1 t5 ; tarsus about 1-00 ; middle toe and claw 1-40 ; outer do. 1-30 ; inner do. 
1-10; culmen -75 ; rictus -90; gonys -60 ; depth of bill opposite posterior ex- 
tremity of nostrils -40 ; width -30. 

A.S regards color, this species is remarkably constant. Hardly any other 
differences than those first noticed are to be found, after examination of exten- 
sive series ; and they may all be summed up as merely varying shades of the 
same color, and slight variation in its extent downwards upon the breast. The 
bill at all ages and seasons presents its peculiar parti- coloration. These re- 
marks, however, probably do not apply to fledgelings. As regards size, the spe- 
cies is perhaps unusually variable, as may be seen by the measurements given 
above, which represent extremes in those cases where two sets of figures are 
given, and the average in other measurements. The bill, in particular, is 
liable to great variation both in length and in stoutness. Some bills are very 
large and robust, nearly as wide as high at the base, rather obtuse at the tip, 
and with decidedly curved culmen and gonys ; others are longer in proportion 
to their transverse dimensions, decidedly compressed throughout, acutely 
pointed, with almost straight culmen and gonys. The corrugations about the 
base of the upper mandible are sometimes nearly obsolete, and when present 
are very variable in character. Very likely they are hardly, if at all, apparent 
in life ; for they seem to be produced mainly by the shrinking in drying of the 
skin covering the nasal fosste and base of the culmen. All the variations ex- 
hibited by the numerous specimens seem to be merely individual difterences, 
and are not sufficient to excite a suspicion that more than one species is repre- 
sented in the series. 

Merguius Cassinii Gambel (Arctica Cassinii Gray) is now well known to be 
this species, first described by Pallas, as above quoted. The species has no 
other synonyms of consequence. Its striking peculiarities suffice to prevent 
misconception regarding it. 

Subfamily Urin^. 

MERGULUS, [Rm/) VieiU. 

Merguius, Ray, Syn. A v. Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, and of authors. Type Alca 
alle, Linn. 



Plauius, Klein, Prod. Av. p. 140. In part. 

Arctica, Moehring, Av. Gen. 1752, p. 65. Type Plautus columbarius, Klein, Gray, 

Genera, iii, 1849, p. 644. Type Alca alle, Linn. 
Alca, Linnaeus, S. N., i, 1758. In part. 
Uria, Pallas, Zoog, R. A. 1811, ii. In part. 

Bill very short, culmen only three-fourths the tarsus, very stout, scarcely 
compressed, obtuse at the tip, as wide as high at the base, the sides of both 
mandibles convex or vaulted, the tomial edge of the upper greatly inflected, the 
culmen very convex in outline, with a broad flattened ridge, the rictus ample, 
much decurved towards the end, the gonys straight, very short, the inferior 
mandibular rami correspondingly elongated, widely divaricating, the interra- 
mal space very broad, the nasal fossae short, wide, deep, partially feathered. 
Nostrils subbasal, short, more broadly oval, or more nearly circular than in 
any other genus except Synthliborhumphus. Wings rather longer than usual in 
this family, acutely pointed. Tail of ordinary length, much rounded, the fea- 
thers rather narrow and subacuminate at tip. Feet small and weak ; tarsus 
scarcely compressed, anteriorly broadly scutellate, posteriorly finely reticulate. 
Toes of the usual proportionate lengths. Size very small; general form very 
compact, stout. 

A peculiar genus of the Alcidse, the most essential characters of which, as 
usual in this family, are found in the bill, though the other members offer some 
appreciable, if not salient features. The squat bunchy shape of the single spe- 
cies is very noticeable. 

This is the genus through which a certain type of structure found among the 
Longipennes inosculates with the Pygopodes. The relationship of Pelecanoides 
urinatrix to Mergulus alle is one of strong analogy, if not of actual affinity, as 
has been elsewhere already pointed out by the writer.* Aside from the obvi- 
ously Procellaridian characters of the bill, Pelecanoides (representing the sub- 
family Halodrominse) is strictly a Pygopodous genus, and is very nearly iden- 
tical with Mergulus in all the details of external structure, and has much the 
same general habitus. It is certainly the connecting link between the ma- 
cropterous and brachypterous natatores, holding so strangely anomalous a 
position betwixt the two, that it cannot be with much propriety included under 
either. It seems entitled to the rank of a family, to take place between the 
Procellariidse and Alcidse. 

Mergulus alle, {Ray) VieilL 

Mergulus melanoleucus, Kay, Syn. Av. p. 125. Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, 
1825, p. 345. Brandt, Bull. Acad. St.-Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 347. Brewer, oct. 
ed. Wilson's Orn., with notes by Jardine, 1840, p. 658, fig. 315. Fleming, 
Hist. Brit. Anim. 1842, p. 135. Thompson, Nat. Hist. Ireland, iii, 1851, 
p. 218. 

Columba groenlandica, " Albanus, Av. p. 81, pi. 85. Gunn., Act. Nidroff, i, p. 
206, pi. 6." 

Plautus columbarius, Klein, Prod, Av. p. 146, No. 1. 

Alca alle, Linnaeus, S. N. ed. x, i, 1758, p. 131, No. 6. Id. ibid. ed. xii, 1766, i, 
p. 211, No. 5. Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 26, No. 106. Hermann, Tab. 
Aflan. Anim. p. 149. Miiller, Zool. dan. Prodr. p. 17, No. 142. Latham, Ind. 
Orn. ii, 1790, p. 795, No. 10. Donndorfi", Beytr. ZooL ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 823, 
No. 5. — Donndorflf's Var. B is Candida Lath. — Wilson, Am. Orn. ix, pi. 74, 
fig. 5. Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, ix livr. 1867, p. 20. 
Una alle, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 369. Temminck, Man. Orn. ii, 1820, 
p. 928. Bonaparte, Obs. Wils. 1826, No. 238. Audubon, Orn. Biog. v, 1838, 
p. 304, pi. 339. 
Uria {Mergulus) alle, Bonaparte, Synopsis, 1828, p. 425. 

* Cf. Pr. A. N. S. Philada. May, 1866, pp. 172, 189. 



Mergulus alle, Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 66. Id., Gal. Ois. 1825, p. 236, pi. 
295. Gould, Birds Eur. v, 1837, pi. 402. Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 
1852, p. 341. Bonaparte, CQraptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. Cassin, 
Baird's B. N, A. 1858, p. 918. Boardman, Pr. Bost. Soc. N. H. Sept. 1862, 
p. 131. Verrill, Proc. Essex Inst, iii, 1863, p. 160. Samuels, Ornith. and 
Ool. of New England, 1867, p. 570. 
Arctica alle, Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, p. 644. 
Alcaalce, Gmelin, S. N. i, pt. ii, 1788, p 544, No. 5. 

Alca Candida, Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 26, No. 107. In pure white plu- 
mage ; probably albino. 
Mergulus arcticus, Brehm. 

El ropean and American coasts of the North Atlantic. On the United States 
coast, in winter, south to New Jersey. Numerous specimens in Mus. Acad. 
Philada., Smiths. Inst, Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., Essex Inst., Cab. G. N.Lawrence, 
author's Cab., etc. 

Adult, summer plumage. — Head and neck all around, and entire upper parts 
glossy black, with a beautiful metallic lustre of a shade of blue, when in high- 
est plumage ; scapulars edged with white ; shafts and inner webs of primaries 
brown, lighter at base ; secondaries tipped with white ; under surfaces of the 
wings brownish-gray ; under parts from the breast pure white, with a few 
elongated feathers of the sides and flanks varied with black on the outer webs ; 
bill black ; legs and feet posteriorly blackish, anteriorly flesh-colored (dull 
yellowish in the dried state). 

Adult in winter. — As before ; the white of the under parts extending on the 
neck and throat to the bill, on the sides of the head to the level of the rictus, 
on the sides of the nape over the auriculars (where it is somewhat marbled 
with black), or even to the middle of the nape, more or less confluent with 
that of the other side. 

Young, first winter. — Recognizable by its smaller and weaker bill, by the 
duller and more brownish black cf the upper parts, almost wanting in gloss, 
and by the greater extension of the white upon the sides of the hind head and 
neck. The scapulars and coverts are conspicuously marked with white, as in 
the adult, The feet are mostly dusky. 

Length 8*50 ; wing 4-75 ; tail 1-50 ; tarsus -80 ; middle toe and claw 1-20, 
outer do. 1-15, inner do. -85; bill along culmen -50, rictus 1-00, gonys •20; its 
depth at base -35, its width at same point about the same. 

When in mature plumage, this is a very beautiful species. No other Alci- 
dine has such lustre of the dorsal plumage, traces of which are even found in 
adult winter specimens. In the latter the extent of the black upon the throat 
is indicated by a dusky clouding of the bases of the feathers of the parts. The 
species is ordinaril}'- subject to only moderate variation in size or colors. The 
condition of albinism has been described. 

, The first chronicles of this species are of great antiquity. It appears to have 
shared for a time with Uria grylle the soubriquet of " Columba groenlandica." 
Since its description as Alca alle by Linnaeus, it has been tlie basis of very few 
synonyms. Alca Candida of Briinnich is this species in the albino state. Mer- 
gulus melanoleucus, Ray, is adopted by many authors. Mr. G. R. Gray adopts 
Moohring's generic appellation. 


Alca, Gmelin, S. N. i, 1788, p. 554, and of the older authors, in part. 

Uria, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, and of some authors, in part. 

Fratercula, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, 1825, in part. 

Synthliborhamphus, Brandt, Bull Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837. (Type Alca anti- 

qua, Gm.) Subgenus of Jirachyrhnmphus, Brandt. 
Mergulus, Vigors, Zool. Voy. Blossom, 1839, in part. 



Arctica, Gray, Genera, iii, 1849, in part. 

Anobapton, Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii. p. 774, in part. 

Size moderate or rather small ; general form stout, compact; head with or 
without a crest; bill somewhat as in Bracht/rhamphus, but much stouter, and 
shorter for its depth ; much compressed throughout, depth at base about half 
the length of culmen, culmen and gonys moderately curved, gonys straight, 
ascending; nasal fossae small and shallow; nostrils subbasal, broadly oval or 
nearly circular, as in Mer gulus, fea.ihered ; feathers extending to about the same 
distance on culmen and keel ; on both mandibles retreating rapidly backwards 
from the point of their furthest extension ; those on the upper passing just by 
the nostrils, but not covering the latter. Wings of usual size and shape in this 
group ; secondaries very short, as in Brachyrhamphus, the tip of the longest not 
reaching much more than half-way from the carpal joint to the end of the first 
primary in the closed wing. Tail of usual length, short, broad, nearly square, 
or very slightly rounded, the feathers very broadly rounded at tip. Tarsi much 
compressed, anteriorly and laterally transversely scutellate, posteriorly reticu- 
late ; about as long as the middle toe without its claw. Outer toe as long as 
or rather longer than the middle ; its claw smaller than that of the middle ; 
tip of inner claw reaching base of middle. Claws small, short, compressed, 
moderately curved and acute, the inner edge of the middle one somewhat di- 

With the general appearance of Brachyrhamphus ^ this genus differs from the 
latter in the bill and feet. The bill is deeper at the base, and more compressed 
throughout; the feet are still more different, having very broad transverse scu- 
tellation on the anterior face of the tarsus, instead of polygonal reticulation ; 
and are larger, both relatively and absolutely, with longer, much more com- 
pressed tarsi than in Brachyrhamphus. The type of the genus is the old Alca 
antiqua Gm. A second species occurs, which differs from the type, as far as 
form is concerned, in a slenderer bill, and in the presence of a conspicuous 

Species. — (2.) 

Not crested ; bill stout, depth at base more than half the length 
of culmen ; white on sides of vertex not extending in ad- 
vance of the eyes : antiquus. 

Crested ; bill slender, depth at base about equal to half the 
length of culmen ; white on sides of vertex extending along 
sides of forehead nearly to the bill wurmizusume. 

Synthliborhamphus antiquus, [Gmel.) Brandt. 

Alca antiqua, Gmelin, S. N. i, pt. ii, 1788, p. 554, No. 11. Based upon Antient 
Auk, Pennant, Arct. Zool. 1785, ii, p. 512, No. 430. Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, 
1790, p. 795, No. 9. Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. ii. pt. i, 1794, p. 824. Schlegel, 
Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. ix, 1867, p. 21. 

Fratercula antiqua, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xiii, 1825, p. 42. 

Uria antiqua, Temminck and Schlegel, Fn. Japon. 1845, pi. 80. Audubon, 
Orn. Biogr. v, 1839, p. 100, pi. 402, fig. 12. Id. B. Amer. vii, 1844. 

Brachyrhamphus {Synthliborhamphus) antiquus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 
ii, 1837, p. 347. 'Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 916. 

Brachyrhamphus antiquus. Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, p. 644. 

Anobapton (Synthliborhamphus) antiquus, Bonaparte, Consp. Gav. Comptes Ren- 
dus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. 

Uria senicula, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 369, pi. 85. 

Mergulus cirrhocephalus. Vigors, Zool, Voy. Blossom, 1839, Birds, p. 32. 

Arctica cirrhocephala, Gray, Gen. Birds, iii. 1849, p. 644. 



American and Asiatic Coasts of the North Pacific. Kamtschatka, Japan 
Seas. Sitka, Russian America, (Mus. Smiths. Inst.) Mus. Acad. Philada. 

With the form, etc., typical of the 
genus, as above described. 

Adult., high breeding plumage, (No. 
46558, Mus. Smiths. Sitka, R. A.) Bill 
whitish, or yellowish, culmen and base 
of both mandibles abruptly black ; legs 
and feet anteriorly apparently whitish, 
or yellowish ; posteriorly, with both sur- 
faces of the webs, black. Head all 
Fig. 13.— 5i^n<7iii6or;iam2)Awsan<t2MMs,(Gmel.) around, and throat, black; pure and 
Nat. size. intense above, on the sides below, chin 

and throat, tinged with fuliginous brown. A conspicuous stripe of pure white 
beginning over each eye, and extending backwards over the sides of the occi- 
put, connected across the nape by some white feathers, and spreading on the 
sides and back of the neck, as a large disconnected series of trenchantly de- 
fined white streaks. Trace of white on each eyelid. Entire upper parts clear 
dark plumbeous, blackening on the upper tail coverts and tail. Upper surface 
of wings the same, or rather darker, the edge of the wing all along from the 
elbow, and the exposed parts of primaries, blackish; entire under surface of 
wings white, except just along the edges where it is mottled with dusky ; the 
basal portion of the inner webs and shafts of primaries whitish ; secondaries 
like the wing coverts, or rather darker, their bases whitish. Sides of the body 
under the wings pure velvety black, in marked contrast to the clear plumbeous 
of the upper parts and white of the lower. These black feathers are poste- 
riorly greatly elongated, reaching quite to the tail, and overlying the sides of 
the rump and the flanks, which latter, however, are seen to be pure white on 
raising the elongated supercumbent feathers. This black along the sides 
extends anteriorly in front of the wings, and, still strongly con tra'sted with the 
plumbeous of the interscapulars, continues on as a band quite to the nape, 
which it crosses to become confluent with its fellow of the opposite side. On 
the sides of the neck it is thickly marked with the pure white streaks already 
described. The fuliginous black of the chin and throat is continuous with that 
of the sides of the head as far as the auriculars ; further on it merely extends 
as a point along the middle of the throat, being separated from the black of 
the sides of the nape by a large white area, an extension to the auriculars of 
the white which is the color of the whole under parts except the sides under 
the wings, as already described. 

Length 9-50 to 10-50; extent 16-75 to 18-25; wing 5-50; tail 1-60; bill 
along culmen -60, along rictus 1-20, along gonys -40, depth at base -30, width 
•20; tarsus 1-00 ; middle toe and claw 1-25, outer do. 1-15, inner do. 1-00. 

Younger. — Bill and feet as above described. " Iris brown," (label). Upper 
parts as in the adult, but darker, the plumbeous being obscured by dusky, 
especially on the wing and tail coverts, and lower back. Forehead, crown, 
nape, and back of neck, sooty black, entirely unrelieved by white streaks, 
or with only traces of the latter on the sides of the occiput. Eyelids some- 
times largely white. No black on the throat or chin ; traces of it in a dusky 
mottling about the base of the bill. White of under parts extending on sides 
of head below and behind nearly to the eyes, and far around on the sides of 
the nape, so that only a median nuchal line is left blackish. Sides of body 
under the wings not pure black, but merely dusky plumbeous, and this not 
continuous on the feathers over the tlanks, these being in some part white, 
producing a white and plumbeous variegation. The lino of this dusky plum- 
beous hardly extends in front of the wings to the sides of the neck. Under 
parts white, as before, the bases of the inner webs of the primaries rather more 
white than in the adult. 



The above described differences between the adult and young are very de- 
cided, and might suggest a distinction of species, were not various means 
between the extremes forthcoming. Beyond these variations in plumage the 
species is very constant in characters, with the exception of the bill. This 
differs a good deal as to its size and shape ; but nevertheless usually preserves 
the specific characters which distinguish it from that of Wurmizusume. Thus 
the difference in length between the bills of two perfectly mature examples, 
absolutely identical in plumage, and in all other respects, save length of bill, 
amounts to a tenth of an inch along the culmen. This difference being 
unaccompanied by a corresponding difference in depth and width, gives a 
readily appreciable difference in shape of the bill. 

The only species to which the present bears any special resemblance is 
Wurmizusume. The comparative characters of the latter are dwelt upon at 
length in the article immediately succeeding. 

It is barely possible that two distinct species may be confounded in the 
synonymy adduced at the head of this article, and that the bird here described 
is not the veritable Alca antiqua^ Gm., (" Antient auk" of Pennant.) In the 
description of these authors the upper parts are said to be dusky or sooty 
black, whereas, as will be seen by the description, the subject of the present 
article has these parts clear plumbeous. But we have just seen that the young 
of the present bird has the upper parts decidedly darker and duller than the 
adult ; in fact tending, especially upon the wings and lower back, to dusky. 
The limits within which the species is known to vary in this respect are suffi- 
ciently wide to allow its reference to the bird of Pennant, Latham and Gmelin ; 
especially when it is remembered that the particular descriptive terms used by 
these authors may not have been critically correct. It seems unnecessary, and it 
would be, perhaps, unjustifiable to attempt to discriminate the present species 
from Alca antiqua, upon the grounds just mentioned. They had best be re- 
garded as the same, at least until suites of specimens may determine the exis- 
tence of two species, differing in the particulars above mentioned. No indica- 
tions of a distinction of species can be found in the extensive series of speci- 
mens at present contained in American collections. 

This species, in the condition here described as that of the adult, is the 
Uria senicula, Pallas; and should bear the name of Synthlihorhamphus seniculits 
in the event of its not proving the same as Alca antiqua, Gm. Mergulus 
cirrhocephalus, Vigors, [Arctica cirrhocephala, Gfay,) is the same bird, in the 
same condition of maturity. The species has no other synonyms of conse- 
quence, except those resulting from its reference to several different genera. 

In breeding plumage it is a very handsome bird, being in fact — with the ex- 
ception of Wurmizusume — the handsomest of the Urinse. It is of frequent 
occurrence along the coast and among the islands of the North Pacific ; extend- 
ing, on the Asiatic side, to Japan, and on the American, to Washington Terri- 
tory, U. S. It apparently migrates southward in winter. It breeds in the 
vicinity of Sitka, R. A. It is well represented by numerous specimens in the 
collections of the Philadelphia Academy and of the Smithsonian Institution. 
It has been figured by Temminck and Schlegel, and by Audubon. 

Synthliborhamphus Wurmizcjsume, [Temm.) Coues. 

Uria Wurmizusume, Temminck, PI. Color, No. 579. Temminck and Schlegel, 

Fn. Japon, 1845, pi. 79. 
Anobapton (Synthliborhamphus) Wurmizusume, Bonaparte, Tab. Comp. Pelag. 

Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. 
Brachyrhamphus [Synthliborhamphus) Temminckii, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Pe- 

tersb. ii, 1837, p. 347. Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 916. 
Brachyrhamphus Temminckii, Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, p. 644. Cooper and 

Suckley, Pac. Rr. Rep. xii. p. ii, 1860, p. 287. Elliot, B. N. Am. part vi, 1867. 
Alca Temminckii, Schlegel, Urinat. Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. ix, 1867, p. 22. (Japan.) 



Asiatic and American Coasts 
of the North Pacific; south to 
Japan and Washington Terri- 
tory, U. S. Specs, in Mus. 
Acad. Philadelphia, and Mus. 
Smiths. Inst. 

Bill more slender and elon- 
gated than in the type of the 
genus, the depth at base less, 
and the compression not so 
great, the sides of the bill being 
less vertical ; rictus nearly 
Fig. U.—SyntJiliborhamphus Wurmizusume, (Temm.) Straight. Rather larger than S. 
Nat. size. aniiquus. 

Adult. — Bill decidedly yellow, (in the dried state,) the ridge of upper mandi- 
ble alone black. Feet dull livid bluish, the webs dusky, (feet dusky yellowish 
in the dried state ) "Eye brilliant gray, iris black " (label). A large con- 
spicuous crest springing from the extreme forehead of a dozen, (more or 
fewer) slender elongated features, not recurved, but extending straight back- 
wards quite to the occiput. A large conspicuous series of white feathers on 
each side of the top of the head, extending from the base of the crest, on the 
forehead far in advance of the eyes, to the side of the nape ; there more or 
less confluent with each other, and then dispersed as isolated white streaks 
over the sides of the neck to ihe shoulders. In many specimens, however, 
apparently quite adult, these white stripes are hardly, if at all, apparent 
beyond the nape. Rest of head, including chin and upper part of throat 
sooty or fuscous blackish, sometimes with a cinereous tint ; this color extend- 
ing as far as the interscapular region, from which point the upper parts are 
more decidedly plumbeous, only the wings and tail being somewhat darker and 
more fuscous. Sides under the wings plumbeous black quite to the flanks ; 
this color also extending forward in front of the wings and continuous with 
that of the sides of the neck and head. Under surface of wings pure white, 
except a little dusky clouding along the edge ; bases of primaries, and the 
greater portion of their inner webs white, deepening very gradually through a 
continuously deepening shade of brownish gray, into dusky at the tips. 
Entire under parts (except the sides, as just described) pure white. 

Length 10-50 to 11-00; extent 18-00 to 18-50; wing 5-50; tail l-'75; tarsus 
1-00 ; middle toe and claw 1-25, outer 1-20, middle 1-00 ; bill along culmen -70, 
rictus 1-10 ; gbnys -40 ; height at base -25 to -30, width about the same. 

Younger. — Bill and feet as above ; (bill sometimes, however, wholly blackish.) 
Without a crest ; no white feathers about head, or only slight traces thereot. 
Face, including region just about the base of the bill, both above and below, 
crown and sides of the head to the level of the commissure, with nape and 
back of neck, plumbeous dusky ; other upper parts, particularly the wings, 
the same, but most of the back with a more decided tint of plumbeous. Under 
wing coverts and primaries as in the adult. Sides under the wings narrowly 
fusco-plumbeous, the lengthened feathers over the flanks variegated with 
white. Entire under parts otherwise white ; this color extending far around 
on the sides of the upper neck, nape and occiput. 

Considerable variation in plumage as well as in size, and to a degree, in 
shape of bill, is exhibited by the numerous specimens examined. The differ- 
ences in the bill are chiefly those of size, the relative proportions of the 
various measurements being pretty constantly preserved. The bill is always 
slenderer, and usually longer than that of antujnus, approaching in this respect 
the bills of the true Brachyrhamphi. The size of the whole bird varies some- 
what, but not to any remarkable degree. In apparently equally adult speci- 
mens, the two series of white feathers, which form conspicuous stripes on the 
sides of the vertex and nape, vary much iu length. Sometimes they spread 



out on the sides of the hind-neck to almost as great an extent as is witnessed 
in the most highly plumaged specimens of anliquus ; again they may stop 
abruptly on the occiput, or at least on the nape. The comparative amounts 
of dusky and plumbeous on the upper parts is various, as is also the intensity 
of either of these hues. Thus a specimen, (No. — Phila. Acad., from Japan,) 
has the upper parts including the wing coverts bluish ashy, or bluish plumbe- 
ous, light enough to form a marked contrast with the band of nearly black 
which crosses the nuchal region, and descends on either side under the wings. 
In this specimen, also, the bill is blackish, although it is evidently an adult bird, 
having a crest an inch long. There is sometimes much white on the eyelids, 
sometimes none. The outline of the white on the sides of the hind head and of 
the neck varies ; the younger the bird, the more the white encroaches on these 

It is not ascertained positively that the crest which so strongly characterizes 
perfect specimens of this species as a constant feature, that is, obtained at a 
certain age, and ever afterwards worn. Very possibly, it is only assumed 
during the breeding season ; and falls off afterwards, so that perfectly adult 
winter specimens may be without it. It is at all events not to be enumerated 
among the infallible diagnostic points of the species. 

Compared with S. andguus, the species is at once distinguished, when in adult 
breeding plumage, by the presence of a crest, and the different extent of the 
white stripes and streaks upon the head, nape and neck. (Consult descriptions 
above given.) These differences aside, it is a larger bird, on an average, 
though some specimens do not exceed in size some examples of antiquus. The 
bill is slenderer, though not necessarily longer, more acute at the tip, com- 
paratively not so deep at the base, and rather less compressed, the culmen, 
rictus and gonys straighter. The identification of very young birds, however, 
is sometimes attended with difficulty ; and some specimens in the present col- 
lections cannot, in fact, be satisfactorily determined. This state of affairs, 
however, is by no means unparalleled in other cases of perfectly distinct spe- 
cies ; and by no means militates against the belief in the specified distinction 
of the two birds now under consideration. The adults cannot by any possi- 
bility be mistaken for each other. 

This species is well represented in all its variety, by numerous specimens in 
the collections of the Philadelphia Academy and the Smithsonian Institution ; 
though not contained, as far as heard from, in any other American cabinets. 
It is of frequent occurrence on the coasts of the North Pacific, and appears to 
be particularly abundant in the vicinity of Japan, whence most of the speci- 
mens described or recorded have been obtained. Its occurrence on the coast 
of the United States is open to question. Several specimens of S. antiquus (at 
least of the bird described in this paper under this name) are in our collec- 
tions from Washington Territory, labelled " Brachyrhamphus Temminckii,'' 
and these appear to represent the species whose habits, etc., are alluded to by 
Drs. Cooper and Suckley, volume twelve, part ii, of the Pacific Railroad Re- 
ports, (Nat. Hist. Wash. Terr. p. 287, above cited) under the name of Brachy- 
rhamphus Temminckii. But the description there given is that of the true 
Temminckii, having been copied from Mr. Cassin's article on the " Birds of 
North America." 

The name which heads this article has priority over "Temminckii" of 
Prof. Brandt, and is therefore to be adopted, though its barbarous character is, 
assuredly, a matter of regret. It varies in orthography with different writers. 

Colymbus, Gmelin, S. N. i, 1788 ; in part ; not of authors. 
Uria, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, 1790; in part ; not of authors. 
Cepphus, Pallas, Zool. R. A. ii, 1811, in part. 
Brachyrhamphus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, ii, 1837. Type Colymhus 

marmoratus, Gm. 
Apobapton, Brandt, 1, c. Same type. 
Anobapton, Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, xlii, 1856. Same type. 




With the general habitus of Uria proper, but of much more delicate build, 
different pattern of coloration, and very small size. Bill small, slender, much 
shorter than the head, not longer than the tarsus, greatly compressed, acutely 
tipped ; culmeu gently curved, its ridge sharp, rictus nearly straight, gonys 
straight; tomial edge of upper mandible greatly inflected towards the base, 
notched near the tip. Nasal fossae small and shallow, nearly filled with 
feathers, which mostly cover the extremely minute oval nostrils. Wings of 
ordinary length, very narrow, pointed, falcate, the secondaries extremely short. 
Tail of ordinary length, almost square, the feathers obtusely rounded. Feet 
very small, short, slender, and weak ; tarsus scarcely compressed, variable in 
length, never longer than the middle toe without its claw (except in brachyp- 
terus ?) Outer and middle toes equal in length ; the claw of the former much 
smaller than that of the latter; the inner very short, its claw not reaching 
the base of the middle claw. Claws small, weak, moderately curved, very 

The genus which comprises the Murrelets — to coin an English word, needed 
for the Brachyrhamphi^ — is a very natural and strongly marked one. It comes 
nearest to Uria proper, from which, however, it is sufficiently distinguished, as 
"will be seen by the above diagnosis. It contains four or five species, all inhab- 
itants of the North Pacific, and more particularly of the west coast of North 
America. These may readily be diagnosticated as follows : — 

Species : — (5.) 

I. Tarsus much shorter than the middle toe without its claw. 

Upper parts blackish and chestnut, lower parts blackish 

and white 1. marmoraius. 

Upper parts cinereous and white, lower parts pure 

white 2. Wrangelii. 

II. Tarsus just as long as the middle toe without its claw. 

Under surface of wings white 3. hypoleucus. 

Under surface of wings dusky 4. Craveri. 

III. Tarsus longer than the middle toe without its claw, (teste 

Brandt) b.brackypterusf 

Brachyrhamphus marmoratus, {Gm.) Brandt, 

Colymhus marmoratus^ Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, 1758, p. 583, No. 12. Based on the 

marbled guillemot. Pennant,''^ Arct. Zool. ii, p. 517, pi. 22, and Latham, Syn. 

vi, p. 336, pi. 96. Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 870. 
C/irm ?/iarmora<a, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, 1790, p. 799. Stephens, Shaw's Gen. 

Zool. xii, 1824, p. 249. Bonaparte, Synopsis, 1828, p. 423. 
Brachyrhamphus {Apobapton^ marmoratus, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, 

ii, 1837, p. 346. Oassin, Birds N. A. 1858, p. 915; in part. Description 

of supposed adult is that of B. Wrangeli. 
Brachyrhamphus marmoratus, Gray, Genera Birds, iii, 1849, p. 6 44. Cooper and 

Suckley, Nat Hist. Wash. Terr. 1860, p. 286, in part. Not the description 

of supposed adult, which is that of B. Wrangeli. 
Anobapton ( Brachyrhamphus) marmoratus, Bonaparte, Tabl. Corap. Pelagiens, 

Coraptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. 
Cepph IS perdix, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 351, pi. 80. 
Uria Townsendii, Audubon, Orn. Biogr. v, 1839, p. 251, pi. 430 ; octavo ed. vii, 

1844, pi. 475. The figure of the supposed young is the adult; that of sup- 
posed adult may be really B. WranyeLii, 

"With a black hill ; crown duslcy; throat, breast, and belly mottled with black and 

white; back and Hides very glo.ssy, and iiiurblnd wuh blaijk and rust-color; wings dusky; 

freater coverts edged witli while; tail black ; legs yellow; webs black. Length U ini;hes." 
ennant, 1. c. From Prince William Sound. Of tlUs species, Vieillot, (Nouv. Diet, xir, 
1817, p. ;J6,) not exhibiting great sagacity, remarks, that it is " uae jeuue guillemot gryile, 
qui commence ji prendre lu livrfie de I'uduUe 1" 

1868.] ^ 


? Uria brevirostris, Vigors,* Zool. Journ. iv, 1828, p. 357, and Zool. Beechey'8 

Voy. Blossom, 1839, Ornith, p. 32. Evidently a young bird ; may be of this 

species, or of B. Wrangeli, 
? Brachyrhamphus Kittlitzii,\ Brandt, Bull. Acad. So. St. Petersburg, ii. IBST, p. 

346. Young bird; may be of this species, or of Wrangeli^ or a distinct 

Coasts and Islands of the North Pacific. On the American side, south in 
winter to California ; breeds as far south as Vancouver's Island, Numerous 
specimens in Mus. Acad. Philada., Mus. Smiths. Inst., Cab. G. N. Lavrrence. 

Form typical of the genus as just described. Bill along culmen just the 
length of the tarsus, tarsus scarcely three-fourths the middle toe without its 

Adult, breeding plumage. (Description from No. 49655, Mus. Smiths. Inst,, (5^, 
June 9, 1867, Vancouver's Island. J Bill black. Tarsi posteriorly and both 
surfaces of the webs blackish ; legs anteriorly and toes superiorly livid flesh 
color, or dull bluish gray. Iris brown. Entire upper parts brownish black, 
everywhere transversely barred with chestnut brown, or bright rust color, 
except on the wings, which are uniform brownish black, the primaries darkest, 
their inner webs brownish grey towards the base. Under surface of wings 
smoky brownish black. A few whitish feathers variegated with chestnut and 
dusky on the scapulars. Entire under parts, including sides of head, neck 
and body, marbled with sooty brownish black and white. The feathers are 
white, with the tips of the dark color. The white rather predominates on the 
middle of the breast and belly, the dusky on the other parts ; the latter color 
being nearly uniform across the throat, and on the long feathers of the sides 
and flanks. 

Specimens vary a great deal in the precise amount of rusty brown on the 
upper parts, and of dusky mottling on the lower ; but, so far as known, are 
never without this distinctive coloration in some degree ; and it becomes 
heightened at the breeding season.. 

Length about 10-00 ; extent about 18-00 ; wing 5-00; tail 1-50 ; tarsus -70 ; 
middle toe 1-00, its claw -20; outer toe and claw 1-16, inner do. -90 ; bill along 
culmen -70, along rictus 1-35, along gonys -55, heighth opposite base of nos- 
trils -25, width at same point -20. 

This species was originally described by Pennant as the Marbled Guillemot, 
whence Golymbus marmoratus, Gm. His descriptioH is that of the adult, in 
breeding plumage, but has been almost universally supposed to refer only to 
the young; and a very different species has been usually held to be the adult, 
as shown in the next article. It is also evidently the Cepphus perdiz of 

* " U. suprJi griseo-fusca, capite, dorsoque albo notatis"; subtus alba, fusco undulatim 
maculata, reetricibus albis, duabus mediis fuseo-notatis, rostro brevi, gracili.— Alee supri 
et infrk, tectrieesque inferiores fuscse. Rostrum nigrum. Pedes flavi, membranis ungui- 
busque brunneis. Longitude corporis 9 ; rostri ad frontem 3^, ad rictum 1%, alee 534 > 
caudee 1; tarsi ^." Vigors, 1. c. From San Bias. 

t" Supra cinerea nigricante et pallide e fuseo-flavescente undulata et submaculata. 
Subtus alba, subfuscescente tenuissime lavata, nigro etquidemin pectore frequentius un- 
dulata. Alee e cinerascente et fusco nigree. Rostrum brevissimum, capitis longitudinis 
tertiam partem circiter adeequans. Tarsi digito medio breviores. Longitudo a rostri 
apiee ad caudee apicem 9. Patria Kamtschatka." — Brandt, 1. c. 

t The following is an extract from a letter to Prof. Baird, from J. Hepburn, Esq., dated 
Victoria, Sept. 5, 1867, which accompanied a lot of specimens of which No. 49665 was one. 
It confirms the views maintained in the present paper, and gives some interesting facts: 
"You will find in the box a specimen of B. marmoratus. On comparing it with Mr. Cassin's 
description, (ia Birds N. A.) I find it is what he calls the young bird. In this he is mista- 
ken. In the first place, if such were the case we should see some red birds among the 
large numbers that are to be found here, whereas till this year I never saw but one speci- 
men, * * In the next place, when I fell in with them last May, every bird was in 
the red plumage, including the one which, as I told you, would have laid an egg in two 
or three days ; and lastly, proof conclusive, I have shot the young bird, two-thirds grown, 
in the winter plumage of the adult, except that the breast is more thickly barred than in 
any specimens I have seen in the winter, and at the very time the adults were in their 
red plumage." 



Audubon's figure and description of the supposed young of this bird, under 
the name of Uria Townsendii, is really that of the adult. His figure of the 
supposed adult appears rather to represent Wrangeli, 

It is difficult, perhaps impossible, to determine Uria brevirostris Vigors. This 
is evidently, as far as can be judged by the description, a young bird. It be- 
longs to the short-legged group of the present genus ; but whether it is the 
young of marmoratus or of Wrangeli, is a point which cannot be decided. The 
expression " capite dorsoque albo-notatis,'' and the absence of any mention 
of rust-color in the description, would lead one to assign it rather to 

Brachyrhamphus Kittlitzii, Brandt, is another bird which has not been identi- 
fied since its original description. Like U. brevirostris, it is evidently a young 
bird, of the short-legged group ; and the expression " fusco-flavescente undu- 
lata " induces the presumption that it is really only a young marmoratus. But 
it is possible that both it and B. brevirostris may be the young of the same spe- 
cies, or of two different species, which yet remain to be identified. It is not 
probable, however, that either of these names represent valid species, distinct 
from each one of those recognized in this paper. 

Brachyrhamphus Wrangeli, Brandt. 

Brachyrhamphus TTran^eZn, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersburg, ii, 1837, p. 
344. " Rostrum capitis dimidii circiter longitudine. Caput supra, nucha et 
dorsum e nigricante grisea. Ala^, et cauda nigra?. Reliquae partes, nee non 
stria longitudinalis supra alam, albse. Tarsi digito medio breviores. Longitu- 
dine a rostro apice ad caudae apicem 9^, Patria Insulae Aleuticae." Cassin, 
Birds N. A. 1858, p. 917. Copies Brandt's diagnosis. 

Brachyrhamphus marmoratus, Cassin, B. N. A. 1858, p. 915, in part. Descrip- 
tion of supposed adult marmoratus is that of Wrangeli. 

Aleutian Islands, and north-west coast of America; south to Puget's Sound, 
and perhaps further. Numerous specimens in Mus. Smiths. Inst. (No. 11,457, 
perfectly adult, Puget's Sound, in February ; No. 46,547, just fully fledged, 
Sitka ; and others from same locality in various stages of adolescence ; No. 
46,542, Sitka, in January.) 

Description (from No. 46,541, Mus. Smiths., perfectly adult male, Sitka, 
March, 1866). — With the size and proportions of the several members as in mar- 
moratus; the bill absolutely shorter, relatively rather stouter. Bill scarcely as 
long as the tarsus. Tarsus much less than middle toe without claw. 

Adult. — Entire upper parts, except the scapulars, very dark cinereous, the 
centres of the feathers, particularly on the back and rump, blackish, causing 
these parts to appear obsoletely waved with blackish and cinereous; the crown 
of the head, the wings and the tail, almost black, the larger wing coverts just 
appreciably white-margined; scapulars almost entirely pure white, forming tAVO 
conspicuous broad longitudinal bands. Under wing coverts dusky brown ; 
inner webs of the primaries the same, not fading, even at their extreme bases, 
into whitish. Entire under parts pure white, immaculate, except some dusky 
streaks on the long feathers of the sides and flanks. This white on the sides 
of the head invades the lores to the level of the top of the orbits, and extends 
into the nasal fossae ; then lowers a little, so that the eyes are left in the dark 
color of the top of the head ; then on the nape extends almost to the median 
line, across which a few white feathers extend to the white on the other side, 
forming an imperfect nuchal collar; then extends in a straight line down the 
middle of the side of the neck. On the sides of the rump the white extends 
around so far, that the cinereous is only left as a band an inch wide. This 
white on the sides of the rump is as ai)parent upon the upper surface as that 
on the scapulars ; it is directly continuous with that of the under parts, but on 
the flanks the long overlying cinereous leathers appear to separate it. Bill 
wholly black. Tarsi posteriorly and toes iuferiorly blackish ; rest of the feet, 



including both surfaces of the webs, probably tiesh-colored in life ; dull yellow- 
ish-white in the dried skin. 

Length " 10-00, extent 18-00" (collector's label); wing from carpus 5-00; 
tail 1-50; tarsus -70 ; middle toe without claw -92, its claw -20; outer toe and 
claw 1-10 ; inner do. -88 ; bill along culmen -60, along rictus 1-25, along gonys 
•45, its height at base of nostrils -22, its width at same point -19. 

Young. (No. 46,547, Mus. Smiths., Sitka, July, 1866 ; just fully fledged ; the 
bill has still the white horny knob at tip of upper and under mandible, show- 
ing the juvenility of the specimen). — Bill very small, weak, short, imperfectly 
developed, about a third as long as the skull ; -45 along culmen ; tarsus -55 ; 
middle toe and claw 1-00 ; wing only 4-25. Entire upper parts blackish, much 
darker than in the adult, with only a just appreciable shade of cinereous ; the 
scapular white present, but restricted in extent, and interrupted by imperfect 
bars of dusky across the feathers. Entire under parts white. Everywhere, ex- 
cept on chin, middle of abdomen, and under tail coverts, thickly marked with 
delicate waved lines of dusky, most numerous across the throat, largest on the 
sides and flanks, where some of the longer feathers are mostly dusky, finest on 
the lower breast. The whitish on the sides of the head does not extend so far, 
and merges insensibly into the dark color ; on the nape a delicate line of 
white feathers almost forms a collar. The under wing coverts are as in the 
adult. Bill blackish. Legs and feet anteriorly more dusky than in the adult. 
Another specimen (No. 46,542, Mus. Smiths.), taken in January, marked 
female, and evidently hatched the preceding summer, has the size of the adult, 
and the colors generally as in the young bird just described. But the upper 
parts are much lighter and more decidedly cinereous, as in the adult ; the 
scapular white well developed ; the dusky waving of the under parts confined 
to the sides and throat. The under wing coverts are dusky along the edge of 
the wing ; but are elsewhere variegated with dull whitish ; only to a small 
degree, however, not approaching the condition seen in hypoleucus. 

In mature plumage this is a very handsome bird, and recognizable at a 
glance by the pure white of the under parts, and blackish cinereous of the up- 
per, relieved by the conspicuous white of the scapulars and sides of the rump. 
It belongs to the short-legged division of the genus, being very different from 
hypoleucus and Craveri in the proportions of the tarsus and toes. It has the 
size and form of mar mora lus in every respect except a just fairly recognizable 
diff'erence in the shape of the bill. But it is quite a different species from 
marmordtus ; so different, in fact, that no special comparison need be insti- 

The recognition, in the bird here described, of Bra chyrhamphus Wrangeli, 
Brandt, is a matter of unusual interest, identifying, as it does, a species long 
ago described, but almost unknown to ornithologists at large, and throwing 
light upon what has always been a very obscure point in American ornitho- 
logy. The writer is mainly indebted to Prof. Baird's suggestions for the for- 
tunate direction of his investigation in this case. The present species has 
hitherto been regarded and described by American writers as the adult of the 
well-known marmoratus, whose curious colors, as described by all authors from 
Pennant downwards, and as figured by Audubon under the name of Uria Town- 
sendii, have always been considered as indicative of immaturity. But numer- 
ous specimens, in adult breeding plumage, demonstrate the falsity of this view, 
as is satisfactorily set forth in the preceding article. Beyond the possibility of 
a doubt, the present species is not marmoratus ; and it is certainly Wrangeli of 

Brachyrhamphus hypoleucus, Xantus. 

Brachyrhamphus hypoleucus, Xantus, Proc. Acad. Phila. Nov., 1859. From Cape 

St. Lucas. Baird, eodem loco. 

Coast of California. Specs, in Mus. Smiths., and Mus. Acad. Philada. So 
far south, in summer, as Cape St. Lucas, Lower Cal. 



Description (from No. , Mus. Smiths., 9, San Diego, Jan. 27, 1862 ; a 

typical example). — Bill along culmen half as long as the skull, three-fourths 
as long as the tarsus, as long as the middle toe and half its claw, very slender, 
much compressed, higher than wide at the base ; culmen gently curved its 
whole length ; rictus nearly straight ; gonys perfectly straight ; outline of the 
very slender mandibular rami a little concave. Tarsus just as long as the 
middle toe without its claw 1 Tip of inner lateral claw not reaching base of 
middle one. Wings and tail of usual shape ; the latter contained about two 
and a third times in the length of the former from the carpus. Under tail 
coverts reaching (in this specimen) just beyond the end of the tail. Entire 
upper parts uniform cinereous, not varied by white. This color is slightly 
darker, and more blackish-plumbeous on the head. It extends on the sides of 
the head just to the eyes, the lids of which are of this color, a little further 
down on the auriculars ; thence in a straight line along the middle of the 
side of the neck to the shoulders ; thence in a straight line along the sides 
under the wings, where it is nearly an inch broad ; the elongated feathers of 
the flanks are also mostly of this color. Other under parts entirely pure white. 
Under surface of wings entirely pure white I Primaries black on the outer 
web ; the greater part of the shaft and inner webs white ; the terminal portion 
of the shaft and inner webs brown. Tail feathers black, the inner webs some- 
what brownish. Bill black, the base of the lower mandible whitish ; feet an-, 
teriorly dull yellowish, posteriorly dusky, in the present dried state ; " bill 
black, feet whitish-blue, black below " (label). 

"Length 10-50; extent 17-50" (label); wing 4-80; tail 1-70; tarsus -95; 
middle toe without claw -95, its claw -20; outer toe and claw 1-10; inner do. 
•90; bill along culmen -80, along rictus 1-30, along gonys -45; depth at base 
•22; width -19.^ 

The specimen above described, collected at San Diego, Oal., by Dr. J. G, 
Cooper, is a little larger than the type, as will be seen by comparing the 
measurements with those in the accompanying foot-note. It is also described 
as representing the perfect plumage, — the type being imperfect in this respect. 
The upper parts are of a uniform very dark cinereous, without a shade of 
brown ; the latter hue only occurring in specimens with worn and faded 
plumage. In the original description, here appended, the indications of the 
size of relative lengths of the tarsus and middle toe are made without 
reference to the claw ; which fact explains an apparent discrepancy between 
the present description and the original one. The tarsus is exactly as long as 
the middle toe without its claw. 

This is a very strongly marked species. The most striking diagnostic feature 
is the pure white of the under surface of the wings. In the uniformity of the 
cinereous color of the upper parts it is also unique. Nearly the same length 
of tarsus is found in B. brachypterus, Brandt, and Craveri, Salvadori ; the 
tarsus is much shorter than the middle toe in Wrangeli Brandt, marmoratus 
Gm., ^^ Kittlitzii" Brandt, and " irmros^m " Vigors. 

This species is certainly not the Uria brevirostris Vigors, from San Bias. 
This is described as having " alas supr^ et infrd, tectricesque inferiores fuscfe, 

* * tarsi J," which settles all questions on this score. It has the same 
dimensions, and the same relative length of tarsus and toes as Craveri Salva- 

* The following is the original description of the type specimen : " Bill slender and 
slightly curved, about half the length of head. Tarsus scarcely shorter than the middle 
toe [and claw]. Above dark brownish-black, the edges of the feathers with a decided 

filumbeous tinge; the side of neck below, and the axillars with the concealed portion of 
he sides of the breast, ashy plumbeous. Entire under parts, including tail coverts and 
inside of the wings, pure white, this color extending on the tides of the head so as to in- 
clude the eyes; the lids, however, are tinged with dusky; bill black; legs apparently red- 
dish in life. 

" Length 10 inches, extent 16-80, wing 4-70, tail 1-80. bill above "70, gape 1-20, tarsus -86, 
middle toe [with claw] 1-00. This specimen is considerably weather-beaten, and the old 
feathers of the upper parts are much worn, and bleached at the edges. The new ones are, 
however, as described." 

1868.] 5 


dori, also from the coast of Lower California ; but the latter appears to be a 
diflFerent species, as will be discussed further on. It comes nearest to hrachyp- 
terus, from Unalaschka ; in fact there is nothing in Brandt's brief diagnosis 
preventing the reference of the present species to brachypterus, except 
the expression "tarsi digito medio longiores." But in view of this 
discrepancy, and of the widely-separated localities whence the two species 
are described, it would be unsafe to take their identity for granted. It is much 
the best course to retain the present species as it stands, under the name 
hopolemus^ which has the merit of being positively identified, as is not the 
case, as yet, with brachypterus. 

Several excellent examples of this species from various points along the 
coast of California are in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution and 
Philadelphia Academy. They present no individual differences worthy of 
special mention ; except in the instance of the type specimen, which is 
brownish above, from the faded and worn condition of the plumage. 

This species has probably the southernmost range of any of the family ; 
occurring in summer at Cape St. Lucas. It was observed by the writer in 
December, 1865, off the coast of Mexico, about latitude 21° N. ! Its extension 
northward remains to be ascertained. At present, it is not known to occur 
north of the coast of Lower California. Its southern habitat, as remarked by 
Prof. Baird, is a fact of great interest, when it is recollected how truly boreal 
are nearly all the species of the family. 

Brachyrhamphu3 Craveri, [Salvad.) Coues. 
TJria Craveri^ Salvadori, Descrizione di altre Nuove specie di Uccelli esistenti 

nel museo di Torino, 1867, p. 17. Estratto dagli Atti della Societa Italiana 

di Scienze Naturali, vol. viii, 1866. 

" Jun. — Uria minima, crassitie Merguli alle ; supra fusco-nigra, dorso ac alis 
nonnihil griseo-tinctis. Subtus alba ; rostro valde elongato, subulato, nigro ; 
tarsis postice nigris, antice viride-luteis ; unguibus nigris. 

" Long. tot. 0,245 ; al. 0,125 ; caud. 0,018 ; rostri a rictu 0,037 ; tarsi 0,022 ; 
dig. med. cum ungue 0,024 ; (millimetres.) 

" Parti superiori, lati della testa, le piume del mento lungo il margine 
inferiore della mandibula, lati del coUo, del petto, e fianchi di color bruno- 
nero eon una leggera tinta grigio-lavagna sul dorso, sul groppone e sulle all ; 
parti inferiori candide ; becco nero ; tarsi neri posteriormente, anteriormente 
giallo verdastri como auche le dita ; unghie nere. 

" Questa specie sarebbe commune lungo le coste del Golfo della California, 
e nell' Isola della Natividad posta nel Pacifico, a poca distanza dalla costa 
occidentale della Bassa California." — Salvadori, 1. c. 

This recently described species has much the same habitat as B. hypoleucus, 
and very much resembles the latter. The dimensions are the same in both, 
and the colors are very nearly alike. The expression " fusco-nigra, * * 
griseo-tinctis," exactly hits some specimens of hypoleucus^ — those somewhat 
faded and worn in plumage, — though not applicable to more perfect specimens. 
In the above copied description, no mention is made of the under surfaces of 
the wings ; but the needed information in this regard has been supplied 
through a private channel. Prof. Baird has received from Sig. Salvadori, and 
kindly transmitted to the writer, a life-size figure of the bird, accompanied by 
a note in which it is stated that " the lining of the wings is blackish, and some 
feathers are white-edged." This fact at once distinguishes the species from 
hypoleucus, providing the latter, in all stages of plumage, has the under sur- 
faces of the wings white, as is most probable, judging by what is known of 
the variations in plumage of the birds of this genus. 

Waiving the bare possibility of this bird s being a youny hypoleucus, it cannot 
be referred to any described species, and must be regarded as a valid one. 
That it is not brevirostris, Vigors, is sufficiently evident from the dimensions ; 
the tarsus of the latter being only half an inch long. 



Brachyrhamphus brachypterus, Brandt. 

Brachyrhamphus brachypterus^ Brandt, Bull. Acad. Imper. St. Petersb. ii. 1837, 

p. 346. Quotes '■'■Uria brachyptera Kittlitzii, MSS." Gray, Genera, iii, 1849, 

p. 644. Cassin, Birds N. A. 18n8, p. 917. Merely copies Brandt's description. 

Anobapton [Brachyrhamphus) brachypterus, Bonaparte, Tab. Comp. Pelagiens, 

Comptes Rendus, xlii, 1856, p. 774. 

*' SuprS, cinerea, alls caudaque nigricantibus. Collum subtus et in lateribus, 
pectus et abdomen alba. Rostrum capitis dimidii circiter longitudine. Tarsi 
digito medio longiores. Longitudine a rostri apice ad caudaj apicem 9. Patria 
Uualaschka." — Brandt, I. c. 

This species is wholly unknown, at least on this side of the Atlantic, except 
by the aboA^e cited description of Brandt. It has nothing to distinguish it 
from some other Brachyrhamphi except the length of the tarsus. This, however, 
if it really obtains, is sufficient to distinguish the bird from all others, not 
only of the genus, but of the family ; for no known alcidine bird has the tarsi 
longer than the middle toe. 

URIA, (Moehr.) Brisson. 

Columba sive Columbus, Auct. antiq. ex parte. Vria, Moehring, Av. Gen. 1752, 

p. 67, No. 73. Type Columba groenlandica, Willoughby. 
C/rm, Brisson ; Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764; and of authors generally. 
Alca, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i, 1758 ; in part. 

Colymbus, Linnaeus, S. N. i, 1766, in part, and of many of the older authors. 
Cepphus, Pallas, Spic. Zool. v. 1769, in part. 
Grylle, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 346. Type TJ. grylle, Briinn. 

Bill much shorter than the head, about equal to the tarsus, straight, rather 
Stout, moderately compressed ; culmen at first straight, then rapidly deflected ; 
rictus straight, except just at tip; gonys ascending, straight, short, about half 
as long as the culmen. No groove in sides of upper mandible near its tip ; com- 
missural edge of upper mandible scarcely inflected. Nasal fossa wide, long, 
deeply excavated, partially bare of feathers, which do not wholly obtect the 
nostrils. Feathers extending on sides of lower mandible with a salient rounded 
outline. Wings and tail very short, the latter contained about two or two- 
thirds times in the length of the former from the carpal joint to the end of 
longest primary ; tail slightly rounded. Tarsus much compressed, entirely 
covered with polygonal reticulations, somewhat scutelliform on the inner 
aspect ; slightly shorter than the middle toe without its claw. Outer and 
middle toes equal in length ; the claw of the former much smaller than that 
of the latter, tip of inner claw just reaching base of middle one. Claws com- 
pressed, moderately arched and acute ; the outer one grooved along its outer 
aspect, the middle one greatly dilated along its inner edge. No postocular 
furrow in the plumage. 

In the preceding diagnosis the characters of the genus ate so drawn as to 
exclude the large species of Lomvia. Few writers have made this generic 
distinction, for which, notwithstanding, there is abundant reason, as may be 
seen upon a critical comparison of the two types of form ; and as will be 
satisfactorily demonstrated at length under head of Lomvia. It need only be 
noted here, that the structure of the bill and feet are in many respects very 
different in the two genera. 

The genus as here framed comprehends three distinct species, intimately 
allied to each other. 

Species : — (3.) 

Disregarding other and less prominent though rery Tftlid distinctions, the 
three species of Uria may be at once recoguizod by the following character- 
istics : — 



A large white space on wing, entire. No white about 

head 1. grylle. 

A large white space on wing partially divided by a black 

line. No white about head 2. columba. 

No white on wing. Feathers around and behind eye and 

at base of bill, white 3. carbo. 

Or they may be still more briefly and quite as satisfactorily characterized 
thus : — carbo — upper and under surfaces of wings black ; grylle — upper and 
under surfaces of wings white ; columba — upper surfaces of wings white, under 

The division of the white mirror on the upper surface of the wings of 
columba is not the most important point of coloration, though the most 
obvious, upon casual inspection, by which the species differs from grylle. A 
still stronger diagnostic character lies in the absence of white on the under 
surface of the wings. 

Uria grylle, [Linn.) Briinn. 

Columba groenlandica, "Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. vi, ed. 1746, p. 23, No. 4. Alba- 

nus, Av. ii,p. 73, pi. 88. Ray, Syn. Av. p. 121, No. 6. Willoughby, Orn. p. 

245, pi. 78. Martens, Spitzburg. p. 56, pi. 50, fig. B." 
Columbus groenlandicus, "Klein Av. p. 168, No. 2." 
Uria groenlandica, Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 28, No. 116, (blank.) 
Uria nigra, striata, et minor, Brisson. 
Alca grylle, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i, 1758, p. 130. Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. 

Pays-Bas. livr. ix, 1867, p. 130, excl. synon. Cephus columba, Pall. 
Colymbus grylle, hinndnViB, ^j?,t. Nat. i, 1766, p. 220. Hermann, Tabl. Aflfin. 

Anim. p. 148. Blumenbach, Handb. Naturg. p. 220 Milller, Zool. Dan. 

Prodr. p. 18. Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, 1788, p. 584. Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. 

ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 871. Several states of plumages enumerated as varieties. 
Uria grylle, Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 28, No. 113. Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, 

1790, p. 797, No. 2. Var. " B," is columba ; perhaps also var, "E," the same. 

Temminck, Man. Orn. ii, 1820, p. 925. Vieillot, Gal. Ois. ii, 1825, p. 235, 

pi. 294. Bonaparte, Syn. B. N. A. 1828, p. 423. Audubon, Orn. Biog. iii, 

1835, p. 148, pi. 219 and B. Amer. vii, 1844, p. 474. Peabody, Rep. Nat. 

Hist. Mus. 1840, Birds, p. 399. Gray, Genera Birds iii, 1849, p. 644. 

Thompson, Nat. Hist. Ireland, iii, 1851, p. 214. Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. 

Birds, 1852, ii, p. 331. Cassin, Birds N. A. 1858, p. 911, pi. 96, fig. 2 ; and 

Pr. A. N. S. Philada. 1862, p. 323. Herald Island. Bryant, Proc. Bost. 

Soc. Nat. Hist. May, 1861, p. 74. Coues, Pr. A. N. S. Philada. 1861, p. 225. 

Verrill, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1862, p. 131, and p. 142, and Proc. Essex 

Inst, iii, 1863, p. 160. Samuels, Ornith. and Ool.New Engl. 1867, p. 567. 
Uria [Grylle) grylle, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 346. 
Uria [Cephus) grylle, Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. 
Cephus grylle, Fleming, Hist. Brit. Anim. 1842, p. 134. 
Cepphus lacteolus, Pallas, S. Z. v, 1769, p. 33. Albino, perhaps columba. 
Colymbus lacteolus, Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, 1788, p. 583. Albino. " C. niveus, 

rostro pedibusque ex carneo fuscescentibus." Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. 

i, 1790, p. 870. 
Uria lacteola, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, 1790, p. 798. Albino. 

Uria grylloides, Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 28, No. 114. Changing plumage. 
Uria balthica, Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 28, No. 115. Immature or winter, 
^rm mvea, Bonnaterre, Ency. Method. Orn. 1790, p. 37. Albino, possibly of 

columba. Quotes Pall. Spec. Zool. v, p. 33. 
Uria leucoptera,* Vieillot, Nouv. Diet, d'flist. Nat. xiv. 1817, p. 35. 

* " Get oiseau, dont je ne eonnais pas le pays natale, est totalement d'un noir profonde, 
avec une grande plaque blanche sur I'aile j sa taille est h, peu pres la meme que eelle du 
prec6dent," {U. troiU)—Vuill., I.e. 



Uria unicolor, Faber, Prodr. Isl. Orn. 1822, p. teste Schlegel. Greenland. 

without white on wings. 
Uria [Lomvia) unicolor^ Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. 
Una Mandtii, Lichenstein, Verz. 1823, p. 88, teste Schlegel. Spitzenbergen. 

Not of authors, which usually refers to columba. 
Una scapularis, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xii, 1824, p. 250, pi. 64. 
Cephas fflacialis, arciicus, Faroensis, et 3Ieisneri, Brehm. 

European and American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic ; very- 
abundant. Arctic Ocean. Spitzbergen, Iceland, Greenland. On the Ameri- 
can coast, in winter, south to New Jersey coast. Rare or accidental in the 
north Pacific, where replaced by columba and carbo. — ? Kamtschatka, (Mus. 
Pays-Bas, fide Schlegel.)''*' Herald Island, Arctic Ocean, (Cassin, Pr. A. N. S. 
Ph. 1862, p. 323) ; Spec, in Mus. Acad. Phila., Smiths. Inst., Bost. Soc. 
Nat. Hist. ; Essex Inst. ; Cab. G. N. Lawrence ; author's Cab. 

Adult, summer plumage. 
— Bill and claws black 
Mouth, legs and feet bril- 
liant vermilion red, tinged 
with carmine. Entire 
plumage plumbeous or 
fuliginous black, with a 
tint of invisible green. 
Wings and tail pure black, 
the former with a large 
oval space on the upper 
coverts, all the under cov- 
erts and the subscapu- 
Fig. \Z.— Vria grylle.—-N&i size. lars pure white. 

This perfect breeding plumage is temporary, and lasts but a short time. 
Very many individuals do not assume it until June ; and it is usually retained 
only during this and the succeeding month. Most specimens collected in May 
are found to still have some traces of the winter plumage, below described. 

Adult, during autumnal change. The first indication of the moult is seen 
in the wings and tail, and is to be observed in nearly all specimens taken after 
July. By the latter part of this month, after incubation and nursing are 
finished, the wing and tail feathers become much worn, and faded, turning to 
a light brownish gray towards their tips. The white mirror shows scattered 
traces of dull brown. The body color loses its hue of green, and becomes 
more fuliginous brown. Isolated white feathers are scattered over the whole 
body ; or the dark feathers acquire white tips. With the falling of the quill 
feathers, which may take place very rapidly, and deny for a season all power 
of flight, the bird is in the following condition, which is the pure moulting 
state, exactly intermediate between the summer and winter plumages : — No. 
18254, Mus. Smiths., Labrador, Aug. 14, 1860. E. Coues. Wing feathers re- 
newed, pure black, but not fully grown ; wing from the carpus only 4-50 long. 
Mirror of renewed feathers, almost or quite pure white, but small ; under 
wing coverts and axillars pure white. Head and neck all around, rump, and 
whole under parts marbled with black and white in equal quantity, the bird 
looking as if dusted over with flour. Back black, most of the feathers lightly 
bordered with white, the scapulars more largely white. A still further in- 
crease of white produces the following: — 

Adult, winter plumage. — Wings and tail black, the mirror and under wing 
coverts faultlessly white. Head and neck all around, rump and entire under 

♦ Although this author does not recognize the specific validity of U, columba^ and would 
therefore range Hpecimens of the latter ymder gri/lU in hi8 catnlogue, a specimen (No. 6.) 
there enutneruted ai)pear8 to be this species, as is inferrible from the expression '• Au 
miroir d'un blanc pur." 



parts pure white ; the back, (and frequently the crown, and back of neck,) 
black, more or less variegated with white. Audubon figures this condition 
very nearly. 

The change in spring — mostly occurring during April and May — is the reverse 
of that already described as the autumnal moult. 

Fledgelings. — (Labrador, July, 1860, E. Coues, Mus. Smiths. No. — .) Length 
about 6-00 ; bill -50 ; tarsus -60 ; middle toe and claw -90, etc. Wholly covered 
with soft wooly puffy down, fuliginous brownish black ; bill and feet brownish 

Young ^ first plumage. — Traces of the down on various parts of the body ; the 
bird probably just beginning to fly ; length about 10-00, wing 11-50 ; bill 1-00, 
black; tarsus 1-25; reddish dusky, as also are the toes. Upper parts plumbeous or 
sooty black, scarcely varied with white. Mirror beginning to appear, as white 
spotting on a blackish ground. Entire under parts white, thickly marbled, 
rayed and undulated with light touches of dusky. 

This state tends to pass directly into a condition exceedingly similar to, if 
not identical with, that of the adults in winter. But birds of the first winter 
may, at least early in the season, be distinguished from old ones by a certain 
" feel " of the plumage, and a shorter, weaker bill, less developed as to its 
ridges and angles. 

Accidental variations. — The foregoing descriptions apply to the various stages 
of plumage, which are strictly normal in character, and which, though un- 
ending in precise degree, and varying with almost every individual, merge in- 
sensibly into each other. The species is, however, also very subject to acci- 
dental and entirely abnormal variations. Of these, albinism is the most com- 
mon. (Spec, in Mus. Acad. Philada.) Entirely milk white, without a trace 
of black ; bill and feet light colored ; eyes probably pink in life. The oppo- 
site condition of melanism is described by authors. This consists in the total 
absence of white on the wings ; and is apparently of infrequent occurrence. 
Both these conditions have been described and named as characterizing dis- 
tinct species. In the latter, the bird must not be confounded with Uria carbo, 
which is totally different. 

Dimensions. — Adult : Length, (average) 13.00 ; extent, (average) 22-50 ; 
wing 5-50 to 6-25; tail 2-00, a little more or less ; bill along culmen 1-30; 
along rictus 1-75; along gonys -65; depth at base -45, width -35; tarsus 1-25; 
middle toe and claw 175, outer do. slightly less, inner do 1-40. 

It may be of advantage to look closely into the formation of the white area 
upon the wing of this species, to the end that its composition may be clearly 
understood, and recognized as different from that which obtains in the allied 
species, U. columha. The mirror upon the upper coverts varies to a degree, 
and in a precisely similar way, in each species ; but when perfect constantly 
presents a radical difference. 

When Uria grylle is observed flying, as is its wont, low over the water with 
rapid beats of the wings, the eye receives the impression of a black bird, with 
a large white circular spot on the wing. This spot is constantly in view, 
and represents the retinal imag»e resulting from the white spaces upon both the 
upper and under surface of the wings blended together by the rapid motion of 
the wings. Those who have observed Vria grylle in its native haunts will 
appreciate the pertinence of this remark. Uria columha presents no such 
peculiarity of appearance, there being no white upon the under surface of the 
wings ; and the eye readily follows the movement of the small white space 
upon the wings, as with the changing attitudes of the bird, it is now apparent, 
now lost to view. 

In Uria grylle., the row of great coverts upon the secondary quills are basally 
black, terminally white. The outermost are white for rather less than half 
their length, and the white occupies chiefly the exterior webs. Nearer the 
body they are white for more than half their length, and the white occupies 
both webs of the feathers. 



The next row of coverts are wholly white in their entire length, except per- 
haps for a very brief space just at their base ; and they are throughout long 
enough to cover entirely the dark portion of the first row, reaching a little 
beyond and overlying the commencement of the white upon the latter ; so 
that the white is continuous and unbroken. One or two more rows of coverts 
have precisely the same character and continue the white space uninter- 

The shorter coverts, for about half inch from the edge of the antibrachium 
are black. The last of these, however, are broadly tipped with white, which 
white portion overlies the extreme bases of the next row, blending its color 
with that of the latter; the anterior edge of the mirror being thus the line of 
union of the black and white portions of these coyerts, taken collectively. 

In Uria columba, the row of great coverts is externally wholly black, or at 
most the outermost feathers have only a very narrow white tip. The amount 
of white on the feathers increases rapidly from without inwards, until on the 
innermost there is nearly or quite as much white as in grylle. In consequence 
of the small amount of white on these coverts, the next row of coverts do not 
overlie, nor even reach it ; there being left a broad space of dusky between 
the white tips of the second row of coverts, and those of the first; which 
space rapidly diminishes from the edge of the wing towards the body, forming 
the curved crescent of dusky which is obvious upon the wing of this species. 

The mirror of Uria grylle is subject to much variation, which, however, 
never obscures its distinctive characters in any decided degree. The greater 
coverts may be wholly dusky ; then the mirror is the same as before, except 
in its smaller size ; the next row may be tipped with dusky, so that no white 
comes forward to coalesce with that of the greater row, and an appearance 
like that of colurttba is produced ; which need not deceive, since the dusky 
results from the second row of coverts instead of the first. All the wing 
coverts may be tipped with dusky ; producing a variegated or spotted mirror. 
Finally, the mirror may be only indicated by a few isolated white feathers, or 
may be altogether wanting. 

It is to be borne in mind, that the difference in the mirror of TJ. grylle 
and columha is only one of the most obvious, but not the most specific distinc- 
tion. In the very possibly occurring cases in which there is absolutely no dif- 
ference between specimens in this respect, the absence of the white under the 
wing, and the shape of the bill, readily distinguish columba from grylle. 

Perhaps no bird has so many synonyms as Uria grylle. Independently of its 
reference to divers genera, a large number of nominal species have been insti- 
tuted upon its various stages of plumage, some of them requiring brief notice. 
A very common name for the species among pre-Linnaean writers was " Co- 
lumba groenlandica," — obviously a mere rendering into Latin^of a popular 
designation. The word "grylle" made an early entry into the records, desig- 
nating the adult plumage. Grylloides of Briinnich represents a variegated con- 
dition ; and hallhica of the same author an immature or winter state. Lac- 
teolus of the older authors seems to have been based upon the albino condition ; 
the bird being described as " niveus, rostro pedibusque ex carneo fuscescen- 
tibus." It is possible that Pallas, who introduced the word, may have really 
based it upon a specimen of columba ; but this is a point of no special conse- 
qnence. Bonnaterre has another name, — ^^nivea'^ — for the same condition, 
quoting Pallas, Sp, Z. v, p. 33. Brisson and Brehm both have a large number 
of nominal species, not necessary here to particularize. In 1817, Vieillot 
(1. supril cit.) describes an adult under the name of Uria leucoptera, errone- 
ously assigning it dimensions nearly equal to those of Lovivia troile. At least 
the presumption is that this Icncoptera is nothing but a large grylle, though he 
must have been perfectly familiar with the latter. Even so late as 1824, yrylU 
is redescribed as Uria scapularis. 

The " Uria Ma7idlti" of Lichtenstein requires attention, having been exten- 
sively quoted as a synonym of, or employed to designate, U. columba, as will 



be seen by the list of synonyms under head of this species. It is not possible 
to determine from the description whether Mandtii is really based upon columha 
or upon grylle. But Dr. Schlegel describes a specimen from Spitzbergen in 
the Mus. Pays-Bas. — " un des individus types de VUria Mandtii diO. Lichtenstein, 
obtenu du Mus6e de Berlin," as having the white feathers of the mirror tipped 
with clear brown, and the wing and the tail feathers faded grayish. This is 
a common condition of autumnal specimens of grylle ; and the description 
does not point more particularly to columha than to this species. Upon the 
whole, it may be best to regard Mandtii Licht. as a synonym of grylle; though 
the name as used by Brandt, Bonaparte and some others refers unmistakeably 
to columha. 

A certain Uria unicolor \b described by Faber and Benecken and admitted as 
distinct in the Comptes Rendus for 1856, by Bonaparte, who moreover places 
it in a different subgenus from grylle. Bonaparte does not use the term to 
designate cario Pall., which latter he gives as distinct. The name seems to have 
been based upon the melanotic state of plumage of grylle. Dr. Schlegel 
describes, in the ninth livraison of the Mus. Pays-Bas Catalogues, one of 
Faber's type specimens from Greenland, as being " Au plumage d'un noir en- 
fume absolument uniforme." 

Uria columba, [Pallas) Cassin. 

Black Guillemot, variety from Kamtschatka, "with a white oblique line issuing 

from the white spot on the wings," Pennant, Arct. Zool. ii, 1Y85, p. 51Y. 
Z7rm ^ry//e, var. B, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, 1790, p. "797. " Fuliginosa, fascia 
alarum gemina alba. Lath. Syn. vi, p. 333, No. 3, var. a. Habitat in Aoona- 
Colymbus grylle, var. B, DonndorfiF, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 872. Quotes 

Latham and Pennant. 
Cepphus columha, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. 1811, ii, p. 348. " In speciminibus orien- 

tali oceani, fascia alarum duplex," etc. (p. 349.) 
Uria columba, Cassin, Voy. Vincennes and Peacock, Orn. Atlas, pi. 38, fig. 1. 
Idem, Baird's B. N. A.'l858, p. 912, pi. QQ, fig. 1. Idem, Pr. A. N. S. Phila. 
1862, p. 323. Heermann, Pac. R. R. Rep. x, 1859, Route to California, 
Birds, p. 76. Cooper and Suckley, Pac. R. R. Rep. xii, pt. ii, 1860, p. 285. 
?9Uria mandtii, Lichtenstein, Verzeich, 1823, p. 88. 
Uria mandtii, Reichenbach, Vollst. Naturg. Schwimmvog, pi. 4, fig. 47. Gray, 

Genera Birds, iii, 1849, p. 644. 
Uria (Grylle) mandtii, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 346. 
Uria [Cephus) mandtii, Bonaparte, Tabl. Comp. Pelag. Comptes Rendus, 1856, 
xlii, p. 774. 

Asiatic and American coasts of the North Pacific, Kamtschatka (Mus. Acad. 
Philada.), Russian America, Washington Territory, California (Mus. Smiths. 
Inst.) Breeds on the islands off the coast of California. 

Bill stouter than that 
of grylle, more obtuse at 
the tip ; upper mandible 
with the culmen straight, 
or even just appreciably 
convex, suddenly de- 
flected ; rictus straight, 
ascending to near the 
tip ; gonys and outline 
of inferior mandibular 
rami straight. 

Adult. — Entirely fuli- 
ginous or plumbeous 
black, with a shade of 
Fig. 14.— JTria coZwni&a.— Nat. size. invisible green. White 



mirror on wing coverts. Nearly divided in two by a broad rather curved ob- 
lique line of blackish. No white on under wing coverts, these being grayish- 
brown. Bill and claws black. Mouth and feet vermillion red, tinged with 
carmine. " Iris white " (label). 

Length 13-00; extent 23-00; wing 7-00; tail 2-20; tarsus 1-25; middle toe 
and claw 1-90, outer do. the same, inner do. 1-45; bill along culmen 1-20, 
along rictus 1-80, along gonys -65 ; depth at base -40 ; width -30. 

This species closely resembles V.grylle; but differs in being upon an average 
larger, the wing particularly longer ; the bill stouter, straighter, more obtuse 
at the point ; and the marking of the wings different, as above described. The 
changes of plumage and the individual variations, as exhibited in the large 
series of specimens examined, and entirely parallel with those of Uriagrylle. 

It is worthy of note that this species occurs, in summer, upon the Pacific 
coast of America, much south of the corresponding latitudes on the Atlantic 
coasts frequented at this season by U. grylle. 

One of the earliest indications, if not the first, of this species, may be recog- 
nized in the variety of the Black Guillemot from Kamtschatka, described by 
Pennant. This is said to have a white oblique line issuing from the white 
spot on the wing. The var. B oi grylle of Latham and Donndorff is the same 
bird. Pallas appears to be the first to bestow a specific name. The question 
involved in the Uria Mandtii, Licht., has already been considered in the pre- 
ceding article. 

Uria carbo, {Pall.) Brandt. 

(7e;?/)AM« mrfto, Pallas, Zoog. R.- A. ii, 1811, p. 350, pi. 79. " C. tridactylus, 

totus niger, orbites albis," etc. 
Uria {Grylle) carho, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 346. "Tola 

nigra, pedibus rubris, orbita et stria ab orbites pone oculos ducta albis." 
Uria {Cephus) carbo, Bonaparte, Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. 
Uria carbo, Gray, Genera Birds, 1849, p. 644. Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, 
p. 913. pi. 97. Quotes Reich. Vollst. Naturg. Aves., pi. 375, fig. 2937. Cassin, 
Pr. A.N. S. Philada. 1862, p. 323 (Japan). 
Alca carbo, Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, livr, ix, 1867, p. 17. 

"In oceano orientale circa insulas Aleuticas, praesertim Unalaschka'* 
(Pallas), Kamtschatka (Mus. Acad. Philada.), Japan (Mus. Smiths. Inst.) 

Sp. Ch. — Larger than grylle and columba ; the bill especially larger, stouter 
and straighter. Feathers of nasal fossae and those around base of lower man- 
dible whitish. A 
area around eyes, 
and extending an 
inch or so behind 
them. No white 
on either surface 
of wings. Rest of 
plumage brown- 
ish-black, becom- 
ing ashy black on 
the under parts ; 
perhaps deep 

Fig. 15.— fTrt'o carte.— Nat. size. plumboous black, 

with a shade of greenish, in more mature specimens than those examined. 
Bill black. Legs and feet chrome yellow, tinged with vermillion, webs coral 
red in the dried state ; probably vermillion or carmine red in life. 

Length 14 to 15 inches; wing 7-75; tail 2-50; culmen 1-55; commissure 
220 ; from feathers on side of lower mandible to tip 1*50, tarsus 1-36 ; middle- 
toe and claw 2-10, outer 2-00, inner 1-60. 



Another specimen: culmen 1-YO; commissure 2-10; feathers on side of 
lower mandible to its tip 1-55 ; depth of bill at base -50 ; width at same 
point -38. 

An interesting species of Z7na, easily recognized by its peculiar colors, 
which are different from those of either of the other two species here described. 
Although unmistakeably characterized by Pallas, in 1811, as above cited, it 
seems to have been overlooked by many subsequent writers. It appears, how- 
ever, in the monograph by Prof. Brandt, who was well acquainted with Pallas' 
labors and discoveries ; and is on different occasions noticed by Mr. Cassin, 
who has given a figure of it in the Atlas accompanying Prof. Baird's Birds of 
North America. There is a fine specimen in the Philadelphia Academy, from 
Kamtschatka ; and a mutilated one in the Smithsonian Institution, from Japan. 
The latter is interesting on account of the new and unusual locality. Tlie bird 
is chiefly an inhabitant of the higher latitudes on the coasts of the Pacific 
Ocean. It has not yet become a common bird in collections. 

The species is somewhat larger than grylle or columba^ but chiefly noticeable, 
as far as form is concerned, by the greater stoutness and straightness of the 
bill, very observable upon direct comparison. The culmen and commissure 
are nearly straight almost to the very tip, where they are rather suddenly de- 
curved. The gonys and mandibular rami are quite straight ; the eminence at 
.their symphysis is well-marked. The nasal fossa is short, but wide and deep ; 
the feathers reach to the nostrils, but do not cover them. These nasal feathers, 
as well as those around the base of the lower mandible, are dull white. The 
eyes are conspicuously encircled with white, which stretches behind them for 
about an inch, tapering to a fine point. There are no indications of white on 
the wings. With the exceptions just mentioned the whole plumage is sooty- 
black, tinged with slaty above, with brownish below, and becoming light ashy 
on the under surfaces of the wings. The bill is black, as in the other species ; 
the inside of the mouth probably carmine red in life. The feet are light yellow 
in the dried specimens, doubtless vermillion or carmine red in life. The webs 
are still tinged with this color. The claws are black. 

It is possible that the plumage just described is not that of the perfectly 
adult bird, in which, when fully mature, the white about the sides of the head 
and base of the bill may not be exactly as here described ; and the body colors 
may be purer and more intense. Dr. Schlegel describes a specimen from the 
Kurile islands as '' d'un noir enfume uniforme ;" and another, from Sachalin 
island, as an '' individu an plumage imparfait ; d'un brun fuligineux, passant 
au blanchatre sur la face et les c6t6s de la tete." 

LOMVIA, {Ray) Brandt. 

Lomvia, Ray, Syn. Meth. Av., p. 120. Type L. Hoieri Ray, (fide Bryant). 
Lomvia^ Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Pet. ii, 1837, p. 345. Type Colymbus troille Linn. 
(7a^arac^e«, Moehring, Gen. Av. 1752, p. 68, No. 75. Based on Lomvia Ins. 

Farrse Hoeiri. 
Cataractes^ Bryant, Monog. Gen. Cataractes, Pr. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1861. 

Type Colymbus troille Linn. 
Alca, Linnaeus, 8yst. Nat. i, 1758, in part ; and of many older authors. Also 

of Schlegel (1867), in part. 
Uria^ Brisson, Orn. ii, 1760, p. 377, in part ; and of authors generally. 
Colymbus. Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i, 1766, in part; and of many older authors. 
Cepphus, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 345, in part. 

Bill shorter than the head, longer than the tarsus, straight, or slightly de- 
curved, usually very slender, much compressed, culmen regularly decurved in 
its whole length, rictus moderately and very gradually decurved, gonys straight, 
or even slightly concave in outline, very long, nearly as long as the culmen ; 
a groove in the side of the upper mandible near its tip ; commissural edge of 
upper mandible greatly inflected. Nasal fossae scarcely apparent, fully feath- 




ered, the nostrils wholly obtected by feathers. Feathers on side of lower 
mandible retreating in a straight line obliquely upwards and backwards from 
interramal space to rictus. Wings moderately long; tail exceedingly short, 
the latter contained about three and two-thirds times in the length of the for- 
mer from carpus to end of longest primary; tail much rounded. Tarsus much 
compressed, posteriorly and laterally reticulate, anteriorly scutellate, much 
shorter than the middle toe and claw. Outer and middle toes about equal in 
length ; the claw of the latter much larger than that of the former ; tip of inner 
claw reaching base of middle one. Claws compressed, moderately arched, 
acute, the outer one not grooved on its outer face, the middle one greatly di- 
lated along its inner edge. A furrow in the plumage behind the eyes. 

The genus as here constituted is restricted so as to comprehend only troile 
and the species intimately related. It differs from Uria proper in several 
points, some of them of decided importance. For the benefit of those who may 
be sceptical regarding the propriety of separating the two forms as genera, their 
distinctive characters are here antithetically tabulated : 

Uria [grylle). 
about equal to the tarsus ; 

moderately compressed. 

Rictus straight, except just at tip. 

Gonys straight, half as long as cul- 

Upper mandible not grooved. 

Tomial edges of upper mandible 
scarcely inflected. 

Nasal fossae wide, deep, mostly naked ; 
nostrils partially covered with feathers. 

Feathers on side of lower mandible 
forming a salient rounded outline. 

Tail short, slightly rounded, con- 
tained 2f times in the wing, 

Tarsus entirely reticulate. 

Tarsus scarcely shorter than middle 
toe without claw. 

Outer face of outer claw grooved. 

Size moderate ; ^no postocular furrow 
in the plumage. 

LoMViA {troile). 

Bill much longer than the tarsus ; 
much compressed. 

Rictus decurved for great part of its 

Gonys concave, nearly as long as 

Upper mandible grooved near the tip. 

Tomial edges of upper mandible much 

Nasal fossae narrow, shallow, feath- 
ered ; nostrils covered with feathers. 

Feathers on side of lower mandible 
in a straight oblique line. 

Tail very short, much rounded, con- 
tained 3f times in the wing. 

Tarsus anteriorly scutellate. 

Tarsus much shorter than middle toe 
without claw. 

Outer face of outer claw not grooved. 

Size large ; a postocular furrow in 
the plumage. 

Species — (4 ?). 

I. Depth of bill opposite nostrils not more than a third of the length of culmen. 

No white on sides of head ; bill slender, not dilated at 

base; culmen, rictus and gonys much curved 1. troile. 

A white ring and line on sides of head ; bill as in 

troile 2. ringvia. 

No white on sides of head ; bill stout, dilated at base ; 

culmen, rictus and gonys nearly straight 3. cali/ornica. 

II. Depth of bill opposite nostrils more than a third of the 

length of culmen 4. svarbag. 

LoMviA TROiLK, (Limi.) Brandt. 

Lomvia IToieri^ Ray, Syn. Meth. Av., p. 120 ; fide Bryant. 
Uria major, Ger. i, p. 549 ; fide Bryant. 
Plaulus roatro larino, Klein. A v., p. 146, No. 2 ; fide Bryant. 
Colymhm troille, Linnjeus, " Fn. Suec, ed. of I7GI, No. 109." Idem, Syst. Nat. 
i, IY6G, xii ed. p. 220; not Uria troille, Briinn., which is Alca lomvia, Liun.j 



1758. Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i, pt. ii, p. 788, p. 585 ; qnoteslomvia of Briinnich, 
No. 108. Donndorff, Reytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 874; confuses the quota- 
tions of several species : e. ff., quotes Uria troile, Lath., and Alca lomvia of 
Linnaeus' tenth edition. 
Uria troile, Latham, Ind. Orn. ii, 1790, p. 796, No. 1. Retzius, Fn. Suecica, p. 
149. Nilsson, Ornith. Suec. 1821, ii, p. 142. Temminck, Man. Orn. ii, 1820, 
p. 921. Selby, lllust. Brit. Ornith. ii, 183i. p. 420. Reinhardt, Natur. Bidrag, 
p. 18, No. 87. Gould, B. Eur. v, 1837, pi. 396. Fleming, Hist. Brit. Anim. 
p. 134. De Kay, N. Y. Zool. 1844, Birds, p. 279. Gray, Genera Birds, iii, 
1849, p. 644. Naumann, Naturg. Vog. Deutsch. ix, 1847, pi. 331. Peabody, 
Rep. Nat. Hist. Mass. Birds, p. 399 ; confuses troile and ringvia. Thompson, 
Nat. Hist. Ireland, iii, 1851, p. 207. Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1852, 
p. 318. Bryant, Pr. Bost. Soc. N. H. May, 1861, p. 74. 
Uria {Lomvia) troile, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 345. Bona- 
parte, Consp. Gav. Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. 
Catarractes troille, Bryant, Monog. Genus Cat. in Pr. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1861, p. 
6, fig. 2a. Verrill, Proc. B. S. N. H. Oct. 1862, p. 143. Idem, Proc. Essex 
Inst, iii, 1863, p. 160. 
ZZna Zomma, Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 27, No. 108; quotes Alca lomvia, 
Willoughby, t. 65. Not Alca lomvia, Linn., 1758. Scopoli, Bemerk. Naturg. 
i. 1777, p. 88, No. 108; fide Donndorff. Keyserling and Blasius, Werbelth. 
Europ. 1840, p. 238. 
Uria (Cataractes) lomvia, Cassin. Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 913. Coues, Pr. A. 

N. S. Phila. Aug. 1861, p. 256. Boardman, Pr. B. S. N. H. 1862, p. 131. 
? Cepphus lomvia, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. 1811, ii, p. 345 ; quotes lomvia,Yio. 108, of 
Briinnich, as (^, and svarbag. No. 110, of Briinnich, as 9 i also quotes Col. 
troile of Linnaeus' 12th edition. Perhaps really refers to californicus. 
Alca lomvia, Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas", livr. ix, 1867, p. 15. (Not of 
Linnaeus.) Ex parte. Author considers the present and the succeeding spe- 
cies to be varieties of one and the same species. Describes both under same 
name. Quotes Uria lomvia et swarbeg [lege svarbag] of Briinnich ; Colymbus 
troile of Linnaeus ; and Uria rhinyvia [lege ringvia] of Briinnich. 
Colymbus minor, Gmelin, S. N. i, pt. ii, 1788, p. 585 ; confuses three species by 
describing troile, and quoting Briinnich's No. 110 [svarbag) and Briinnich's 
No. l\\ (ringvia). Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, p. 873 ; confuses three 
species, by quoting Latham's var. B and Briinnich's Nos. 110, 111. Author's 
var. y is true rivgvia. 
Uria minor, Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xii, 1824, p. 246, pi. 63 ; erroneously 
quotes svarbag, Briinn. 

European and American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic, to or be- 
yond 80° N. On the American coast, breeds from Nova Scotia northward. 
" Its most favorite breeding-places south of the Straits of Belle Isle, are the 
Funk Islands, off the coast of Newfoundland, Bird Rock, near the Magdalen 
Islands, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and a number of small islands, generally 
called Murre Rocks, between Meccatina and the Esquimaux Islands, on the 
north shore of the Gulf," (Bryant). In winter to the extreme southern coast 
of New England. Specimens in all American cabinets. 

Adult, summer plumage. — Head and neck all around rich dark brown, which 
changes on the back of the neck into dark slaty-brown, the color of the rest of 
the upper parts. This hue is nearly uniform, but most of the feathers of the 
back and rump have usually just appreciably lighter and more grayish-brown 
tips. Secondaries narrowly, distinctly tipped with pure white. Exposed por- 
tion of primaries dusky blackish, the shafts of the few outermost, and the 
greater part of the inner webs of the whole, lighter (more grayish-brown), 
tending to grayish-white towards the bases. Under wing coverts mostly white, 
variegated with dusky along the edges of the wing, and the greater coverts 
mostly of this latter color. Entire under parts from the throat pure white ; 



the whole length of the sides under the wings streaked with dusky or slaty- 
brown. Bill black ; mouth yellow; iris brown ; legs and feet blackish. 

Adult, winter plumage. — As before; the rich brown of the head darker in hue, 
and more like the rest of the upper parts ; the white of the under parts extend- 
ing to the bill, upon the sides of the head to or slightly above the level of the 
commissure, upon the side of the neck so far around as to leave only a narrow 
isthmus of dark color, which is somewhat interrupted by white mottling. The 
white shades gradually into the darker color, without a trenchant line of de- 
marcation, and varies greatly in its precise outline. Usually a pretty well de- 
fined spur of dark color runs out backwards from the eye into the white of the 
sides of the occiput, the spur occupying the borders of the postocular furrow 
in the plumage. On the sides of the lower neck, just in advance of the wings, 
the dark color extends in a point further than it does higher up, showing the 
extent of the dark brown of the summer vesture. 

Young, of the first winter, are colored precisely like the adults, but may be 
always distinguished by their much shorter and slenderer bills, which are in 
great part light colored (yellowish). The feet are also much tinged anteriorly 
with yellowish. 

Fledgelings are brownish-dusky, the breast and abdomen white ; and with a 
few dull whitish streaks upon the head and hind neck. 

Dimensions. — Adult. — Length about 17-00; extent 30*00; wing 8-00; tail 
2-25 , tarsus 1*40; middle toe and claw 2-10 ; inner do. 1-70; outer do. 2-00 : 
bill along culmen 1*75 , along rictus 2-50 ; along gonys 1-15; depth at base 
•55 ; width at same point .30. Bill of young, first winter : culmen 1*50; rictus 
2-2.') ; gonys -90 ; depth at base -45 ; width at base -25. 

This species is well known to vary to a certain degree in size, and in the 
precise shape of the bill. The dimensions above given represent very nearly 
the average of a large suite of specimens measured. In colors, the variations, 
though considerable, are unimportant, consisting in the difference in shade of 
the colors of the upper parts, and the difference in precise outline of the dark 
and light colors about the head and neck, in summer as well as in winter spe- 
cimens. Specimens just before the renewal of the feathers have the upper 
parts distinctly barred or waved with gray, owing to the fading of the tips of 
the old feathers ; and the wing and tail feathers light dull gray. The difference 
in intensity of coloration depends chiefly upon season, though individual pe- 
culiarities may be observed. Very highly plumaged birds have the upper parts 
almost uniform in hue. 

The synonymy of this species is very extensive, and somewhat intricate, 
though it is possible to collate it with much accuracy and certainty, provided 
more labor be bestowed than the importance of the matter warrants, as seems 
to the writer to have been the case in the present instance. In consequence of 
the peculiarly obvious nature of the characters which distinguish the several 
closely allied species from the present one, even the brief diagnoses of the 
most antiquated authors may be recognized and identified, in the majority of 
instances. But it is curious to note that the various names most in vogue for 
two or three species of this genus have been so frequently interchanged, and so 
variously applied, not only in a specific, but in a generic, sense, that they have 
really come at last to mean nothing more than simply Murre or Guillemot. It 
is absolutely necessary to refer to a writer's description, or his authorities 
quoted, before we can have any idea to what species he alludes under any given 
name ; — certainly a very discouraging state of affairs, and one not placing orni- 
thology in a very creditable light. 

The present species is Linnaeus' troille, of Fn. Suec. 1761, and S. N. 1766, 
and is so regarded by most writers. It is the lomvia of Bnlnnich, which name 
is usually adopted by those writers who date Linnwus' prerogative of priority at 
1766. It is mmor of Omelin, who to a description of this species adds the 
synonyms of two others. It is not troilU of Briiiinich, nor lomoia of Liunreus. 



LoMViA RiNGViA, (Brilnn.) Brandt. 

Uria rm^mfl, Briinnich, Orn. Bor. i, 764, p. 28, No. Ill ; " linea a cantho oculi 

exteriori per latera capitis nigraatia decurrit alba." Reinhardt, Bidrag. Na- 
turg. p. 18. Naumann, Naturg, Vog. Deutsch. xii, 1847, p. 360, pi. 332. 

Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelth. Europ. 1840, p. 238. Gray, Genera Birds, 
1849, iii, p. 644. Bryant, Proc. B. S. N. H. 1861, p. 7 ;. 
Uria (Lomvia) ringvia, Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. ii, 1837, p. 345. Bona- 
parte, Tabl. Comp. Pelagiens, Comptes Rendus, 1856, xlii, p. 774. 
Uria [Calaractes) ringvia^ Cassin, Baird's B. N. A. 1858, p. 914. Two of the 

specimens enumerated belong to californica, Bryant. Description that of true 

ringvia. Boardman, Proc. B. S. N. H. Sept. 1862, p. 131. 
Catarractes ringvia^ Bryant, Monog. Gen. Cat. in Pr. Bost. Soc. N. H. 1861, p; 8, 

fig. 2. Verrill, Pr. B. S. N. H. 1862, p. 143. Id., Pr. Ess. Inst, iii, 1863, p. 160. 
Uria alga^ Briinnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 28, No. 112. Ringviae " simillima, ex- 

ceptis rectricibus totis nigris." 
Columbus langvia, " Plaff, Reise n. Isl, p. 562 ;" fide Bryant. 
Colymhus troile, var. /5, Doundorff, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 875 ; quotes 

Briinnich's No. 112 {alga), and Latham's, No. 1, var. y (also alga). 
Colymbus troile, var. y, Donndorff, Beytr. Zool. ii, pt. i, 1794, p. 876. " Colym- 

bus annulo oculorum et linea pone oculos albis." Quotes Miiller, Zool. dan. 

Prod. p. 19, No. 152a. 
Uria lachrymans, La Pylaie. " Choris, Voyages Pitt, autour du monde, 23 ;" 

fide Bryant. Yarrell, Brit. Birds, iii, p. 351. Temminck, Man. iv, p. 574. 

Gould, B. Eur. v, 1837, pi. 397. Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. B., ii, 1852, p. 326. 
Uria leucopsis, Brehem, " Vog. iii, p. 880." 
Uria leucophthalmos^ Faber, Isis v. Oken, 1824, p. 146. Thompson, Nat. Hist. 

Ireland, iii, 1851, p. 211. 
Uria troille leucophlhalmus, Faber, Prod. Isl. Orn. 1822, p. 42. 
Uria troile, Bonaparte, Synopsis, 1828, p. 424. Two species confused. Not 

Colymbus iroilie Linn., nor Uria troille Briinn. Audubon, Orn. Biogr. 1835, 

iii, p. 142, pi. 218, fig. 1 ; oct. ed. vii, pi. 473, fig. 1. Figure 2 represents 

troile^ of which the author considers the present species to be the adult. Gi- 

raud, Birds Long Island, 1844, p. 376. 

American and European coasts and islands of the North Atlantic. On the 
American coast, breeds in the Gulf of St. Lawrence ; in winter ranges south to 
the southern extremity of New England. Habitat the same as that of troile, 
with which it is usually found in intimate association. Spec, in Mus. Acad. 
Philada., Mus. Smiths. Inst., Cab. G. N. Lawrence. 

Absolutely identical with L. troile, except in having a white ring around, and 
white line behind, the eye. The white ring occupies the margins of both eye- 
lids, forming a perfect circle, posteriorly continuous with the white line which 
occupies the furrow in the plumage, and is an inch or more long. 

The changes of plumage of this species, and the individual differences to 
which it is subject, are absolutely identical with those of L. troile. The white 
ring and line are usually, if not always, present in winter specimens. 

The white ring and line are said to be sometimes wanting. But specimens 
without this character cannot be distinguished from L. troile. 

None of the specimens .contained in American museums offer any grounds 
for contradiction of the preceding statements. 

Such being the facts in the case, each one must be allowed to determine for 
himself the relationship of L. ringvia to L. troille, according to the notion he 
may entertain of species. In forming an opinion, the facts must be borne in 
mind that the two kinds of Guillemots are always found intimately associated, 
and that they are known to copulate with each other. 

It is probable that the peculiar character upon which the species rests is an 
individual peculiarity, not a specific difference. 

This bird appears to have been first described and named by Briinnich under 
the designation ringvia. Alga of this author is the same bird without white 




tips to the secondaries. Subsequently several names have been proposed, as 
will be seen by the synonymy adduced ; each based upon the head-markings. 
The bird has also frequently been described as troile, var. 

LoMViA CALiFORNiCA, [Bryant,) Coues. 

? Ceppkus lomvia, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 345, synon. excl. 

Uria troile, Newberry, Pacific R. R. Rep. vi, pt. iv, 1857, p. 110. Not of 

authors. (Coast of California ) 
Uria Briinnichii, Heerraann, Pacific Rr. Rep. x, 1859, Route to California, 

Birds, p. 75 ; synon. excl. Not of authors. (Farrallone Islands.) 
Catarractcs catifornicus, Bryant, Monogr. Gen. Cat. Pr. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1861, 

p. 11, figs. 3 and 5. (Farrallone Islands, coast of California.) 

Pacific coast of North America. Farrallone Islands, coast of California ; 
breeding ; (Mus. Smiths. Inst, and Cab. H. Bryant ; the types of the species :) 
Sitka, Russian America ; wintering ; Mus. Smiths. Inst.) 

Fig. 16,—Lomvia californica, (Bry.) Nat. size. 

(No. 17404, Mus. Smiths. A type of the species.) Entirely like troile, except 
in the form of the bill. Bill somewhat longer than that of troile, on an 
average ; deeper at the base, less decurved towards the tip, the several outlines 
straighter. Culmen straight to near the tip, then moderately deflexed ; rictus 
almost perfectly straight in its entire length, the commissural edge of the 
upper mandible toward its base somewhat expanded and everted, as in svarbag, 
though not to the same degree ; the feathers on the side of the upper mandible 
not covering the tomial edge until very near the angula oris ; gonys perfectly 
straight and very long, with a corresponding shortness of the mandibular 
rami ; the angle at symphysis prominent, acute. " Iris white," (collector's 
label.) Length 16-00 ; extent 27-00, (label ;) wing 8-00 ; tail 2-25 ; tarsus 
1-40, middle toe and claw 2-25, outer do. 2-10, inner do. 1-70 ; bill along culmen 
1-90, along rictus 2-90, along gonys 1.30; its depth at angle of gonys -60, its 
width opposite base of nostrils -35. 

Winter plumage. — (No. 46522, Mus. Smiths. Sitka, Nov. 1866.) In this speci- 
men the bill is shorter (1-75 along culmen) than in the type above described, 
and tlie culmen and rictus are more decurved. The peculiar shape, however, 
is still preserved, the lower mandible being deep and very prominent at the 
eminentia symphysis. The bird is probably one of the first winter. The 
plumage is entirely parallel with that of troile at the corresponding season. 
The upper parts are fully as dark as in the average of winter specimens of the 
latter species. The white of the under parts extends to the bill, and along the 
edge of the under mandible and eyes. Further back it invades the sides of 
the occiput and nape, where it is separated from the white of the throat by a 
prominent well defined spur of dark color protruding from the eye. 



As stated by Dr. Bryant, the dark parts of this species are rather paler in 
tint than the average of those of troile. But this is not a diagnostic feature, 
for it does not hold good in perhaps even a majority of instances. The iris, 
according to the label, is white ; but Dr. Bryant remarks that he can hardly 
credit this ; though if constant it would be a strong character. The only re- 
liable diagnostic features are found in the shape of the bill, as just described. 
In spite of the moderate amount of individual variation to which the bill is 
subject, it alwaj^s preserves its peculiar shape, which is sufficiently different 
from that of iroileio attract attention without direct comparison of specimens. 
One feature which appears to have escaped Dr. Bryant's attention lies in the 
inflation and eversion of the basal portion of the tomia of the upper mandible, 
and their comparatively scanty feathering. This is an approach towards the 
peculiar character of svarbag, though by no means attaining such development 
as in that species. It is readily appreciable in amount in the majority of 

It is worthy of note, that the peculiarities of bill which characterize this 
species as compared with troile^ are very much the same as those found in the 
bill of U. columba, as compared with U. grille. 

It is also to be observed, that the ringvia style of Murre has not been found 
on the Pacific coast. Should the probability of its non-occurrence become a 
certainty, the obvious inference would be additional evidence in favor of the 
specific distinction of californica. 

Numerous examples of this species are in the Smithsonian Museum, among 
them Dr. Bryant's types. The bird breeds much further south than its Atlan- 
tic representative, occurring in summer on the coast of California. 

Among the specimens enumerated in the "Birds of North America" by 
Mr. Cassin, under head of Uria ringvia, are two examples of this species, from 
California. It is possible that this species rather than troile is alluded to by 
Pallas under the name of Cepphus lomvia. 

The figure is not a very good representation, the culmen and gonys not being 
straight enough. The under mandible, however, is well delineated. 

Lomvia svarbag, (Brunn.) Coues. 

Alca lomvia.j LinnsenSj Syst. Nat. Ed. x, 1758, p. 130, No. 4. " Eostro Isbvi 
oblongo,mandibula superiore margine flavescente." 

Uria lomvia, Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc N. H., May, 1861, p. 75. Not of authors, 
which is generally applied to troille Linn, 

Catarractes lomvia, Bryant, Mon. Gen. Cat. in Pr. B. S. N. H. 1861, p. 9, figs. 
1 and 4. Verrill, Proc. Essex Inst, iii, 1863, p. 160. 

Vria troille, Bvunnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 27, No. 109. " Rostro latiore et 
breviore, cujus margines, etiam in exsiccatas exuviis, flavescunt." Not 
Colymbus troille Linn. 

Uriasvarhag, Brunnich, Orn. Bor. 1764, p. 27, No. 110. Winter plumage. 

Cepphus arra, Pallas, Zoog. R.-A. ii, 1811, p. 347. 

Uria arra, Keyserling and Blasius, Wirb. Europ. 1840, p. 237. Cassin, Pr. 
A. N. S. Phila. 1862, p. 324. (Northwest coast of America.) Naumann, 
Naturg. Vog. Deutsch. xii, 1847, p. 536, pi. 333. 

Uria [Lomvia) arra, Bonaparte, Tabl. Comp. Pelag. Comptes Rendus, 1856, 
xlii, p. 774. 

Uria {Cataractes) arra, Cassin, Baird's B. N. A., 1858, p. 914. 

Ulca arra, Schlegel, Urinatores Mus. Pays-Bas, livr. ix, 1867, p. 16. 

Uria Briinnichii, Sabine, Trans. Linn. Soc. xii, 1818, p. 538. Temminck, Man. 
Orn. 1820, ii, p. 924. Bonaparte, Synopsis, 1828, p. 424. Nuttall, Man. 
Orn. ii, p. 529. Temminck, Man. Orn. ii. p. 576 : p. 924. Reinhardt, Natur. 
Bidrag. p. 18, No. 88. Yarrell, Brit. Birds, p. 348. Swainson and Rich- 
ardson, F. B. A. 1831, ii, p. 477. Gould, Birds Europ. v, 1837, pi. 398. 
Audubon, Orn. Biog. iii, 1835, p. 336, pi. 345 ; oct. ed. vii, pi. 472. Pea- 
body, Rep, Nat. Hist. Mass. Birds, 1840, p. 400. Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1849, 




p. 644. Thompson, Nat. Hist. Ireland, iii, 1851, p. 213. Macgillivray, Hist. 

Brit. Birds, ii, 185'2, p. 314. 
Uria (Lomvia) Briinnichii^ Brandt, Bull. Acad. St. Petersb. 183'7, ii, p. 345. 
Uria Francsii, Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. xii, 1818, p. 588. Stephens, Shaw's 

Gen. Zool. xii, 1824, p. 243, pi. 62, fig. 2. Giraud, Birds Long Island, 1844, 

p. 377. DeKay, New York Zoolog. Birds, 1844, p. 280. Peabody, Rep. 

Birds Massachusetts, p. 400. 
(Tria polar is, Brehm. 

Coast of the North Atlantic and Pacific, and of the Arctic Seas. Herald 
Island, (Mus. Smiths.) In winter, on the American coast south to New 
Hampshire, (author's Cabinet) and New Jersey, (Mus. Acad. Philada.) Breeds 
in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, (Bryant.) 

Form subtypical of the genus. Bill short, hardly exceeding the tarsus in 
length of culmen, very stout, wide and deep at the base ; culraen curved in 
its whole length ; rictus straight for about half its length, then much deflexed ; 
gonys long, its outline decidedly concave ; mandibular rami short, eminentia 
symphysis very prominent ; tomial edges of the upper mandible in their basal 
half turgid, and entirely bare of feathers. Slightly larger, and rather more 
robustly organized than troiie. In other respects of form identical with 
troile ; the plumage and its changes also the same. The turgid portion of the 
tomia of the upper mandible flesh colored in life, becoming yellowish in the 
dried state. 

Length 18-00; extent 32-00 ; wing 8*50 ; tail 2-25 ; tarsus 1-25, middle toe 
and claw 2-10, outer do. 1-90, inner do, 1-60, bill along culmen 1-40, along 
rictus 2-20, along gonys -90, depth at eminentia symphysis -55, width at base of 
nostrils -30, at augula oris -80. 

The peculiar shape of the bill strongly characterizes this species. It is a 
rather more robust bird than troile, and upon an average a little larger. The 
colors of the plumage are not very appreciably different ; perhaps slightly 
darker, and tending a little more decidedly towards a slaty or plumbeous hue, 
particularly in winter. The seasonal changes are precisely the same. The 
only decided difference in color lies in the whitish or yellowish hue of the 
expanded tomia of the upper mandible. 

Briinnich's Guillemot appears to be the most boreal species of the genus, 
frequenting the Arctic seas, as well as more temperate latitudes. At the same 
time it has been found further south in winter, on the Atlantic coast of North 
America, than the other species ; and is of frequent occurrence on the United 
States coast at that season. It is also of constant occurrence in the North 

This is unquestionably the Alca lomvia of Linnaeus, 1758. The name should 
stand for the species, were it not now in use for the genus. It has been more 
usually employed for troile. The troile of Briinnich is unmistakeably this spe- 
cies, but is preoccupied by its Linnean application for the common species. 
Svarbag, Briinnich, comes next in order. This is based upon the winter plum- 
age, and must stand as the specific designation of the bird. Pallas named it 
Cepphus arra in 1811; and Sabine renamed it Uria BrUmiichii in IS18. Both 
these names, but particularly the latter, are in very general employ at the pre- 
sent day. Francsii of Leach, 1818, also this species, has never had much of a 
run with writers. 

List of BIRDS collected in Southern Arizona by Dr. £. Palmer ; with remarks. 


Dr. Palmer has kindly transmitted to me a list of the birds collected by him 
at Camp Grant, about sixty miles east of Tucson, Arizona, during the present 
year. The species are identified by Prof. Baird. The oollection contains four 
species (marked with an asterisk in the following list) not previously acore- 

1808.] 6 


dited to the Territory. Although by no means a complete exponent of the 
birds of Southern Arizona, the list is valuable in clearly indicating some diflFer- 
ences between the avifaunas of the southern desert and northern mountainous 
portions of the Territory. Compare the species mentioned below with those 
characterizing the Fort Whipple fauna, as elucidated in my *' Prodrome," 
Pr. A. N. S. Phila. Jan. 1866. 

In my " Prodrome," 245 species are enumerated ; one of which (Certhiola 
fiaoeola) was inserted by mistake. The present collection raises the number 
to 248. The various species mentioned passim in my paper as of probable 
occurrence, will, when substantiated as inhabitants of the Territory, further 
increase the number to about 260. 

iSome manuscript notes with which Dr. Palmer has favored me are placed 
in quotation marks. Species known to occur throughout the Territory are in 
small capitals ; others in italics. 

Cathartes aura, Linn. 
Falgo sparverius, Linn. 
AccipiTER CooPERi, Bouap. 

"Nesting, June 1st, iu crotches of cottonwood trees along river bottoms." 

Aquila canadensis, Linn. 

One of the southermost localities on record for this species. 

Geococcyx californianus, Less. 

Chiefly southern and western Arizona. Rare or casual at Fort Whipple. 
'* Very destructive to small animals, snakes, and hard-shelled insects." 

Chordeiles texensis, Lawr. 

Chiefly southern and western Arizona. Not observed at Fort Whipple, 
where C. Henr-yi is abundant. 

Centurus uropygialis, Baird. 
Chiefly southern and western Arizona. Rare or accidental at Fort Whipple. 


*' Is very fond of hovering around the giant cactus, Cereus giganteus, when 
in bloom, to catch the wasps and bees. Builds a loosely constructed, flat nest, 
often in dwelling-houses." 

Sayornis sayus, Bon. 

The egg of this species. Prof. Baird writes me, is much like that of Einpido- 
nax Traill a. Dr. Palmer's specimens are the first ones ever obtained. "The 
nest was procured May 3d, from the eaves of a house. The parent birds, when 
alarmed, hovered about uttering plaintive cries, and returned to renew their 
mournful notes for several days after the invasion of their home." 

Pyroccphalus mexicanus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 45. 

Southern and western Arizona. Has not been found as high as Fort 

Atthis Costee, Bourc. 

Chiefly southern and western ; perhaps to Fort Whipple. 

Trochilus Alexandri, Bourc. 

I included this species in my " Prodrome " (p. 20), mainly on the strength 
of its occurrence in the Colorado Valley, very near the river (Mojave River, 
Dr. J. G. Cooper). Dr. Palmer is, I believe, the first to detect it actually 
within the Territorial limits. Possibly it should be in small capitals. "Nest 
six feet high, in a bush, in a deep ravine." 


Anthus ludovicianus, Licht. 



Pyranga ludoviciana, Wils. 
Dexdroeca Auddboni, Towns. 
D. iESTivA, Gmel. 
Myiodioctes pusillus, Wils. 
Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Lafres. 

Chiefly southern and western Arizona. "Builds between the arms of the 
giant cactus, and among the branches of more arborescent ones ; also in the 
shrub called * palo verde ' by the Mexicans " {Fouqueria?). " A nest taken 
May 15th was of an elongated shape, loosely built of straws and sticks ; the 
foundation thick, raising the eggs to the middle of the nest. The orifice in 
the side of the nest was small, and partially concealed by loose out-hanging 

Salpinctes obsoletus. Say. 

Throughout the Territory, but most abundant in its warmer portions. 

*Harporhynchus curvirostris, Cab. 

My remarks (Prodrome, p. 29) upon Dr. Heermann's notice of this species 
are to be cancelled, as not pertinent. Dr. H.'s specimen is commented upon 
by Baird (B. N. A. 1858, p. 352), and referred with a query to B. curvirostris. 
Dr. Palmer's specimens add the species to the Territory. "Rare. Builds in 
arborescent cactuses, a few feet from the ground. The nest is upright, with 
loose twigs projecting all around. Two eggs were found in one." 

Vireo pusillus, Coues, Prodrome, p. 40. Baird, Review, p. 360. V. Belli^ 
Cooper, (nee And.) Pr. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci. p. 122. 
First obtained by Mr. Xantus at Cape St. Lucas ; then by Dr. Cooper at San 
Diego, Cal. ; then by the writer at Date Creek, a little south of Whipple. 
The present specimens further extend its range. It should perhaps be in 
small capitals. Dr. Palmer has obtained the eggs. 

Ph^nopepla nitens. Swains. 

"Feeds upon the berries of the parasitic plant" (Arceuthobium ? Phora- 
dendron ?) "which grows on the large mezquite trees. Is extremely shy, with 
a quick, high flight." 

Icteria longicauda, Lawr. 

" Nests in thick underbrush. Feeds upon wild currants." 

Auriparus fiavicepsy Sundevall. 

Southern and western. Not found in the mountainous districts. "Builds 
upon the outer limbs of bushes along shady river banks. The weight of the 
nest often causes the limb to hang nearly to the ground." 

Carpodacus frontalis, Say. 
Chrysomitris psaltria, Say. 
ZoNOTRicHiA Oambeli, Nuttall. 
Pooecetes gramineus, Gm. 
Chondestbs grammaca, Say. 
Melospiza fallax, Baird. 
Spizblla Breweri, Cassin. 
Spizella socialis, Wils. 

Poospiza bilineata, Cassin. 

Perhaps to be in small capitals ; but certainly most abundant in southern 
and western Arizona. ' * A nest containing three eggs was built in a dwarf 
mezquite bush, a few inches from the ground." 

Calamospiza bicolor, Towns. 

I did not find this species at Fort Whipple, and have no reason to believe 


that it occurs in northern Arizona, though it is found much further north 
(Kansas, Nebraska, etc.), along other meridians of longitude. But it is never- 
theless common in the Gila Valley, and thence extends to the Pacific, though 
it does not reach the ocean in the latitudes of Upper California, Oregon and 
Washington. There is something peculiar in its distribution, not satisfactorily 
explained upon any hypothesis touching the climate or physical geography of 
the regions inhabited by it. 

"^ Cardinalis igneus, Baird, Pr. A. N. S. Philad. 1859. 

Not before recorded from Arizona. This is a Cape St. Lucas species, which, 
as I remarked (Prodrome, p. 54), was to be expected to occur in southern 
Arizona, though I had at that time no authority for including it in my list. 
Its present acquisition is a matter of much interest. 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata, Bonap. 

Confined to the southern districts. 


"Builds a flattish nest in crotches of young willows, a few feet from the 


Pipilo mesoleiicus, Baird. 

Chiefly southern and western Arizona, but extends very near Fort Whipple. 
Dr. Palmer says that it nests in much the same situations as those selected by 
the Icteria longicauda. 

Pipilo Abertii, Baird. 

This, and the preceding species, are nearly identical in their range, and are 
the characteristic species of the genus in the Gila and Colorado Valleys. Will 
not P. albigula (Baird, Pr. A. N. S, Phila. 1859 ; from Cape St. Lucas) be 
hereafter detected in south-western Arizona ? 

molothrcs pecoris, gm. 

Ageljeus ? 

Xanthocephalus iCTERocEPHALrs, Bonap. 

^Icterus eucullatus, Swains. 

An acquisition. Not previously detected in the United States, except in 
the valley of the Lower Rio Grande. /. Bullockii has been hitherto the only 
Oriole accredited to the Territory. 

Sturnella neglecta, Aud. 

CoRvus carnivorus, Bartram. 

LoPHORTYx Gambeli, Nutt. 

" In early spring the Quail feed much upon mezquite seed, and the tender 
shoots of a certain aromatic plant. The nest, built among underbrush along 
the river bottoms, is merely a small shallow depression, thinly lined with soft 
grass, leaves and feathers. The eggs are almost exactly like those of the 
California Quail." (Pale buff", or yellowish-white, blotched and spotted all 
over with different shades of brown ; of the usual shape in this family.) 

Meleagris mexicana, Gould. 

Generally distributed throughout Arizona and New Mexico; but rare in 
certain localities, and extremely abundant in others. 

^GiALiTis vociFERus, Linn. 


Bernicla Hutchinsi, Richardson. 





Not before recorded from the Territory, though its occarrence was to have 
been anticipated. (Cf. Prodrome, p. 63.) 


Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Thirty-one members present. 

The following gentlemen were transferred from the list of members 
to that of correspondents : Jos. Jones, M.D. ; W. F. Reynolds, U . S. 
Top. Eng. 

Dr. Allen's resignation as Corresponding Secretary w^as read and 

The following Committees were elected for 1868 : 

Ethnology. — J. Aitken Meigs, S. S. Haldeman, F. V. Hayden. 

Entomology and Crustacea. — John L. Le Conte, J. H. B. Bland, 
Tryon Reakirt. 

Comparative Anatomy and General Zoology. — Joseph Leidy, Har- 
rison Allen, S. B. Howell. 

Ornithology. — John Cassin, Spencer F. Baird, B. A. Hoopes. 

Mammalogy. — Harrison Allen, E. D. Cope, John Cassin. 

Concholoyy. — Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., Rev. E. R. Beadle, C. F. Parker. 

Herpetology and Idhyology. — Edward D. Cope, S. Wier Mitchell, 
Chas. Shaefter. 

Geology. — Isaac Lea, F. V. Hayden, T. A. Conrad. 

Physics. — Robt. Bridges, R. E. Rogers, Jacob Ennis. 

Library. — Jos. Leidy, John Cassin, Robert Bridges. 

Botany. — Elias Durand, Aubrey H. Smith, Elias Diffenbaugh. 

Mineralogy. — Wm. S. Vaux, S. R. Roberts, Jos. Willcox. 

Palaeontology. — T. A. Conrad, Jos. Leidy, Wm. M. Gabb. 

Proceedings. — Joseph Leidy, Wm. S. Vaux, John Cassin, Robt. 
Bridges, Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 

Prof Edw. D. Cope was elected Corresponding Secretary. 

Feb. 4th, 

The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Forty-one members present. 

E. D. Cope made some observations on the living inhabitants of caves in 
eouth-weatera Virj^inia. He said lie liad examined some lifteen, whicli were 
not generally known ; one of tbem, Spruce Run Cave, in Giles couuty, for a 



distance of 2^ miles. He said that, besides bats, the Neotoma floridanura 
was very abundant, and made nests like those of birds. He also found some 
articulates peculiar to them. The few molluscs were the same as those of 
the woods, and did not occur far from the mouth. The only beetle was en- 
tirely blind, being a new Anophthalmus, A. p u s i o of Horn, and was rare. 
A species of fly, apparently identical with one usually found about excre- 
ments, was found in all the localities where rats occurred. There were two 
species of Myriapoda, one the Cambala a n n u 1 a t a Say, quite rare and with 
rudimental eyes, and the other, most common in the remote recesses only, 
the Pseudotremia cavernarum Cope, sp. nov. (gen. nov.) of the Lysope- 
talidae, with eyes better developed. 

Special Meeting , Feb. 6th. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twelve members present. 

Dr. Ruschenberger announced the death of Mr. Jacob Gilliams, 
one of the founders of the Academy, on the 4th inst., in the 86th 
year of his age. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned to attend the funeral. 

Feb. nth. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Thirty members present. 

The following paper was presented for publication : 

" Description of some new species of diurnal Lepidoptera. Series 
III." By Tryon Keakirt. 

Mr. Vaux, on behalf of Dr. Ruschenberger, offered the following 
resolutions, which were adopted : 

Resolved, That in the death of Mr. Jacob Gilliams, at an advanced age, the 
Academy has lost the latest survivor of its seven founders and one of its 
oldest friends. 

That the society holds in grateful remembrance his efforts to encourage the 
cultivation of the natural scienes at a period when they attracted the atten- 
tion of few persons in Philadelphia. 

That to his interest in natural history the foundation of this institution 
may be in a great measure justly attributed. 

That the friends of the natural sciences recognize in his early labors to 
establish an institution devoted to the collection of materials and the publi- 
cation of essays for the purpose of diffusing knowledge of the natural history 
of the world, a claim to their lasting respect. 

That the Academy tenders to the members of his family this expression of 
sympathy in their bereavement; and that the President of the Academy is 
requested to communicate to them a copy of these resolutions suitably en- 

Feb. 18tL 

Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-four members present. 



Feb. 25th. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Twenty-six members present. 

The deaths of the following gentlemen were announced : Marcel 
de Serres, Tobias Wagner, and Gen. Geo. A. McCall. 

The following gentlemen were elected members : Stephen Morris, 
Thos. T. Tasker, Jr., Stephen P. M. Tasker, Henry G. Morris, Jas. 
E. Caldwell and C. Newlin Peirce. 

On favorable report of the Committee, the following paper was 
ordered to be published : 

Descriptions of soma new species of Diarnal LEPIDOPTERA. 

Series III. 


51. Lycjena marina, nov. sp. 

Male. Upper surface lustrous violet blue, edged with a narrow black line ; 
usually towards the anal angle there are two rounded black spots ; these are, 
however, sometimes obsolete ; fringe white ; expanse 'S — 1 inch. 

Underneath soiled white ; fore wings' costa, brown ; from the base, five 
transverse bands extend across the wing from the costa to the inner margin ; 
the fourth and fifth are sometimes interrupted on the second median veinlet ; 
a sixth runs down from the costa to the same uervule, and a seventh and 
narrower one reaches only the third nervule ; following these there is a sub- 
marginal row of connected lunalse, enclosing oblong darker brown dashes 
between themselves and the margin. 

Upper half of secondaries traversed by numerous br(»wn lines, commonly 
six in number, always interrupted in difi'erent points, and dilated and com- 
pressed irregularly ; then there is a soiled white submesial band ; and then 
the j^eries of lunulas, dashes and spots as on the fore wings, rarely confluent ; 
the two spots nearest the anal angle are jet black, irrorated with shining 
green atoms ; and ringed with ochreous-yellow. 

Body black above, clothed with bluish hairs, whitish beneath ; antennae 
black with whitish aunulations. 

Female. Upper surface white, glossed with violet blue at the base ; costa 
of both wings and outer margin of the primaries broadly brown ; the white 
area of the f^jre-wings is traversed by three maculate brown belts ; one sub- 
basal, the second mesial, the third subapical and merging into the brown 

Across the disc of the secondaries are several brown rays, and a submargi- 
nal lunulate brown line encloses a marginal series of large rounded brown 
spots, of which the second from the anal angle is always the largest and 
deep brown or black. 

Underneath marked as in the male, but with much less intensity ; the lower 
portions of the transverse bands of the fore wings are frequently obsolete; on 
both wings they are narrower and less compact, thus increasing the white 
spaces ; tlie submarginal lunulae and spots, as in the males, wanting some- 
times the ochreous yellow rings. Expanse -87— 1'05 inches. 

J3a6.— Orizaba, Mexico. (Coll. Tryou Reakirt.) 

*' Mexico, near Vera Cruz." Wm. H. Edwards. 

Allied to Lijctena Ca^sius, Cram. 


Upper surface clear brown, with olive brown hairs below the median ner- 
vure of the primaries towards the base, and over the basal half of the aeeou- 



daries. Four translucent ochreou3 spots on the primaries ; the first large 
and near the end of the cell, is of trapezoidal form, with an angular indenta- 
tion upon the outer side ; the second, also trapezoidal, but less than the pre- 
ceding, is contained within the second and third median vein'ets, and situated 
midway between the first and the outer margin ; the third, resembling an 
irregular right-angled triangle, is aligned on the first median veinlet, with 
the second and fourth, which last is small and obovate, placed on the sub- 
median vein just beyond its middle ; a curved ash-gray bar, widest centrally, 
and tapering at either end, extends between these last spots and the cell from 
the submedian vein to the second median veinlet, touching above the upper 
angle of the third spot, and below the inner portion of the ovoid. 

Secondaries immaculate ; fringe ochreous yellow, lightly cut with brown ; 
expanse 2*13 inches. 

Underneath, the primaries have an ash brown apical triangular patch, sep- 
arated by a brown bar from an irregular purplish- ashy belt, extending from 
the margin down to the second translucent spot, and which contains a darker 
spot near the middle of its inner margin ; the costa between this belt, and a 
pale ochreous spot resting thereon, above the translucent spot in the cell, is 
reddish brown ; the fourth spot of the upper surface is covered by a large 
pale yellow ovoidal spot ; the ashy bar is wanting. 

Secondaries pale purplish brown, with darker velvet maroon brown shades, 
formed into three prominent areas, viz., a broad border, a large central patch, 
and another resting on and below the middle of the costa ; there are also two 
basal bars and a series of connected lunulas between the central patch and 
the marginal band. Antennae brown ; club ochreous beneath. 

Hah. — "Mexico, near Vera Cruz." Wm. H. Edwards. 

53. Pyrgus Geoegina, nov. sp. 

Upper surface black, with ashy shades, and waved brown lines traversing 
the surface. Primaries : a white spot occupies the middle of the cell ; beyond 
a mesial white band, broken into two parts, of which the lower occupies the 
central portion of the first median interspace ; the upper extends from beyond 
this to the costa ; on the margin, midway between this band and the apex are 
two small white spots ; there is an indistinct series of submarginal black 
spots, each having a minute whitish or gray point, sometimes enlarging into 
an enclosing crescent, attached to its outer extremity. 

Secondaries : a broad mesial band, bifid on the costa ; below, a sinuated 
irregular line ; both white ; a submarginal series of indistinct spots. Fringe 
brown, white towards the anal angle ; expanse 1*25 — 1*5 inches. 

Below, primaries ; an oblong white dash in the cell ; the central band as 
above ; an abbreviated series of three or four white spots run down from the 
costa, in place of the two on the upper surface ; along the outer margin a 
series of large white oblong dashes, becoming brownish towards the apex, 
and containing each a rounded dark brown spot— in the lowest, the spot is 

Secondaries white, or soiled white, more or less brown towards the base ; a 
subceutral maculate row of brown spots, of which three or four are contigu- 
ous, towards the abdominal margin, and two distinct ones nearer the costa ; 
along the outer margin are connected lunulse, rarely coalescing with the spots 
of the inner row. 

Body above black ; the rings of the abdomen marked with whitish hairs, 
underneath white ; palpi white, excepting the terminal article, «iwhich is 
black. Antennae brown, with incomplete white annulations, club tipped with 

Hah. — "Mexico, near Vera Cruz." Wm. H. Edwards. 

Dedicated to my cousin, Mr. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., the distinguished Con- 
chologist, as a slight acknowledgement of his unvarying kind assistance in 
my studies. 



54. CiRROCHROA TYCHE, Felder. 

(^ Felder, Wiener, Entom. Monatschr. v, p. 301, n. 13, (1861.) 

Female. Upper surface ochreous brown ; a broad pale belt crosses the 
outer half of the forewiugs, bordered interiorly by a gradually diminishing 
waved dark brown bar, broadest below the subcostal vein, and becoming obso- 
lete towards the inner margin ; the outer margin is dark brown, interior to 
which are two angulated transverse lines, the outer being brownish black and 
complete, the inner brownish ochreous, and obsolete in its lower portion ; 
three indistinct brownish spots arise from the inner margin in the pale belt, 
decreasing in size upward. 

On the secondaries the transverse belt is suffused with the ochreous ground 
color, and contains six rounded or oval black spots — there being none in the 
discoidal interspace ; the anterior narrow black line, and the posterior 
lunulate or angulated lines, — three of these on the hind wings, — are all com- 
plete, extending from the costal to the abdominal margin, ani anal angle. 

Underneath pale ochreous, the markings of the upper surface repeated in 
pale shades ; the outer half of the wing glossed with lilacine ; a continuous 
lilaceous band underneath the mesial brown line. Expanse 2-75 inches. 

Antennae black, bright ferruginous underneath, and upon the club. 

^a6.— Mindoro. (Dr. Clias. Semper.) (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

I am indebted for this beautiful species, along with many other rarities, 
to Mr. Greorg Semper, brother of the celebrated collector. 

55. Papilio Burtoni, nov. sp. 

Size and shape of Pap. Leucaspis, Godt. 

Male. Upper surface pale greenish yellow ; a very broad, dark brown 
terminal band along the outer margin of both wings ; along the interior edge 
of which band, on the fore wings, is a darker brown stripe, extending from the 
cell to the inner margin ; two wide dark brown belts traverse the fore wings, 
both merging into the terminal border — one resting over the end of the cell, 
cuts off a small lunulate piece of the ground color, the other is a mesial 
band, running from the middle of the costa towards the inner angle. 

Upon the border of the hind wings are several pair of imperfect lunes, 
composed of lustrous bluish gray atoms ; above the anal angle a yellow 
lune, and above this a red lune, sometimes two of these ; the brown border 
is continued some distance along the abdominal margin. The long slender 
tail terminates with a large yellowish white patch. 

Underneath mainly as above ; the outer border of both wings is irrorated 
with lilacine atoms, assuming the form of lunulsB upon the lower portion 
of the hind wings. Expanse 4 inches. 

Head, throat and abdomen, dark brown. 

Antennae black, with bright orange brown clubs. 

Hah. — Insagasugii, New Granada. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

This magnificent species was one of a large collection formed by Hon. A. A. 
Burton, near Bogota, and has most appropriately been dedicated to him. 

56. DiRCRNNA Bairdii, nov. sp. 

Allied to Dir. Jemima, Hiibn. Wiwgs translucent, ochrey-yellowish, with 
darker semi-opaque spots and border. 

Male. The fore wings are narrower and more acute than in the related 
species ; the disposition of the pellucid spots upon these is similar to Jemima : 
their hind margin, however, is black instead of orange-oroheous ; the median 
vein is orange to ilie end of the cell ; all the others black. 

Hind wings ; the black terminal border does not extend so far upon, the 
abdominal margin, upon which there is an orange brown patch, and is more 
diffused inwardly ; the basal half of the wing is ochreous, as are also the veins 
contained therein ; those upou the outer half, which is covered with the black 
shade, are black. 

Underneath as abos'^e, with the addition of three apical silvery white spots 

1868.] 7 


upon the fore wings ; a costal streak, three oblong apical spots, and three 
triangular spots along the outer margin of the hind wings, all silvery white. 
Expanse 2-75 inches. 

Head, thorax and abdomen, above blackish brown, below the thorax is 
spotted with white, but no yellow stripes as are in Jemima ; abdomen below 
yellowish. Antennae blackish at base, orange brown beyond, darkening 
towards the apex. 

'l\v% female does not differ from the male, save in the more rounded wings, 
and in intensity of coloration. 

Z?a6.— Insagasuga, New Granada. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

57. Mechanitis Franis, nov. sp. 

Very closely allied to Meeh. Menapis, Hewits. 

Differs chiefly in the larger size of the fulvous basal area of the fore wings ; 
in the invariable presence of a large rounded black spot, between the first and 
second median veins ; and in the more common division of the black portion 
of the hind wings into a central belt, and a terminal border. 

Underneath as in Menapis, with the above differences. 

Hab. — Insagasuga, New Granada. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

I can hardly believe this to be a local variety of Menapis ; both were cap- 
tured at the same place, and time, and throughout a long series of specimens 
I find the differences to remain constant. 

58. Pyrrhopyga Bogotana, nov. sp. 

Upper surface black, brilliantly glossed with steel blue ; the posterior two- 
thirJs of the outer margin of the hind wings, is bordered with bright orange 
brown, broadest towards the anal angle, gradually diminishing to the other 
extreme point, and scalloped interiorly. 

Underneath the same, with perhaps less shining reflections. 

Body and legs glossy blue-black, with orange-brown palpi. Antennae 

Expanse 2*25 inches. 

jya6.— Insagasuga, New Grenada. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

59. Pyrgus alana, nov. sp. 

Upper surface white, faintly tinged with yellowish ; costa of primaries, and 
a large apical patch, covering the outer two-fifths of the wing, dark brown ; 
the latter, which is concaved interiorly, and traversed by darker brown 
veins, presents a transverse, indistinct, white macular, narrow subapical 
band, frequently entirely obsolete. 

Secondaries with an irregular narrow brown border, from which brown 
veins rise a short distance into the area of the wing. 

Fringe of primaries brown ; of secondaries, first narrowly white, bordered 
externally with brown, forming two parallel lines around the whole outer 

Underneath chiefly as above, with the brown more diluted, and the white 
subapical baud of the primaries, and the whole white surface of the secon- 
daries, replaced with ochreous yellow ; the former consists of six distinct 
spots, of which the two lower are the largest, and extend to the outer margin ; 
the white basal area of the fore wings is more or less tinged with yellow. 

On the secondaries, the veins are all lined with black, and there are two 
diffused brown patches ; one below the centre of the wing and towards the 
abdominal margin, the other on the outer edge near its middle. 

Expanse 1-70 inches. 

Thorax and abdomen above black, clothed with whitish hairs ; the latter, 
below, yellow, with a double brown stripe ; head palpi, and antennse brown ; 
a yellow collar above the first. 

^a6.— Insagasuga, New Granada. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 



60. Heliconius Guarica, nov. sp. 

Upper surface dark brown, glossed with bluish black ; anterior wings crossed 
by a broad central transverse scarlet band, abruptly terminating after the 
first median veinlet, and not touching the outer margin ; posterior, immacu- 

Underneath, the band becomes pale rosy white, edged only with dark pink ; 
the costa of forewings, presents a short basal scarlet bar, that of the hind 
wings a longer yellow one ; upon these are also five basal spots, one yellow, 
surrounded by four scarlet ones. 

Body black, with some yellow stripes on thorax below and a yellow ventral 
stripe ; some yellow spots on the collar ; first and second joints of palpi 
yellow ; third black. Antennae black. 

Expanse 2*65 inches. 

Hab. — Insagasuga, New Granada. (Coll. Tryon Reakirt.) 

Closely allied to HI. Hijdara, Hewits, but constantly differs in the absence 
of a scarlet spot on the upper side of the secondaries. 

In the same number (63) of his " Exotic Butterflies," he has redescribed 
Callidryas Thauruma, Reakirt, as Call. Fiaduna ; his name must therefore be 
regarded as a synonym. 

March Sd. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Twenty-three members present. 

March 10th. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Forty members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

" A new species of Osmerus." By Thaddeus Norris. 

" Description of nine new species of Unionida), from Lake 
Nicaragua, C. A." By Isaac Lea. 

" An examination of the Reptilia and Batrachia obtained by the 
Williams College Expedition to Equador and the Upper Amazon, 
with notes on other species." By Edw. D. Cope. 

A letter was read announcing the death of Sir David Brewster. 

The Publication Committee announced the issue of No. 4 of the 
Proceedings for 1867. 

March 17 th. 

The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Thirty-three members present. 

Mr. Benj. Smith Lyman made the following remarks on a bent' 
marble stone presented by Mr. Edward Shippen to the Academy. 

The bent gravestone of Dr. William Shippon, who died 11th July, 1808, 
and of Alice his wife, who died 25th of March, 1817, was formerly in the 



burial ground on Arch street, above 5th. As it had to be removed on the 
closing up of that ground, it was thought best to replace it by a new one, 
and the bent stone was given to the Academy on the 15th of November, 
1867. The stone is of white Pennsylvania marble and is 6 ft. 3^ in. long, 
by 3 ft. 1 in. wide and 2 in thick. It simply rested on six marble posts, 
without being fastened to them, except imperfectly by mortar, and must have 
bent merely from its own weight. The posts stood on separate brick foun- 
dations under ground, but the near (northern) middle post of the picture 
had sunk so as nc longer to touch the slab, and the other middle post had 
settled also. The space between the inner sides of the end posts, lengthwise 
of the slab, was 4 ft. 9^ in. The stone is bent down in the middle an inch 
and a half from a straight line drawn from the near right hand corner to the 
far left hand corner (northwest and east) and half an inch from the line 
drawn cornerwise the other way ; and lengthwise through the middle it is 
bent an inch and a sixteenth from straightness. 

March 24:th, 1868. 

The President, Dr. Hays, in tlie Chair. 

Forty-two members present. 

The following was presented for publication : 

" Sexual Law in Acer dasycarpum." By Thos. Meehan. 

Prof. Cope exhibited to the Academy several fragments of a large Enalio- 
saurian, discovered by the Academy's correspondent at Port Wallace, Kansas, 
Dr. Theoph. H. Turner. Portions of two vertebrae brought east by Dr. Le Conte 
from his geological survey of the Pacific Railroad route, had previously indi- 
cated to the speaker the existence of an animal related to the Plesiosaurus, and 
the recovery of the greater part of the reptile had confirmed this affinity. 

The remains consisted of over one hundred vertebrge, with numerous por- 
tions of ribs, the greater part of the pelvic and scapular arches, with two long 
bones somewhat like femora. Part of a muzzle, with teeth, belonged to the 
same animal. 

The species represented a genus differing in important features from Plesio- 
saurus and its near allies. These were the absence of diapophyses on the 
caudal vertebrae, and the presence of inferiorly directed plate-like parapophy- 
ses, which took the place of the usual chevron bones, in the same position ; 
also in the presence of chevron-like bones on the inferior surfaces of the cervi- 
cal vertebrae ; further in some details of the scapular and pelvic arches. The 
diapophyses of the dorsal vertebrae originated from the centrum, and not from 
the neural arch. 

In generic features it was related to the Cimoliasaurus and Brimosaurus of 
Leidy, so far as the latter are yet known. It differed from both of them in 
lacking diapophyses on the lumbar vertebrae. 

The general form was different from Plesiosaurus in the enormous length of 
the tail, and the relatively shorter cervical region. The total length of the ver- 
tebral column sent was thirty-one feet ten inches, divided as follows : caudals 
18 ft. 10 in., dorsals 9 ft. 8 in., cervicals 3 ft. 4 in. ; adding for missing cervi- 
cals and cranium at least 2 ft. 6 in., we have a total of 34^ feet. An interval 
of three to four feet occurred between the cervicals and dorsals as they lay in 
the cliff from which they were excavated, which if, as is probable, it was occu- 
pied by vertebrae in the animal, would give a length of thirty-eight feet. The 
caudal vertebrae had very compressed centra, and elevated neural and haemal 
laminae, and were of unusually elongate form. Neural arches everywhere on 
the column co-ossified. AH the vertebrae considerably more constricted me- 



diftUy than in Brimosaurus or Cimoliasaurus, and none except cervicals with 
such small antero-posterior diameter as the latter possess. 

The general characters of the species would be presented in a special 

He called it Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope, from the caudal laminae, and 
the great plate bones of the sternal and pelvic regions. It was a marine 
saurian, whose progression was more largely accomplished by its tail than by 
its paddles. 

The teeth and muzzle showed it to be an ally of Plesiosaurus. The former 
were cylindric, implanted in very deep alveolae, and furnished with a very 
small pulp cavity. The exposed surface closely and sharply striate to the nar- 
rowly acuminate tip. 

The beds were argillaceous, with much gypsum ; the latter mineral coating 
the bones. The age was cretaceous; perhaps, according to Le Coute, the 
upper middle. The matrix beneath the dorsal vertebrae contained remains of 
perhaps six species of fishes, several ctenoid, among them a known Enchodus, 
and a Sphyraaea, to be called Sph. carinata Cope. 

The complete and mounted skeleton of the fossil Irish Elk, now 
in the Museum, was presented to the Academy by Mr. J. A.Wright. 

On motion the Academy tendered to Mr. Wright a vote of thanks 
for his magnificent donation. 

March Z\st. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Thirty members present. 

The deaths of Mr. Thos. Earp, and Mr. C. F. Hagedorn, were an- 

On leave being granted, the following paper was presented for 
publication : 

" On a new mineral in Cryolite, Ivigtite." By Theo. D. Band. 

The following gentlemen were elected Members : 

Dr. Thomas B. Keed and Mr. Bichard Peltz. 

The following were elected Correspondents : 

Dr. Fred'k Stoliska, of Calcutta, Maj. Geo. Clendon, Jr., of 
Glenn's Falls, N. Y., and Mr. B. H. Stretch, of San Francisco, Cal. 

On favorable report of the Committees, the following papers 
were ordered to be published : 

Bemarks on the New Species of OSMEBUS (0. Sergeant!.) 

At a meeting of the Academy of Natural Sciences, March 2G, 1861, the 
writer presented "Remarks on a new species of Osmerus taken in the Schuyl- 
kill below Fairmount dam." describing its speciKo characteristics as com- 
pared with those of the Northern Smelt, 0. viridiacens, also naming other 
rivers besides the Scliuylkill in which it is found. 

Although I Was then well convinced of the difference between the two, 
those wlio composed the conunitteo on Ichtliyology could not admit sufficient 
peculiarity in iliis to constitute it a new species ; I therefore suppressed the 
specific name given above, which I now renew ; having no loss authority than 



that of Professor Agassiz, who has examined and compared the one with the 
other. I would add that my conjectures as to the new species being found 
at the terminus of the tide in the tributaries of the Delaware river have 
proved correct ; as I have since ascertained that it is taken in March in the 
Brandy wine below the dam at the head of tide, as well as at the foot of the 
rapid water at Trenton, appearing for a short time before spawning and 
apparently only for that purpose. 

My object in this communication is to establish this as a distinct fish and 
give it a specific appellation, as well as to settle any question of priority of 
description which may hereafter arise. 

I have presented this evening a small vial which holds the contents of the 
stomach of a northern smelt, O. viridiscens, as being suggestive of the vast 
amount of fish food accessible to marine species in winter as well as in 
summer. The vial contains three shrimps, one of the small fry of some other 
fish, and a half dozen fish ova not quite as large as those of our brook trout. 
The ova have made no progress in the process of incubation, from which I 
infer that they were seized by the Osmerus as soon as they were ejected, or 
not long after they were deposited by the parent fish. In observing the 
habits of both species above referred to, I have found them to go to the head 
of tide, but no further, for the purpose of spawning. This occurs as soon as 
the rivers are free from ice in the spring, when the northern smelt is taken 
in such numbers from the Gulf of St. Lawrence as sometimes to be used as 

Description of Nine Species of UNI0NID.a3 from Lake Nicaragua, Central 



In the "Proceedings of the Acad, of Nat. Sci.," April, 1856, I described a 
new species of Triqueta [Hyria Lam.), which I called lanceolata. It was made 
from a single valve in a collection from China. In the diagnosis made in the 
Proceedings it was not mentioned that this valve was somewhat twisted, being 
fearful that the curved condition arose from accidental circumstances, and 
not from a normal condition like Area tortnosa, Lin. Subsequently, in the 
" Journal of the Academy," vol. iii, and in " Observations on the Genus TJnio," 
vol. vi, I published a full account of this peculiarly interesting species, having 
received perfect specimens, one of which was well figured. In this paper I 
thought that, as the original name of lanceolata, made from a single imperfect 
valve, did not apply to the perfect shell, science would be subserved by a de- 
scriptive name. I proposed to call it coniorta, and redescribed it under that name 
with full remarks and observations. At that time it was the only member of the 
family Unionidse, which was known not to be equivalve. Subsequently, in de- 
scribing a species of Spatha, under the name of Natalensis, I mentioned that it 
was "slightly inequivalve." "Journal Acad. Nat. Sci.," vol. vi, and in " Ob- 
servations on the Genus Unio," vol. xi. 

In 1865 I published in the " Proceedings of the Academy" the diagnosis of a 
new Unio from China, Avhich is inequivalve and twisted. This I named tortuosus. 
The full description and figure, with remarks, is in a paper which I have pre- 
pared for the Journal of the Academy. These constitute all the inequivalve 
species of the family which I have seen until recently. 

The collection made by the late Mr. Thomas Bridges, botanist, who, during 
his travels in Central America, visited Lake Nicaragua, has been kindly placed 
in my possession, part by Col. E. Jewett, and part by Mr. W. M. Gabb, Palaeon- 
tologist of the California Geological Survey. Very much to ipy surprise and 
satisfaction I found that several species of Unio and Anodonta had this 
inequivalve character. 

It may be here remarked that there seems to be a predisposition, in the 
Unionidae of Central America, to this very unusual character in the Unionidse, 

[March , 


while in Mexico, United States and Canada, where so many species have been 
described, there has not been a single one observed. These observations and 
the following list will, I hope, induce more attention to the investigation, by 
students of Fresh-water Molluscs^ of this interesting branch of inquiry. 

List of inequivalve Unionidse. 
Triquetra contorta, China. Unio encarpus. Central America. 

Spatha Natalensis, Africa. Unio Nicaraguensis, Central America. 

Unio tortuosus, China. Anodonta inaequivalva. Cent. Amer. 

Unio Newcombianus, Cent. America. Anodonta Granadensis, Cent. Amer. 
Unio Gabbianus, Central America. Anodonta lenticularis. Cent. Amer. 

Unio Nicaraguensis. — Testa sulcata, triangulari, compressa, aliquanto inse- 
quivalva, inaiquilaterali, postice obtuse angulata, antice oblique truncata ; 
valvulis crassiusculis ; natibus prominentibus, subacutis ; epidermide olivacea, 
crebris sulcatis indutis, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus erectis, compressis, 
crenulatis et in valvulo dextro tripartitibus; lateralibus brevibus fonicatisque ; 
margarita argentea et iridescente. 

Habitat. — Lake Nicaragua, Central America. Mr. W. M. Gabb. 

Unio Granadensis. — Testa sulcata, elliptica, subinflata, inaequilaterali, pos- 
tice subangulari, antice rotundata ; valvulis crassiusculis, antice crassioribus ; 
natibus subprominentibus ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, nigricanti, eradiata ; 
dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, compressis, erectis crenulatisque ; marga- 
rita alba et iridescente. 

ffab. — Lake Nicaragua, Cent. Amer. Col. E. Jewett and Mr. W. M. Gabb. 

Unio encarpus. — Testa sulcata, subtriangulari, subinflata, aliquanto insequi- 
valva, inaequilaterali, postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis sub- 
crassis, antice crassioribus ; natibus prominentibus ; epidermide tenebroso- 
olivacea, encarpiformi, eradiata; dentibus cardinalibus compressis, erectis, 
crenulatis, in valvulo dextro subtripartitibus ; lateralibus obliquis rectisque ; 
margarita albida et iridescente. 

Ilab. — Lake Nicaragua. Mr. W. M. Gabb. 

Unio Gabbianus — Testa sulcata, triangulata, subinflata, aliquanto inseqni- 
valva, inaequilaterali, postice triangulari, antice oblique truncata ; valvulis 
crassiusculis, antice aliquanto crassioribus ; natibus prominentibus, ad apices 
retusis ; epidermide tenebroso-olivacea, obsolete radiata ; dentibus cardinali- 
bus erectis, compressis et valde crenulatis; lateralibus curtis, obliquis striatis- 
que ; margarita argentea et iridescente. 

IJab. — Lake Nicaragua, Cent. Amer. Col. E. Jewett and Mr. W. M. Gabb. 

Anodonta Bridgesii. — Testa laevi, oblonga, inflata, inaequilaterali, antice et 
postice rotundata ; valvulis pertenuibus ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide 
laevissiraa, micanti, olivacea, obsolete radiata ; margarita elegantissime iri- 

Ilab. — Lake Nicaragua, Cent. Amer. Mr. Thomas Bridges. 

Anodonta in^quivalva. — Testa laevi, obovata, compressa, insequivalva^ in- 
aequilaterali, antice et postice rotundata; valvulis suV)ienuibus ; natibus sub- 
prominentibus ; epidermide vel luteo-viridi vel tenebroso-viridi, obsolete ra- 
diata ; margarita cmruleo-alba et valde iridescente. 

Ilab. — Lake Nicaragua, Cent. Amer. Mr. W. M. Gabb. 

Anodonta Jbwettiana. — Testa licvi, suboblonga, valde inflata, iuiiequilater- 
ali, postice rotundata, antice obli(iue rotundata ; valvulis tenuibus ; natibus 
prominentibus, inflatis ; epidermide olivacea, transverse striata fere sulcata, 
obsolete radiata ; margarita argentea et valde iridescente. 

Hub. — Lake Nicaragua, Cent. Amer. Col. E. Jewett. 

Anodonta lknticularis. — Testa huvi, subrotunda, compressa, itmquioalva, 


inaequilaterali, antice et postice rotundata ; valvulis subtenuibus ; natibus 
prorainulis; epidermide transverse striata, tenebroso-viridi, redundater radi- 
ata ; raargarita caeruleo-alba et valde iridescente. 

Hj^b. — Lake Nicaragua, Cent. Amer. Mr. W. M. Gabb. 

Anodonta Granadensis. — Testa laevi, elliptica, subinflata, insequivalva, inaj- 
quilaterali, postice obtuse angulata, antice rotunda ; valrulis subtenuibus ; 
natibus prominulis ; epidermide vel lutea vel viridi-radiata ; margarita caeru- 
leo-alba et valde iridescente. 

Bab. — Lake Nicaragua, Cent. Amer. Col. E. Jewett. 

An Examination of the REPTILIA and BATRACHIA obtained by the Orton 
Expedition to Equador and the Upper Amazon, with notes on other Species. 


The expedition for purposes of scientitic exploration, to which the present 
paper relates, was undertaken during the autumn and winter of 1867 — 8, 
under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution. Prof. James Orton, of 
Williams College, Massachusetts, directed the expedition, which was composed 
mainly of students of the same institution. This enterprise, particularly 
worthy of a popular institution of learning of the grade and position which 
an American College ought to occupy, has been attended with success in many 
departments of natural and physical sciences. In the present department, 
valuable in furnishing a reliable key to the history of the mode of creation 
and distribution of animal life, a considerable amount of material has been 
collected, which is reviewed summarily in the following pages. 

The party divided, a portion ascending the Orinoco River to meet the other 
portion in Eastern Equador. The course of the latter was as follows, as I am 
informed by Prof. Orton : 

They first touched the continent at Payta,Peru, and afterwards at Guayaquil ; 
then proceeded inland over the Andes to Quito — collecting in the valley about 
three months ; thence via Pafallacta (on the east slope of the eastern Cordillera) 
and Archiaona (the largest town in the Oriental part of Equador,) to Napo on 
the River Napo ; thence by canoe down the Napo to the Maranon and Amazons. 

They collected Reptiles chiefly from (Guayaquil, Pallatanga (on the west 
slope of the western Cordillera south of Chimborazo) ; Ambato (in Vallej^ of 
Quito); western slope of the volcano Antisana, 13000 ft. above sea (a small 
black frog;) Archiaona — in the depths of the Napo forest (lizards chiefly;) 
Santa Rosa on the Napo (lizards chiefly ;) Pebas, Peru, on the Maranon — 2200 
miles from the Atlantic (snakes chiefly,) and Tabatinga on the Brazilian 
frontier, (snakes chiefly.) 


Crocodilus americanus Linn. C. acutus Cuv. 
From Guayaquil. 


Testudo elephantopus, Harlan. 

From Guayaquil, identical with sp. from the Gallapagos Islands. This 
species presents the broad posterior vertebral shield of the American T. tabu- 
la t a and polyphemus. 

Chelydra serpentina Linn. Schweigger. 

One sp. from Guayaquil, identical with nearctic specimens. This species 
furnishes a case of distribution unparalleled among reptiles, ranging as it does 
from the cold regions of Canada to the torrid region of Equador. Peters has 
already noticed Guayaquil as its most southern habitat, via. Monatsber., Berlin 
Ac. 1862, p. 627. 

^ [March, 




Phyllodacttlus reissii Peters, Monatsberichte, Preuss. Ac. Wiss. 1802, 626. 
Several specimens of this handsome species from near Guayaquil. 

GoNiODACTYLUS CAUDiscuTATUs Giinthcr. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 18 , p. 
From near Guayaquil. 

GoNiODACTYLus FERRUGIXEU8 Copc. Goiiatodes fevT. Cope, Proc. A. N. Sci. 

Phila. 1863, 102. 

From the Napo and Maranon. 

A Central American species of this genus is G. fuscus [Stenodacfylus 
Hallowell. Gymnodactylus scapulahis Dumeril. The G. tenuis of Halloweill is 
a Eublepharis Gray, from the Philippine Is.) G. gillii Cope, (1. c. 1863, 
102) is G. vittatus Licht. von Martens Nomencl. Mus. Berlin. Was the 
latter ever properly published ? 

Thecadactylus rapicauda Gray, Houttouyn. 

From the Napo and Maranon. Identical with specimens from Yucatan and 
St. Thomas, W. I. 

Iguana tdberculata Laur. 

One sp. (No. 6645) from Napo or Upper Maranon. 
Basiliscus mitratus Dumeril. Ptenosaura seemannii, Gray. 

Near Guayaquil. 
Hypsibates agamoides Weigmann. 

Napo and Maranon. 
LiocEPHALUs iridescens Guuther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1859, icon optima ! 

Specimens from the Plateau of the Andes, near Quito, No. 6710, and from 
near Guayaquil. 

Paita, Peru. 
Angus viridiaeneus Peters, Monatsberichte Preuss. Ac. Wiss. Berlin. 1863, 


From Napo or Upper Maranon. 
Anolis ortonii Cope, sp. nov. 

Of the same group as the last, that is, with smooth abdominal scales, and 
the median series of caudal scales not larger than the lateral ; the tail is, 
however, only partially preserved, and as it is somewhat compressed the char- 
acter of the vertebral scales may have been different in the lost portion. 

Muzzle convex, wider than long, (measuring at anterior angle orbit,) covered 
with scales of different sizes. Occiput small, separated by several rows from 
superciliaries. Scales between the facial rugae hexagonal, smooth, in four 
longitudinal rows, a little smaller than the plates of the rugaj which extend to 
the central row. Dorsal and lateral scales granular, nearly equal, and smaller 
than the rounded ventrals. Brachial scales a little larger, weakly keeled, anti- 
brachials much larger, keeled. Labials 8 — 8, the two posterior very small ; 
loreal rows six. Frontal cavity distinct ; superciliaries separated by one row 
scales. Sides of muzzle with longitudinal, smaller, weakly keeled scales. 
Auricular meatus two-fifths length eye fissure. Infralabials longitudinal 
smooth, in two or three rows. Supraorbital disc of some seven broad smooth 
plates, separated from superciliaries by a row of granular scales. Gular fan 

When the limbs are extended the end of the metacarpal reaches end of 
muzzle, and the longest toe nearly reaches the orbit. The digital dilatations 
are well developed. 

To]) of head, nape, a rather narrow dorsal region and upper surfaces of 
limbs blackish coppery ; sides and below golden, fan deep saffron yellow. 




Length from end of muzzle to vent 216 

" " " " axilla 9-1 

<< " " " ear 5-5 

Greatest width head , 3-6 

From Napo or Upper Maranon. 

This handsome lizard differs from A. veridiaeneus Pet. in the shorter 
muzzle Avith larger plates and fewer large labials, and in the shorter limbs, as 
well as in coloration. I take pleasure in dedicating this species to Prof. Jas. 
Orton, of Williams College, to Avhom Science is indebted for this and other 
species of much interest included in the present essay. 

DiPLOGLOSSUs MONOTROPis Wcigmaun, Peters. Camilla jamaicensis Gray, Catal. 

Liz. Brit. Mus. 118. 

This large scink is not an inhabitant of Jamaica, as given by Dr. Gray, but 
of Equador, as given by Prof. Peters in Mus. Berlin. I. cannot think it right 
that the species should bear the name erroneously given, and accordingly 
adopt Weigmann's as above. 

One sp. (No. 6691) from Guayaquil. 

Centropyx pelviceps Cope, sp. nov. 

This species bears much resemblance in structure and coloration to the 
Monoplocus d o r s a 1 i s Giinther, and would seem to be a mimetic represen- 
tative in an allied genus. The presence of femoral pores in both sexes sepa- 
rates it generically, and the three additional series of abdominal plates is a 
marked specific feature. 

Dorsal scales small, hexagonal, keeled, graduating into the smaller lateral ; 
abdominals large, keeled and mucronate. in fourteen rows; preanals smooth, of 
equal size (except a marginal row of small ones) in three oblique series. 
Spur* large, appressed, two on each side. Caudal scales large, strongly keeled. 
Large scales on top of foot, tibia below, femur in front and below, fore arm 
above, humerus above and behind. Collar of a row of large mucronate scales, 
with three smaller series anterior. Middle gular region with scales little larger 
than the lateral. Nineteen pores on each femur. 

The head slightly compressed, elevated, the superciliary ridges bounding a 
median concavity and coutinued back into a strong ridge which follows the 
margin of the occipital plates and encloses the plates of the parietal region in 
a deep basin. This margin is cordate behind. In younger specimens this 
elevation is not prominent, and is entirely absent from specimens of length of 
(head and body) two inches and less. Rostral shield nearly prolonged back 
to internasal ; the latter broad as long, with straight lateral margins. Fronto- 
nasals in extensive contact. Frontal longer than broad, undivided, angulate 
before and behind. Frontoparietals elongate; interparietal wider than parie- 
tals, surrounded by the latter and occipitals, which form a regular disc, emar- 
ginate behind and extending nearly to the zygomatic angles. Nuchal scales 
granular. Nostril on naso-frenal suture. Two frenals, the anterior much the 
larger, the posterior noi extending above the three or more small preoculars. 
Suboculars two or (divided) three. Superior labials six, inferior five. A 
symphyseal, a postmental, and on each side three large and two small infrala- 
bials, the anterior pair separated by a row of granules. Molar teeth tricuspid, 
the lateral cusps nearl}^ as long as the median, but much narrower. Premaxil- 
laries eight. Toes long, claws curved ; outer toe markedly longer than inner. 

Color in spirits bluish green, with a pale dorsal band from the nape to 
bevond the middle of the back ; this is bounded on each side by a heavy black 
band of the same length, which sends in short branches nearly meeting simi- 
lar ones from the other. In younger specimens the light dorsal band is brighter 
and extends from the tip "of the muzzle ; it is more frequently crossed by 
black bars. In these short black bars descend on the sides, and cross the 
upper surface of the tail. Yellowish olive below in all. 



In. Lin. 

Total lenpcth of adult 14 6 

Length to vent 4 7 

« axilla 2 1 

" to most posterior part of head shield 1 3 

" to anterior margin orbit 7 

Width at prefrontal angle 4.5 

" at nostrils . • 2-5 

" at angles mandibles 9-5 

Length fore limb 1 10-5 

" hand 8-75 

'' hind limb 3 7.1 

" tibia 1 1-5 

" foot 10- 

Specimens of this species (No. 6638) from the Napo or Upper Amazon of 

Ameiva petersii Cope, sp. nov. 

Ventral plates in ten series ; heel without horny tubercles. Two series of 
plates on under surface of tibia ; frontal plate undivided, four supraorbitals. 
Inner toe longer than outer, both short. Brachial shields in three rows just 
continuous with the two series of antebrachials. Two pairs of parietal plates. 
Gular scales considerably larger on the middle of the posterior border ; median 
scales of posterior fold larger than marginal. Preanal plates scale-like, small, 
two larger in the centre. Dorsal scales minute, keeled ; interparietal plate 
wider than parietal, frontal narrowed behind ; prefrontals well in contact ; one 
large loreal. Postmental plate longer than wide, infralabials five continuous 
and three pairs posterior oblique. Numerous small plates behind the parietals ; 
caudal plates keeled. 

Color bright olive^ with a narrow yellow band from below orbit to gi^in, 
banded above by a broad black band, which is marked by several white dots 
behind the scapular region, and is bounded above in front by a pale green line 
to orbit. A narrow dark band from below orbit to groin below the yellow. 
Sides blackish and pale spotted. Tiie only specimen being voung, the colora- 
tion of the adult is probably nearly uniform green. 

In. Lin. Lin. 

Total length , 4 10-5 Length fore limb 8 6 

Length head and body 19 " hind limb 17 

" to edge parietal plates 6 *' foot 9-5 

" " orbit 2-5 

No. , from the Napo or Maranon. 

The species is nearest A. 1 a e t a Cope, but is quite different in the preanal 
and parietal plates and gular scales. It is dedicated to Prof. Wilhelm Peters, 
of the Friederich Wilhelm's University of Berlin, who has added much to Her- 

Tbius teguexim Gray. Tupinambis Daud. 
One sp. (6644) from Napo or Upper Amazon. 


This species is very distinct from others described, in the alternation of the 
dorsal transverse series of scales, the minuteness of those of the sides, nape 
and gular region, and in the constriction of the neck. 

The general form is slender, the body not depressed, the tail of moderate 
length and considerably compressed. Neck much compressed, head elevated, 
flat above, muzzle short, compressed Rostral truncate behind, internasal sub- 
quadrate, broad as long, frontonasals longer than broad. Frontal narrower, 
frontoparietals elongate; interparietal longer than broad, convex behind and 
projecting beyond parietals. Parietals one pair, in contact wilh supraorbitals, 
broader than long. Four well marked supraorbitals, without surrounding 
granules ; five superciliary plates, posterior not smaller. Two loreals, the 



posterior below the other and continuous with the suborbital plates. The 
latter small, six, median pair smaller, all separated from orbit by granules. 
Temporal region with some flat plates, side of head granular, no auricular 
plates. Meatus auditorius large. Six upper, six lower labials; postgenial 
Jarge ; four large infralabials, two pairs in contact. Gular scales small, larger 
near rami and collar. Latter distinct, but not free, extending in front of ax- 
illae. Abdominal plates in eight rows, larger than dorsal scales, subquadrate, 
continuous by two rows with preanals ; latter four, posterior pair much larger. 
Scales of tail smooth below, very weakly keeled above. Dorsal scales sepa- 
rated by a wide lateral granular region, one row of the former resolving itself 
into two of the latter. 

The dorsal scales are in transverse series, which alternate with each other 
on the median line. They are weakly keeled, longer than broad, and rectan- 
gular; they grow smaller on the interscapular region, and disappear shortly in 
advance of it. Thirty rows between axilla and groin ; 10 — 12 longitudinal. 

Digits all well clawed, and with one row of scales below ; longest finger -15 
distance to groin when extended ; longest toe to the gular fold in like manner. 
Antebrachium plated above and below, brachium above and behind. Femur 
plated in front only, tibia below only. Outer toe nearly as long as second, • 
inner short. 

Color (in spirits) above olivaceous ; sides bluish, with a few very pale dots, 
hind face of femur similar; under surface head and body light yellow. 

In. Lin. 

Total length 7 

Length to vent 2 5-5 

" to collar 10-5 

" to end of interparietal plate 6 

" to eye fissure 2 5 

" of forelimb 10-4 

•^' of hind limb 1 3 

" " foot 7-75 

Width head at angle mandible 4-5 

" " prefrontal bones 2-5 

" " nostrils 1-5 

T take the present opportuniry of correcting a lapsus calami in a former re- 
view of the higher groups of the Reptilia Squamata, where I included the Ec- 
pleopodidae under the head of families with the temporal fossa with bony roof. 
This roof is really dermal only, as in the Ameivse^ as already mentioned by 
Mabuia cepedei Gray, Cope, Proc. A. N. Sci. Phila. 1862, 186. 

One sp. (6647) from Napo or Upper Maranon. 
Ophiognomon trisanale Cope, gen. et sp. nov. 

Fam. Chalcididae. Nostril on the suture between the first labial and supra- 
nasal. Head shields above five, viz., two supranasals, one frontal and two oc- 
cipitals. Limbs minute, four, without digits. Scales smooth, hexagonal, in 
annuli, those behind vent with a minute pore each. A short longitudinal fold 
behind axilla. No collar. 

This genus is near Chalcis, but differs in the position of the nostril and cha- 
racter of the head shields. The latter above are much like those of some 
Mexican genera of Calamarian serpents, especially Sympholis Cope — name 
from fi<fig, serpent, and Tvajucov, a sign. 

Char, specif. Muzzle obtuse, slightly projecting, rostral plate visible from 
above. Supranasals extensively in contact with each other and the first and 
second upper labials. Frontal large, hexagonal, posterior angle prolonged ; 
parietals larger, obliquely hexagonal, truncate behind. Two superciliaries ; 
four superior labials, posterior largest, truncate behind ; temporals three on 
each side, anterior large. Two very small suborbitals, one minute preocular 
and a square loreal. Symphyseal narrow, inferior labials three, posterior lan- 
ceolate. Geneial rhombic, large ; infralabials three on each side, anterior pair 



extensively in contact, the posterior sm<aller and separated from temporals by 
four narrow plates, and from each other by four plates. The median pair of 
the latter are the larger and join the anterior pair of infralabials. A groove 
surrounds the throat behind the jaws, which is succeeded by five annuli of 
equal ovate scales. These are followed by a cross series of six more elongate, 
which precede a pair of large sternal plates extending between fore limbs. 
Abdominal scales different from the dorsal, truncate, not hexagonal, .in six 
series. Dorsals in fourteen longitudinal, thirty-seven transverse rows between 
axilla and groin. Three elongate parallel anal plates ; a series of seven small 
quadrate scales behind vent, each with a pore in the centre. Caudal scales 
below, angulate like dorsal. 

Hind limbs style-like, minute, half as long as anal plates. Fore limbs as 
long as three anterior labials, consisting of humerus, forearm and carpus, but 
no digits ; three terminal tubercles are probably metacarpal. Tail very long, 
subquadrate in section ; the portion preserved, though nearly as long as the 
body, presents no diminution of diameter ; the general form is probably snake- 
like, as in Ophiosaurus. 

In. Lin. 

Length head to rictus oris... 2-25 

" " togularfold 3-75 

" " to axilla 6-5 

" " to groin , 2 5 

" " to vent 2 6 25 

Width head at angle mandible , 2 

Color: below brown; sides with a brown blackish band, which is bounded 
above by a rather narrow yellow band which commences on the superciliary 
region. Dorsal region between the latter yellowish gray, bounded exteriorly 
by a distinct blackish line, and divided medially by an indistinct blackish line. 
The colors of the tail are similar. Head brownish, paler below. 

This species presents several points of resemblance to the Chalcides d o r- 
bignyi Dum. Bibr. The specific differences, apart from the generic, may be 
readily observed on comparing the descriptions. This is no doubt a sluggish 
animal, and moves much in the manner of a snake. It is the most snake-like 
of the Chalcididae, approaching somewhat the Amphisbasnia, 
One spec, No. 6637, from the Napo or Upper MaraHon. 


Amphisba^na pulioinosa Linn. A. americana Schreber, Gray. 
Napo and Maranon. 


Typhlops reticulatus Linn. 
Napo and Maranon. 


Trachyboa GULARI8 Pctcrs, Monatsberichte Acad, Berlin, 18 , p. Enygrus^ 


The character of the rostral shield appears to separate this genus from Eny- 
grus, as Peters observes ; the cranium is quite similar to that of Ungualia Gray. 

Prom Guayaquil (No. 6683.) 

Boa constrictor Linn. 

The loreal plate larger than the preocular ; two rows scales between orbit 
and labials. No vertical or loreal brown bdnd> 

Guayaquil. , 

XiPHosoMA HORTiTLANUM Wagler. Boa Linn. ' 

From Napo or Upper Amazon. (6679.) 

NiNiA ATRATA Cope. ColuhcT tttratus Hallowell, Streptophorus dmzii Dum. Bibr, 
Elevated valley of Quito. 



Rhabdosoma microrhynchum Cope, sp. nov. 

Seventeen series of scales ; supralabials seven, the first very small, the third 
and fourth entering the orbit. Prenasal larger, very nearly reaching lip. Pre- 
frontals very small, equal postnasal, one-sixth the size of postfrontals. Latter 
longer than broad. Rostral contracted above by approach of prenasals. Lo- 
real very long. No preocular, on one side two, on the other one postocular. 
Last upper labial longer than high. First pair of labials united; two pair only 
in contact with genials. Frontal subtriangular ; occipitals elongate. Tempo- 
rals 1 — 2. Total length 4 in. 7-5 lin. ; tail 8 lin. 

Coloration like that of a Tantilla. Above dark brown, beneath pale brown, 
with a faint line along the margins of the gastrosteges. Top of head blackish, 
brown behind ; a partially complete yellow collar, which widens at the angle 
of the jaws. A deep brown band from eye to. angle of mouth ; upper labials 
yellow brown edged. 

Tail slender acute. 

No. 6693, from Guayaquil. Nearest the R. b a d i u m D. B. 
Tantilla melanocephala. Calamaria Schl., Homalocranium D. B. 

Two specimens, the longest measuring 17 inches. In both the postfrontals 
and labials are in contact, as in our other specimens, and as given in a synop- 
sis of the genus (Proc. Acad. 1861, 74,) and not separated by postnasal and 
preocular in contact, as given in Jan's Iconographie. 

From the valley of Quito. 
Oi'HEOMORPHUS TYPHHTS Copc, Proc. A. N. Sc. 1862. Coluber et Xenodon typhlus 


From Maranon or Napo. 
Opheomorphds alticolus Cope, spec. nov. 

Scales in seventeen rows, all rather broad. General form typical, head dis- 
tinct, plane. Rostral plate flat, very broad, advancing by its whole posterior 
convex margin on the internasals. Latter broader than long. Frontal with 
straight, nearly parallel sides, not encroaching on the superciliaries in front; 
front margin not quite equilateral. Occipitals a little narrowed and divaricate 
behind. Nasals narrow, postnasal longer than high ; loreal very small, quad- 
rate, on one side confluent with postnasal, and not encroaching on the single 
preocular. The latter is therefore wide ; it just appears on the upper plane. 
One large postocular, the place of a small inferior is occupied by the angle of 
the large sixth upper labial, 

Superior labials eight, seventh higher than long, fourth and fifth and scarce- 
ly the third entering orbit. Temporals -^, the anterior only enlarged. In- 
ferior labials ten, six in contact with the genials ; the pairs of the latter about 

Total length 24 in. 6 lin. ; length of tail 5 in. 2 lin. ; of gape of mouth 9 lin. 

Above green; lower surfaces with lips, and lower part of rostral plate, yel- 
low, separated from nostril to rictus oris from the green by a black band. A 
black line commences about the length of the tail in advance of the vent, on 
the suture of the third and fourth rows of scales, and extends to the end of the 
tail on each side. 

From the elevated valley of Quito. No. 

Since its establishment by the author, in 1862, this genus has received 
several additions. The species known are as follows : 

0. cobella L. 0. breviceps Cope. 0. doliatus Neuwied. 0. 
m e r r em i i Neuwied. 0. alticolus Cope. O. typhlus Linn. 0. vi- 
ridis {Liophis viridis Giinther, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1862). 0. dorsal is Peters, 
{Liophis d.j Monatsberichte Ac. Wiss. Preuss. 1863, 283). 
Liophis begin.*; Linn., Wagler. Coronella Schl. 

From Napo and Amazon. 
Liophis almadensis. Natrix almada Wagl. Liophis wagleri Ja,n. 

The adult ; the specimen figured by Wagler and Spix appears to be young. 

Napo and Maranon. 



LioPHis PYGM^us Cope, spJnov. « 

This species is much the smallest of its genus; in size and appearance it is 
like a burrowing snake of the Calamarinae, but its dentition, squamation, 
pores, and even style of coloration, are those of this genua. It is undoubtedly 
adult or nearly so. 

Head slightly distinct, ovate, narrowed in front, muzzle slightly prominent. 
Rostral plate much broader than long, just visible from above. Internasals 
broader than long. Frontal large, elongate, longer than muzzle in advance of 
it, sides straight ; superciliaries rather narrow. Occipitals elongate, including 
a notch behind, each bounded by two large temporals and 1^ small scales. 
Postnasal lower than prenasal, loreal still lower, subquadrate encroaching on 
the preocular. Latter scarcely visible from above. Postoculars two, inferior 
half superior, both in contact With temporal. Upper temporal bounded by 
three scales, anterior larger, joining last labial. Superior labials seven, third 
and fourth entering orbit, sixth largest. Inferior labials eight, five in contact 
with genial 3. Latter, pairs equal. 

Scales in seventeen rows, uniporous, those of the first larger. 

Total length 7 in. 2 1. ; tail 1 in, 1-5 lin. ; that is 6-3 in the whole. Thus 
this portion is shorter than in the geuus generally ; it is quite stout. Gastro- 
steges 12-8, anal 1 [ 1, urosteges 31. 

Above deep olive, leaden on the sides and the ends of the scuta. Below 
uniform yellow. A black line from orbit to anterior lower angle of last labial. 
A broad black collar which encroaches on the occipitals, which is directed 
backwards and does not reach the gastrosteges. Continuous with the ex- 
tremity of this, on the second, third and fourth rows of scales is a series of 
small black spots separated by intervals of from three to two rows ; near the 
middle of the length these join and form a black band, which extends to the 
end of the tail. The median dorsal region becomes darker, and on the pos- 
terior fourth forms an indistinct band. Where the epidermis is lost and the 
skin is stretched the scales are white-edged. Top of head darker brown than 
sides. Lips not margined. 

One specimen, 6,6(j8, from Napo or neighboring pt. of Maranon. 

Dromicus LATERISTRIGA? Liophis lateristriff a Berthold, J an' s IconogT&phie des 


The individuals in the collection differ from Jan's figure in a less distinct 
lateral stripe, and presence of occipital crqss-band. It is not probably distinct. 
A description is, however, added : 

Body cylindric, head flat, muzzle short. Scales in seventeen rows. Supe- 
rior labials eight, fourth and fifth margining orbit, second to sixth inclusive, 
higher than long. Loreal higher than long ; nasals nearly equal ; one large, 
one small inferior preocular ; the superior sometimes divided. Postoculars 
two, both in contact with the only elongate temporal. The latter is followed 
by two rhombic temporals, the first one above the seventh and eighth labials ; 
and two scales on margin of occipital. Occipitals narrowed behind, as long 
as width between outer margins of superciliaries behind. Frontal, anterior 
and superciliary borders equal ; prefrontals broader than long, rostral scarcely 
visible from above, much broader than high. Length of muzzle from opposite 
anterior margin eye, equal width frontal and one superciliary shield in front. 
Inferior labials eight, fifth largest, seventh next. Posterior genials equal an- 
terior. Gastrosteges 155 ; anal I | 1 ; urosteges 69-|- ; tail probably one- 
third or more lost. 

Color above, a rich dark brown, the sidee of the head darker ; an irregular 
yellow band passes across the middle of the superior labials and passes round 
the nape on the fifth row scales behind the occipital plates and joins its fellow. 
A yellowish band passes along the outer margins of the two pairs of frontals, the 
superciliaries and the anterior third of the occipitals, interrupted at each suture. 
The dark of the upper surface extends on the gastrosteges, and is traversed 
lor a considerable part of the length, and by a faint line forward, by a streak 



on the middle of each scalg. A similar line, equally indistinct, traverses the 
scales of the fifth row, becoming more apparent on the tail. Color of lower 
surfaces deep orange red ; lower labials and chin blackish. 

Length of head and body 16 in. 9 lin. 

This species is nearest the D. brevirostris Peters,* andD. temporalisf 
Cope. The two preorbitals, single large temporal, coloration and other points 
distinguish it. Its form is that of Pliocercus Cope, but belongs to Dromicus on 
account of its diacranterian dentition. 

Two specimens (6702) from the elevated valley of Quito. 

Tachymenis canilatus Cope, sp. nov. 

This species differs from the known species in a more slender form; and in 
general appearance approaches the Lygophis e 1 e g a n s of Tschudi. 

Scales in nineteen rows, elongate, thin, with single terminal pores. Supe- 
rior labials eight, fourth and fifth bounding orbit, sixth larger than seventh. 
Inferior labials ten, fifth and sixth long and narrow. Posterior geneials longest. 
Nasals large, distinct ; loreal long as high, lower in front ; preocular single, 
just reaching vertical; postoculars two. Temporals 1 — 1—2, the middle one 
largest. Parietals narrowed behind, whole plate one-fifth longer than frontal, 
common suture one-fifth shorter than same. Frontal narrower than each su- 
perciliary, spreading a little in front. Muzzle flat, internasals longer than 
broad, canthus rostralis strong. Rostral small, flat Gastrosteges 199, anal 
1 — 1, urosteges 98. Total length 18 in. 4 1.; of tail 5 in. 4 ; of gape 5 lin. 

Color leaden gray on the sides, bounded above on the sides by a faint black- 
ish streak ; dorsal region brownish grey, with a double row of brown spots, 
when confluent covering five rows of scales. On the posterior half the body 
and tail they unite into a vertebral band, which is separated from the gray of 
the sides by a pale brown band. A dark band through frontal plate, split by 
a pale one ; a pair of white dots on the parietals, as in Tropidonotus sp. 
Lips and belly below light yellow, the former brown-specked medially, black 
margined above posteriorly. A brown band outside of muzzle. Each gas- 
trostege with a row of brown dots its whole length. 

This species was not obtained by the Orton expedition, but was sent from 
Guayaquil to the Smithsonian Institution in a collection made by Messrs. 
Destruger and Reeve. 

CoNiOPHANBS DROMiciPORMis Copc, Proc. Acad. 1866, 128. Tachymenis dromici- 

formis Peters, Monatsberichte Preuss. Ac. 1863, 273. 

In four specimens of this species I find no scale -pores, and but one preocu- 
lar. Prof. Peters describes scale-pores as present in his types, but I failed to 
see them on examination of the same specimens, which he permitted me to 
make. This character alone distinguishes this genus from Tachymenis, 
though I ascribed the same importance, on a former occasion, to a supposed 
difference in the number of preocular plates. That this is of little value in this 
case, I can now agree with Peters in believing. 

From Guayaquil, No. 6689. 

Rhadin.^a chrysostoma Cope, sp. nov. 

This species agrees with those of Rhadingea m technical characters only. 
Its proportions are those of Opheomorphus, from which it differs in the entirely 
equal teeth. It might be referred to Hypsirhynchus, but in that genus there 
is a single scale-pore, in the present they are wanting. The vertebrae are not 
furnished with hypapophyses on the posterior third of the length, but are 
keeled below. 

Head elongate oval, quite distinct; muzzle truncate when viewed from above 
or in profile, not projecting. Rostral plate scarcely visible from above ; pre- 
nasal higher than postnasal; loreal high as long, encroaching very little on 
preocular, which latter does not reach frontal. Oculars 1 — 2, temporals 1 — 2. 

* Monatsberichte Preuss. Academie Wiss. 1863, 280. 
t Proc A, N, Sci,1860, 307, 




Anterior touching both postoculars. Labials 8 — 10; the upper with fourth 
and fifth entering orbit, chiefly the fourth, which is longer than fifth. All 
longer than high, the seventh largest, longer above than on labial border. 
Genials long, anterior longer than posterior. Frontal elongate with nearly 
parallel and slightly concave sides ; occipitals moderate, narrowed behind. 
Scales in seventeen rows, all of nearly equal size and rather broad. 

Total length 8 in. 4 lin. ; of tail 1 in. 6 1.; of gape 5-35 lines. The tail is 
thus as short as in Opheomorphus. Eyes rather small. Internasals about as 
wide as long. Gasirosteges 157 ; anals 1 | 1 ; urosteges 57. 

Upper surface of head and body dark-brown, which is bordered, except just 
behind the head, by a series of small round brown spots on each side, which 
become a band on the posterior fourth. Below this and ground of belly yel- 
low, which is prolonged as a band along upper labials to rostral, leaving a 
black labial margin. Belly with black cross-bars and halves, more sparse 
posteriorly, confluent anteriorly on the fourth of the length ; this is here and 
there spotted with yellow. 

From the Napo or Maranon. No. 6665. This single specimen is probably 
not fully grown. 

Masticophis pulchriceps Cope, sp. nov. 

This species is described from a specimen twenty-one inches long, and not 
probably adult. The coloration of the dorsal region has considerable resem- 
blance to that of the young of M. r a p p i i Gthr. 

Rather slender, the head quite distinct, rather short, somewhat flattened and 
with broad muzzle. Tail 3-6 times in the total length. Superior labials eight, the 
anterior short, the two posterior elongate, the third, fourth and fifth in contact 
with the eye, the fifth and sixth elevated. Orbitals one — two ; the loreal 
higher than long ; temporals 2 | 2 on each side, the upper anterior the small- 
est. Internasals broader than long, rostral prominent, scarcely visible from 
above. Frontal little concave laterally, least width little less than -5 length 
and equal greatest width the superciliaries. Greatest length occipitals ex- 
ceeds same of frontal ; they are truncate behind, and with straight outer mar- 
gins. Inferior labials ten ; pregenials much shorter than postgenials. 

Scales of body smooth, in seventeen rows, second as large as the others. 
Gastrosteges 170, anal 1 | 1, urosteges 100. 

Ground color above and below dark-blue gray, which is largely obscnred in 
the following manner : A series of quadrate black spots extends from nape to 
near end of tail, alternating with a lateral series jbf the same, without line of 
demarkation between. Each spot is separated from the next by a cross-bar of 
ground color, in which all the scales are white-edged. These bars are pro- 
longed on the gastrosteges, and their extremities fall into aline of yellow spots 
on a blackish band, which extend on each side to vent. The cross-bars are 
only one scale wide. A black nuchal cresent, which extends as a band on 
each side through orbit round end of muzzle. This sends a bar to the edge of 
the lip at the orbit and angle of mouth, which connect on the lip. Gular 
region black with numerous yellow spots. Top of head dark brown, with 
numerous paler brown marks within the margin of each scale. 

One sp. (6704) from the plateau valley of Quito. 

Masticophis bkunneus. Herpetodryas brunneus Giinther, Catal. 116. Drymo- 

bins Cope, Pr. A. N. Sci. 1860. 

Two sp. (6705), one from Guayaquil and one from valley plateau of Quito. 
Both belong to a variety with an indistinct series of small dark spots on each 
side of the vertebral line, forming an incomplete longitudinal streak. 

Heiipktoduy^s CARINATU8 Boic, Liuu. 

Valley of Quito; Guayaquil; Napo and Maranon, 6706, 6682, 6661, the last 
all of the var. fuscus. 

Spilotbs PICKU8 Cope, sp. nov. 
This species exhibits the isodont dentition and entire anal plate of Spilotes, 

1868.] 8 


with the cylindric body and elongate tail of Bascanium. The relative length 
of tail, within the proportions included by the genera in question, is, however, 
a more variable character than the integrity of the anal plate as a generic 
feature in our estimation. I therefore refer it to the Spilotes series. The 
divided anal plate is also characteristic of Masticophis, (Peters describes a 
Mexican species in which he says it is variable) ; this species is, however, more 
massive than these, and generally proportioned as the Bascanium constric- 

Scales in fifteen rows, broad, subequal, all smooth. Tail 3-6 times into the 
total length. Head rather distinct, ovate, muzzle not prolonged. Anterior 
margin four-fifths total length ; lateral margins slightly concave. Prefrontals 
broader than long. Occipitals concavely, continuously truncate behind; tem- 
porals 2 I 2, entirely in contact with two last labials. Only one small plate be- 
sides bounding occipital. Superior labials eight, fourth and fifth bounding 
orbit ^ sixth subtriangular, in contact with lower postocular. Postnasal higher 
than prenasal, loreal higher than long, one pre- two short postoculars. Inferior 
labials nine ; postgenials considerably longer than the pi'egenials. The ros- 
tral plate is rather narrowed and with concave sides ; it is barely visible from 

Above and gastrosteges to one-fourth their length on each side, deep black. 
Lower surfaces, with upper labial shields, yellow ; black margin dividing two 
last labials horizontally; no dark margins to labials. 

Total length 51 in, 8 lia. ; of tail 13 in. 81. Gastrosteges 169 ; anal 1; 
urosteges 92. 

This fine species is from the Napo or Upper Maranon. No. 6660. 

To this genus must be referred the Geoptyas coUaris and G. flaviventris Stein- 
dachner (Sitzungsber. Wien, 1867, 271), while the name Geoptyas applied to 
Coryphodon pantherinus and C. constrictor of the Erp. Gen^rale must 
become a synonym of Bascanium, Baird and Girard. G. collaris is Sp. m e 1 a- 
n u r u s, from Mexico, while the G. flaviventris is too near Sp. c o r a i s. 

Thrasops cupeeus Cope, sp. nov. 

A slender, cylindric species, with an unusually short broad head. 

Scales in fifteen longitudinal rows, the three median a little larger than the 
others and equal, the median five, keeled, the keels invisible or nearly so, when 
the epidermis is lost. Head flat above, muzzle contracted and short. Rostral 
plate little visible from above, much broader than high, internasals subtrian- 
gular, behind broad as long. Prefrontal o*n one side descending to labials, on 
the other, all below the canthus rostralis cut off" as a large loreal. Frontal 
not longer than supercilaries, with concave sides and a right angle behind. 
Occipitals well developed, broad, broadly truncate behind, bounded by five 
temporals. The anterior of these is much the largest and in contact with 
three labials and the postoculars; behind it a second large plate borders the 
last labial only. Superior labials eight, none elevated, fourth and fifth mar- 
gining orbit; oculars one, two, the inferior posterior minute. The long narrow 
nasal is acuminate posteriorly, and borders the first and half the second labial, 
and the internasal plate exactly. 

The number (15) of rows of scales is retained on the neck. Total length 
20-5 in. ; of tail 8 in. ; of gape of mouth, 5-5 lines. Gastrosteges 152, anal 
divided (generic char.) ; urosteges 136. 

Color above metalic copper color, with the shades at the bases of the scales, 
and cross-shades of the same on the anterior half of the body. A narrow 
dark streak from nasal plate along upper edges of labials ; the latter and chin 
yellowish white, below brown copper colored, with darker dashes. When the 
epidermis is lost, which very readily occurs, the derm appears of a coppery 
silver color. 

From the Napo and Maranon. No. 66Q6^ 



Thrasops 0CCIDENTALI8, Ahmtulla occidentalis Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1859, 412. 
From Guayaquil, from Messrs. Detruger and Reeve. 


Guayaquil, 6687. 

Olisthbnes cobonatus, Scytale coronatum, Dum. Bibr. Gthr. 

OxYRHOPUs SEB^, Dum. Bibr. vii, 1056. 

From the valley of Quito. The stomach contained a Liocephalus. 

Leptognathus BUCEPHALUS Copc, Dipsas Schleg. Dipsadomorus indicus Dum. 

Bibr. Dipsadomorus bucephalus Jan. Leptognathus indicus Giinther. Tab. 

Seba, xliii, 4-5. 

This species is no doubt the type of Laurenti's genus Dipsas, as I have 
pointed out, (Proc. Acad. 1860) but by the rule of exclusion, as Leptognathus 
was first taken from it, the remaining species, to which Dum^ril and Bibron 
applied the name Triglyphodon, should retain the original name. 

Fine specimen ; Napo or Maranon. 

As the species in the Academy are not embraced in the Erpetologie G^n^rale 
and other works, I give a synopsis of those known to me, six of them not 
described in any general work. The species not embraced in the Equador col- 
lections are described at the end of the catalogue. I have been aided in this 
by Jan's Elenco serpentium. 

Group L Dorsal scales smooth, a larger vertebral 

series ; anterior genials very short ; two pairs of 

inferior labials in contact in advance of the genials. 

{Dipsadomorus D. B. Jan.) 

Scales in 13 rows ; a large preocular ; above and below liver 

brown, with broad lighter cross bars, which terminate 

in a bright yellow spot on the edges of the gastrosteges ; 

six genials, with lateral plates behind bucephala. 

Scales in fifteen rows ; no preocular ; four genials ; dark 
brown, with darker cross-bars ; below yellow with lat- 
eral dark spots varibgata. 

Group II. Scales smooth, vertebral series larger ; 
anterior genials small, preceded by one pair of 
labials ; 

at. Loreal plate not reaching the orbit. 
Two preoculars, two postoculars, scales in thirteen rows ; 
vertebral plates reaching occipital ; nine upper labials; 
chestnut brown, with black yellow-edged discs on the 
sides which become confluent into broad cross rings an- 
teriorly, separated by yellow ; head black with yellow 

collar and cross band on muzzle catksbyi. 

ACL. Loreal plate entering the orbit. 
^. Two postoculars. 
Thirteen series of scales, (ten) eleven superior labials, one 

preocular, twelve inferiors, six genials, without laterals, * 

vertebrals not reaching occipitals ; light, a series of 
broad rounded, brown light edged dorsal spots, just 

reaching gastrosteges ; belly unspotted pavonina. 

Fifteen series scales, nine superior labials, no preoculars, 
eleven inferiors, four genials, no lateral genials, verte- 
brals not reaching occipitals ; much compressed ; yellow 
with broad brown entire annuli ; nape and temples and 
spots on muzzle yellow articulati. 



Fifteen series scales, seven superior, nine inferior labials ; 
two, one, or no preocular; six genials, with laterals, 
vertebrals broader, body shorter ; brown, with continu- 
ous or alternate narrow, dark brown yellow-edged cross 
bars ; belly with few lateral spots, top of head with five 
dark light- edged ocelli mikanii. 

Fifteen series scales, vertebral little larger; seven superior, 
eleven inferior labials ; six genials, no laterals ; less com- 
pressed ; yellow, black specked, with broad black equal 
annuli, not quite complete, on the belly, and dorsal black 
spot between; head black, varied above, belly much 

black spotted oreas. 

pp. Three or four postoculars. 

Vertebral series larger, no preoculars ; ten superior and infe- 
rior labials, six genials with laterals ; fifteen rows 
scales ; light brown with a series of blackish cross 
bands, very broad anteriorly, much narrower and more 
numerous on most of the length ; a series of brown 

spots below IN^QUIFASCIATA, 

Group III. Scales smooth, vertebral series larger; 
anterior genials forming a long pair as in other ser- 
pents, preceded by one pair labials. [Petalogna- 
thus D. B. 
Fifteen rows scales, dorsal series not reaching occipitals ; no 
preoculars, two postoculars ; four genials, no laterals ; 
thickly brown dusted, with brown yellow-edged dorsal 
cross bars which are or are not continuous with a late- 
ral series which is continued on a portion of the gas- 
trosteges ; below yellow nebulata. 

Group IV. Scales smooth, dorsal series not larger ; 

anterior genials elongate, colubriform, preceded by 

one pair of labials. 

Thirteen rows of scales, no pre-, two postoculars ; seven 

superior, eight inferior labials ; three pairs genials, 

without laterals ; black with yellow rings continuous 

on the belly but not on the anterior parts above ; yellow 

scales black edged ; temple and nape yellow anthracop3. 

Group V, Scales equal, smooth ; genials short, 
broad, preceded by two pairs of labials. 
Fifteen rows scales, one preocular and a subloreal, three 
postoculars, nine superior, eleven inferior labials ; slen- 
der, compressed ; black with narrow yellow annuli ; 

chin all black, a yellow collar brevipacies. 

Group VI. Scales equal, smooth ; genials short, 
broad, preceded by one pair inferior labials. 
Form little compressed, scales in fifteen rows ; eleven 
superior, eight inferior labials ; no preoculars, two 
postoculars ; four genials without laterals ; yellow 
brown, with three rows black, yellow edged subquad- 
rate spots, which unite in front and become also 

longer; head spotted, small spots on sides of belly turgida. * 

Group VII. Scales equal, several dorsal series 

keeled; first pair of genial plates short, preceded by 

one pair of labials only. [Tropidodipsas Gthr.) 

Head more elongate, scales in seventeen rows ; two anterior, 

two posterior oculars ; three pairs genials, seven upper 



labials ; black with nearly equal yellow annuli ; not com- 
plete on belly fasciata. 

Head short, broad ; scales in seventeen rows, the three me- 
dian only keeled ; one preocular, loreal reaching orbit, 
two postoculars, three pairs genials ; six superior, nine 
inferior labials ; black with narrow yellow rings, yellow 

scales, black tipped sartorii. 

The seven groups of this genus do not represent genera, but rather sections, 
for the following reasons. The vertebral series of dorsal scales is so reduced 
inL. ore a s Cope, as to constitute it a link between the two types in this re- 
spect. The keels are so weak in L. sartorii Cope, and the allied L. a n t h r a- 
cops Cope being smooth, this character appears to have no more than spe- 
cific value. The elongate pregenials, appear to constitute a strong distinction, 
but in one of our numerous L. nebulata they are divided as in other species. 
Lastly, the peculiarity of the junction of two inferior labials is less to be relied 
on, in view of the fact that in one of our L. bucephala there is one on one 
side and two on the other in front of the genials. 

Lbptognathus catesbyi Giinther, Coluber Weigel, Stremmatoffnathus D. B. 
Apparently abundant on the Napo and Upper Maranon. 

Lbptognathus oreas Cope, sp. nov. 

Body less compressed posteriorly than anteriorly. Frontal plate broader 
than long, very obtuse behind. Occipitals l-VS times longer, narrowed and 
divergent behind. Temporals one large anterior higher than long, in contact 
with both postoculars ; two broad ones, lower joining last labial, then a row 
of four. Four anterior labials not narrowed, third, fourth and fifth entering 
the orbit ; the three last longer than high. 

Dorsal band wider anteriorly, approaching on the sides ; behind they are 
not all continuous, but alternate on the sides, then also the light intervals are 
much obscured, no black collar. Chin and throat yellow. An irregular black 
yellow edged band on each side of head from behind occiptals to middle of 
superciliaries ; other head plates with similar black margins. Upper labials 
yellowish, with a black line from loreal plate, one from orbit, and a broad one 
over last labial, including two last lower labials. Belly largely obscured with 

Gastrosteges 180, anal 1 ; urosteges 90. 

Total length 26 in. ; of tail 7 in. ; of gape of mouth 8 lines. 

From the elevated valley of Quito. (No. 6707.) 

Lbptognathus NEBULATA Giinther, Jan. Coluber Linn. Bipsas Sohleg. Peta- 

lognafhus Dum, Bibr. 

No. 6708 from the valley of Quito. 

This species is the most extensively distributed of the genus. It ranges 
from the Tierra Caliente of Vera Cruz (Suraichrast) to Nicaragua (Caldwell) 
to Caraccas (Ashraead) and Dutch Guiana (Hering) ; according to Giinther 
from Pernambuco. 

Napo and Maranon. No. 6670. 

Leptodira annulata Linn,, Fitz. 
Napo and Maranon, and Guayaquil. 


Pblamis bicolor. 
From Guayaquil and Panama, apparently not rare. 

Flaps lkmniscatus Linn. 
Guayaquil, (6G85.) 



Elaps mipartitus Dura. Bibr. 

Four specimens from Guayaquil, and one from the valley of Quito. 

Elaps impbrator Cope, sp. nor. 

This is a species of the E. corallinus group, and is nearest to the series B. 
11. a. y. aa. of Giinther's synopsis of individuals of this genus ;* or to the E. 
ornatissimus of Jan. It differs from the latter and from all others, in 
that the black bands are wider than the red and cease at the third row of 
scales, not extending on the first two, or on the gastroteges. The two rows 
are margined with black on a yellow ground. Black bands 7^5, red ones 5 
scales wide ; scales in the latter, of the first row, narrowly, of the two following 
broadly tipped with black ; the remaining dorsal series entirely black or witii 
a faint basal shade of red. Yellow margins on half scales alternating. The 
red bands cross the belly on two and a half gastrosteges. Top of head and 
nape black, except outer half of internasal and prefrontal plates, which with 
the labials are yellow. Labials black edged, not in contact with temporals, 
which are yellow edged at bases. Lower lip, rostral plate, chin and belly un- 
spotted, yellow. Two postoculars, Gastrosteges 225, anal 1 | 1 : urosteges 37. 

Total length 2 ft. 3 in. 4 lin. ; of tail 2 in. 1 1. 

From the ^Napo and Maranon ; one specimen. 

It is difficult to imagine a more elegantly colored species of this beautiful, 
but venomous genus. Dr. Gunther has shown the inconstancy of colors in some 
species of the genus. Within certain limits the species are very constant, as I 
have had occasion to observe in numerous specimens of E. lemniscatus, E. 
elegans, E, mipartitus, E. nigrocinctus, E. euryxanthus, E. fulvius, etc. 


Teleuraspis nitida Cope. Lachesis nitida Gunther, Proc. Zool. Lond., 1859. 
From Guayaquil. 

Trigonocephalus brasiliensis. Bothrops jararaca Wagl. Craspedocephalus 


Three specimens from Napo and L^pper Amazon ; the smallest with fifteen 
urosteges behind the vent, undivided. 

Trigonocephalus xanthogrammus Cope, sp. nov. 

Form rather elongate ; head elongate, muzzle short. Scales of body in 
twenty-seven longitudinal series, not strongly keeled, the dorsal narrow, those 
of the first row ovate, longer than broad. Scales of the whole top of the head 
small, smooth, nine or ten rows between the large superciliary shields. Four 
elongate plates in a row on top of the end of the muzzle, which are bounded 
behind by four much smaller ovate ones. Superior labials seven, the second 
bounding the pit anteriorly ; the last five large and of nearly equal size, infe- 
rior labials eleven, the two anterior broadly in contact in front of geneials. 
Two preoculars are loral, two nasals; rostral elevated. Gastrosteges 196, 
urosteges 54. 

Color above very dark olive, with a zigzag yellow line on each side from the 
head to the origin of the tail, the apices of the open Vs usually meeting on 
the vertebral line, enclosing dorsal rhombic spaces and lateral triangles. The 
bases of the triangles embrace seven or eight transverse series of scales. 
Gastroteges black, paler medially, with yellow irregular spots at their extrem- 
ities. Gular region, chin, and superior labials bright yellow ; a bright golden 
band round the end of the muzzle, involving the greater part of the supercil- 
iary plates, passes to the nape, and is bounded below by a black band from eye 
to angle of mouth ; top of head black, with a pair of undulating yellow bands 
from the nape which meet on the vertex forming a V. 

* Ann. Magaz. N. Hist., 1859, 171. 




Total length 60-7 

Length of rictus oris 1-75 

Length of tail T-S 

Width between outer margins superciliary plates 0-7 

From Pallatanga. Equador. Two specimens. 




CiNCLiDiuM GRANULATUM Copc, Journ. Acad. J^at. Sci., 1867, 202. 

Length body and hind limb together 8-5 inches. One specimen. No. 6659. 
From the Napo or Upper Amazon. 

Hyla marmorata Daudin, Dum. Bibr. 

This species is quite distinct from that described and figured under this 
name by Burmeister.-^*- The latter being without name may be called H. seni- 
c ula. 

I append a description of the fresh coloration of this species, which does 
not appear to have been recorded. 

Ground color above gray, with two large blackish blotches which extend 
backwards on the sides, one from the iliac, and one at the axillar regions. 
These are confluent on the middle line of the back, leaving only the scapular 
regions and insignificant spots of the ground, which is more or less replaced 
by bay. The last color forms a V-shaped figure with broad black border, 
whose limbs reach the orbits and enclose a pink gray space which is bounded 
in front by a black interorbital cross-band. Top of muzzle light bay. Gular 
region pale, with dark gray speckles. Belly and femora, except a narrow band 
above, with basal part of humerus, yellow black spotted ; the spots smaller and 
thicker on the belly. Upper surfaces of limbs dark gray with rufous shades, 
cross-barred with darker. End of humerus and femur, fore arm and band 
with tibia and whole foot black below ; the distal halves of the webs yellow. 
Dermal margin of ulna and tibia white. 

From the Rio ^apo or Upper Amazon below its mouth. Eleven specimens. 
This species is strikingly different from others of this genus, in the great ex- 
tent of its webs, and the singular coloration. It appears to be abundant in the 
region named. No. 6649. 

Hyla leucophyllata Beireis. H. frontalis Daud. 

A variety in which the brown dorsal patch does not bifurcate to the lateral 
band, and the muzzle is rather more elongate. 

Napo and Upper Maranon. No. 6650. 

Hylella carnba Cope, sp. nov. 

This is a small species with a broad rounded head, and slender body and 
limbs. The canthus rostralis is moderately distinct, and the tympanum indis- 
tinct and small, and surmounted by a fold. Eyes large and prominent, diam- 
eter -25 greater than length of muzzle in advance of them. Nostrils terminal, 
end of muzzle vertical. Tongue round, -25 free behind. Ostia pharyngea equal 
inner nares. Fingers -33 webbed, and with dermal margins ; dilatations of 
moderate size. Skin of body above smooth. 

The exterior coloration does not appear on the femur, which is unicolor 
behind, and only as a faint line on humerus. This pigment is light rose yellow ; 
three narrow bands across tibia, two across forearm. A bioati blood-red band 
between the eyes, each extremity sending a blood-red band on each side the 
back to the vent, with a connecting spot of the same on the coccyx. A deep 

• In Eriaat. z. NAturg. Brazlliens. 



red band from scapular region to end of muzzle ; and line below the eye. 
Below uniform whitish. 

Lin. , Lin. 

Length head and body 9 Width head.. 3 

" hind limb 14 Length gape 2 

" hind foot 6 

From the Napo or Upper Maranon, (6728.) 
The third species of this little known genus. 


This genus with Agalychnis Cope, and Phyllomedusa, embrace the most 
brilliantly colored of tropical Batrachians. Their characters were first pointed 
out by the writer in Journal Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1866. The species of Pitheco- 
pus Cope, are now four, two having been added by the William's College Ex- 
pedition ; they may be distinguished as follows : 

L Parotoid stratum of crypts not visible externally ; no external surface pig- 
ment on humerus. 

et. A yellow band round upper lip to middle of sides ; pigment of fore arm 

extending on two outer fingers ; dilatations small ; second toe shorter 

than inner. 

No dermal processes on heel; lower eyelid transparent; no vomerine 

teeth ; concealed portions of limbs and sides with vertical brown bands ; 

small „ P. AZURKDS Cope. 

No dermal processes on heel ; lower eyelid reticulate ; vomerine teeth ; con- 
cealed surfaces of limbs with vertical brown bands ; fewer of the same on 
sides, and brown spots behind axilla; small. ..P. hypochodnrialis Daudin. 
ua. No yellow band on upper or lower lip or side ; external pigment not 
extending on outer fingers ; dilatations large, second toe longer than 
Lower eyelid reticulate ; vomerine teeth ; two angular dermal heel pro- 
cesses, together having a truncate posterior outline ; concealed surfaces 
brilliant yellow, with broad vertical purple bars ; size larger — 


IL Parotoid stratum of crypts distinct, extending from orbit to sacrum ; 
humerus covered with the external pigment. 

et. No yellow band on upper lip, an imperfect one on side ; outer fingers 

and toes covered with the external pigment ; dilatations large, second 

toe shorter than inner. 

No dermal processes ; lower eyelid not reticulate ; vomerine teeth present ; 

green, upper arm with a yellow band ; concealed surfaces of limbs with 

purple clouds; below purplish ; large , P. tarsius Cope. 

P. tomopternus has much the coloration of Agalychnis sp., and the 
whole form a series leading from Hyla to Phyllomedusa * The P. tarsius ap- 

* One species of this genus has been long known, but has been confounded by modern 
authors with the longest known species of the genus Pilhecopus. A second species is 
here added. 
Inner toes equal ; dilatations large ; sides little, limbs unspotted; skin 

with stellate bony deposits scleroderma. 

Second toe shorter than first; dilatations small ; sides, throat and limbs 

largely yellow-spotted; skin smooth bicolor. 


One of the largest of the Hylidse, measuring from end of muzzle to vent 4 in. 1*5 lines, 
same to posterior border tvrnpanum 1 in. 3-4 1.; between parotoids and scapula. 1 in. 65 1. 
Axilla to carpus 1 in. 11-0 1* Carpus to end of third finger 1 in. 2-5 1. Femur and tibia 3 in. 
0-6 1. ; tarsus 1 in. 3 1.; tarsus to end fourth toe 1 in. 4*6 1. 

The general form is much that of P. bico 1 or, but the toes are longer and provided 
with larger dilatations; the under face of the tarsus, and the skin generally, are devoid of 
dermal tubercles. The integument of the whole upper surface of the head and body is 
studded with aggregations of osseous radii, which surround, more or less, numerous 



proaches the last named genus most closely, and equals them in size. Of the 
P. azureus I have seen three specimens from Brazil, two from the upper 
Paraguay, and one from Pernambuco ; of the P. hypochondrialis one 
specimen from Dutch Guiana. 

The P. tomopternus is of elongate form ; width of head 3-3 times from 
end of muzzle to end coccyx. Loreal region elevated, plane, canthus rostralis 
contracted, muzzle not quite vertical in profile. Tympanum one-third the 
large eye. Vomerine in two small fascicles opposite the anterior part of inner 
nares, as far apart as each is from the choana. Inner nares very large, rather 
larger than ostia of eustachian tube. The elbow reaches end of muzzle, the 
heel to front of orbit. A dermal fold on lower arm, strong on elbow ; a weak 
one on tarsus, terminating above in two heel processes, one projecting inwards 
and one outwards. All the fingers and toes entirely free, thumb opposable, 
fourth finger considerably longer than second. Longest toe the fourth, then 
5, 3, 2, 1. Palm and sole with strong tubercles. 

The colors are very brilliant; above green, below with hands and feet yel- 
low ; outer fingers and toes bound with purple, like the concealed surfaces. 
One specimen has an exceedingly narrow yellow margin to the upper lip. No 
brown margin inside lower lip. 


Total length head and body 23- 

Length to posterior margin tympanum (axial) 6-1 

'• fore limb , 15-6 

" band 5-6 

" hind limb from groin 32-6 

" tarsus 1-15 

" metatarsus and longest toe 7- 

Two specimens of this tree-frog are in the collection from the Rio Napo, or 
Upper Amazon, below the mouth of the former. They are males and have the 
corneous thumb shield of the breeding season. No. 6651, Mus. Smiths. 


Form slender ; width of head at jaws, enters from end nose to vent, 3-5 
times. Loreal region elevated, with the canthus concave ; upper lip project- 
ing beyond muzzle. Diameter of eye three times tympanum. Tongue elon- 
gate, largely free and openly marginate behind, narrowed in front. Vomerine 
teeth in two transverse fasciculi, which are equi- distant from each other and the 
anterior margin of the large internal nares. Ostia large and less than nares. 
Skin everywhere granular, perhaps more properly glandular, those of the 
sides largest. Areolae very large and flat on the pectoral region ; a series of 
larger glandulous areolse on each thigh below. No distinct dermal margin on 
forearm or tarsus. Digital dilatations of hand largest, larger than the tym- 
panic disc ; that of the thumb smaller. Elbow to opposite nares ; heel to front 
of orbit. Second toe much shorter than first, third less than fifth. 

Color everywhere green, shaded with purple on gular and thoracic regions ; 
also along sides and on under surfaces of thumbs. Femur green, except below, 
two external digits of the same color. An irregular yellow band on side from 

central pointw. These do not penetrate through the derm, which is thick, and entirely free 
from the skeleton in every part. Muzzle elevated, loreul region .'<traight, canthus rostra- 
lis strong, concave, Male with vocal vesicle. Tympanum one-lialf of orbit; inferior pal- 
eebra medially transparent, dei moid at the circumlerence. Vomerine fasciculi oblique 
etween nares as near the latter as each other. Mlimte areolation.s on posterior gular 
region. Tongue small. Elbow extends to end of muzzle; hand and longest tinger equal 
forearm. Heel to orbit; sole and longest toe exceeding tarsus; cuneiform tuborclo 
minute; base of thumb broad, with a flattened tuben^le. 

Blue-green with faint light margin to posterior parts of upper and lower lips, and one 
series of very narrow longitudinal lateral spots. Lunbs blue aoove, except the pale l>rown 
spotted upper arm; aniebrachium and tarsus yellow margined; femora uniform pule blue 
behind, llelow uniform pale. 

Ifubifat.—Hyirinnm, Ihring, Mus. Academy Nat. Sciences. Burmeister suspects the spe- 
cies of the Amazon to be that found in burmant, and ditterent Irom the ?. bicolor. 



angle of mouth and margin of mandible. Two isolated yellow spots on breast, 

and one on each side the vent below. 

In. Lin. 

Length head and body , , 3 9-25 

" head, axially, to line tympanum 1 

" fore limb 2 8- 

" hand.. 1 

'' hind limb from groin 5 3* 

" tarsus I 415 

'^ remainder of foot 1 2-25 

_ This tree-frog, it is to be observed, exceeds the Phyllomedusa bic olor in 

size. One male with the file-like corneous plates on the metatarsus of the 

thumb is in the collection, from the same locality as the last. No. 6652, Mus. 


Hemiphractds divaricatus Cope, sp. nov. 

A single specimen of this species has afforded the first opportunity of inves- 
tigating the structure of this genus. The result convinces me of the propriety 
of recognizing in it a peculiar family as Peters has done, and confirming en- 
tirely the position I assigned it in the essay on genera of Arcifera* The form 
of the distal phalanges is a compromise between that of many aquatic frogs 
and that of the Hylidae, the proximal globe being not recognizable, and much 
flattened. Its structure is different from that of Hylodes, though it does not 
probably inhabit trees any more than that genus, or Chorophilus and Acris 
among true Hylidae. 

The coracoid and epicoracoid are much less divergent than in other families, 
and the arched cartilages are very wide, overlapping more extensively than in 
any genus I am acquainted with. 

The H, divaricatus is nearer the H. scutatus than to the H. fascia- 
t u s. It differs from the latter chiefly in the form and proportions of the hel- 
met; this is shorter and broader, with more divergent outlines, and is plane 
and flat behind, and not so convex ; it lacks the recurved margin represented 
by Peters. In profile the upper margin of the mouth is straight, not curved, 
and the eye is median, not anterior. Other differences are that the anterior 
vomerine tooth, or teeth, are abruptly longer than the others, and the throat is 
blackish, with a broad yellow median band. There are transverse rows of 
tubercles on the sides of the belly. 

Interorbital width about one-third expanse of supratympanic ridges ; from 
end muzzle to interorbital point 1-5 times from latter to concavity of posterior 
margin helmet. From bony orbit to tympanum equal from latter to angle of 

Orbital fissure '*J5 long (vertical), diameter membranum tympani, which 
latter is double width of same. Margin of helmet behind, medially slightly 
elevated. Muzzle flat with a short terminal dermal process ; eyelids with a 
marginal prolongation. Head slightly granular above ; body smooth above ; 
oblique rows of tubercles on forearm. Belly closely, throat sparsely, granular. 
Both fingers and toes with rudimental web. A large palmar tubercle ; two 
indistinct metatarsal tubercles, the inner elongate. A fold along tarsus and 
outer toe ; slight dermal margins on all the toes. A similar fold on forearm 
and outer finger, and on the other fingers. 

In. Lin. 

Length head and body to vent 2 2- 

" of casque on mediad line ; least 10-5 

" " " " " greatest 13-25 

" hind limb 2 11-5 

" foot 1 4-5 

" tarsus.... 7- 

* Journal Academy, 1866. 



Length forelimb 1 3- 

" hand *7*5 

Width between nares 15 

" " orbits 5- 

** casque, superiorly, behind 14* 

" " inferiorly, " 16- 

Grayish-brown above, dark-brown below ; a yellow band from chin to 
breast ; black bands on tarsus and forearm. A black blotch below rent, one 
above tympanum, one below eye (indistinct on one side), and several smaller 
ones on edge of upper lip. 

From the Napo and Maranon. 6648. 

Two specimens of two species of this genus in the Museum of Munich are 
the only ones known in any Museum besides the present one. 

The curious and high degree of ossification of the crania of this and several 
other Neotropical genera, appears to be a defence to the animals possessing it. 
When killed in spirits they frequently die with the flexor muscles of the head 
contracted, and the bony front presented like a shield. This is no doubt an 
important defense against the bite of venomous serpents, which abound in the 
regions where they occur. This defence appears, however, to be rather a con- 
sequence of such structure than a cause, in a physiological sense ; since the 
majority of the Anura in the Continental Neotropical region, where they are 
equally exposed to venomous serpents, do not possess it, while the tree-toads of 
the West Indian district, where venomous snakes are almost unknown, invari- 
ably exhibit this extraordinary ossification. 

LiTHoDYTES C0N8PICILLATUS. Ilylodea conspicillatus Giinther, Br. Z. S. Lond. 
From the valley of Quito. 


A species belonging to the section of the genus characterized by having the 
vomerine teeth in two arched series on the line of the palatine bones ; the 
digits without dermal margins, and the belly included in a discoid fold of the 

A vertebral and dorso-lateral dermal fold, and some shorter ones on the 
sides, but no large warts or glands on the groin. Muzzle ovate, gradually de- 
scending at extremity, canthus rostralis not strong, contracted. Tibia less than 
half head and body. Ethmoid not ossified to end muzzle. Brown with a 
dark-brown band at each dorso-lateral fold, and two dark spots on the anterior 
half of each side. A dark band from axilla to orbit, from orbit to tip, and 
between orbits. Fore limbs not, hind limbs scarcely cross-barred; femur mar- 
bled behind. Belly and throat pale yellow. 

The toes have distinct dilatations at the end, but not the fingers ; all have 
strong tubercles below ; two minute metatarsal tubercles. Tongue considera- 
bly free behind and laterally. Vomerine series not extending exterior to inner 
margin of nares. Tympanum one-half orbit. Wrist not quite to end muzzle ; 
heel to middle of orbit. 

Total length 11-6 1. ; of hind limb 16- 1. ; of gape 31 1. ; width head behind 
4* lines. 

From the Napo or upper Maranon. 

In spite of its dilated toes this is a true Cystignathus. I also place in this 
genus Hylodes hall owe Hi i Cope, and Platyraantis p ete r s i i Steindach- 
ner. They are closely allied to each other ; the latter by no means a {Platy- 
mantis) Halophila, a genus which does not occur in the new world. 


From the Napo and Maranon. 

BuFO ANDiANUS Cope. " /iw/f) intermedius Gthr.," Cope, Proc. Ac. N. Sci. Phil. 
1862, 376, nee Qutntherii, hinc Phyrnoidu intermediut Cope, 1. o. 



Cranium with the curved orbital margin elevated into a ridge, and con- 
tinued into a strong supratympanic ridge ; a short preorbital ridge, no postor- 
bital. Parotoid gland divergent towards the sides, elongate triangular nar- 
row, continued into a lateral dermal fold. Two metatarsal tubercles, both 
small; a smooth-edged tarsal fold. Tympanum distinct, less than half diame- 
ter of eye. A trace of a parietal branch ridge on cranium. Canthus rostralis 
very strong, concave short. Muzzle elevated, profile vertical, not as long, in 
a straight line, as the long diameter of eye fissure. Nostril terminal. Greatest 
width of head 2 6 times in length head and body ; length loot without tarsus 
2-75 in same. Hind foot, outer toes with last phalanges only free ; 3J of medi- 
an free. Heel to hinder edge orbit. Skin covered with small round tubercles 
above. Palms and soles rough, and limbs generally, metacarpus with two 
strong tubercles. Half the femur included in the skin of the body. 

Gray above, with small paired dark-brown spot on each side the median 
line ; these are more or less confluent, and have a few smaller spots external 
to them. Sides below lateral fold brown-marbled. Lip with two brown spots 
on each side, a large brown spot on each side tympanum, A brown band 
across eyelid and verter. Pale below, with brown blotches on breast and 


Lin. Lin. 

Length head and body 19-5 Length tarsus 4 5 

" " includ. tympanum... 5-4 " long toe... 1-5 

" tibia 7-4 " hind limb 23- 

Several specimens (No. 6712) from the valley of Quito. Originally brought 
from Carthagena, New Grenada. (No. 4350 Mus Smithsonian.) 

This species is nearest the B. agua. It differs in its very much smaller 
size, being one-eighth or tenth the bulk of the latter, in its relatively smaller 
and narrower parotoid glands, and in its pinched, narrow, angulate muzzle. 
It is also near the B. d i p t y c h u s Cope, a still smaller species. In the latter 
the toes are much less palmate, the muzzle longer and the parotoids broader. 

Bupo AGUA Daud. B. marinus Schneider. 
From the Napo and Upper Amazon. 


Atblopus longirostris Cope, sp. nov. 

The muzzle prolonged, the ethmoid cartilage overhanging the labial border, 
and forming an acute-angled prominence. The muzzle a little longer than 
the long diameter of the eye ball ; nostril just behind a lateral projection 
formed by the extremity of the prefrontal. Canthus nostralis a right angle, 
lores nearly plane, upper profile entirely plane, transversely a little 
concave in front of the orbits. Greatest width of head behind nearly 
one-third length from end muzzle to end coccyx. Extended backwards 
the fore limb extends beyond the vent; forward the hind limb meas- 
ures to the front of the orbit with the heel. Toes about half webbed, 
the inner quite rudimental ; fingers slightly webbed, the inner short. 
Skin above and below entirely smooth, a line of granular elevations 
along the side. A faint tarsal fold ; metatarsal tubercles not developed. Ostia 
of eustachian tubes, each half an inner nostril ; latter small lateral. Tongue 
narrow, elongate. One large round metacarpal tubercle. Total length 10-6 
lines. From nostril to posterior extremity supratympanic ridge 3-3 lines. 
Total length fore limb 6-6 lines; of hind do, 13-1 lines ; foot 6 lines ; tarsus 3-5 
lines ; extent of sacrum 3 lines. 

Above black ; under surfaces and upper lip yellow, A greenish spot on each 
scapular region, and two or three pairs of the same on each side the vertebral 
line. Femur behind yellow, with a proximal longitudinal, and two distal 
transverse black bands. All the toes blackish, thumb yellow. 

From the valley of Quito. 



This species is in general appearance somewhat similar to the A. rar i u s, 
from Central America, but that has a relatively longer body and shorter limbs 
and head, and lacks the singular nasal appendage. In this species the clavi- 
cles and coracoids are considerably more divergent. It constitutes among 
Atelopodes, an approximation to Rhinoderma. 

In the writer's examination of the F'arailies of Raniform Anura* the genera 
Atelopus and Phrynidium were accidentally retained as distinct, as was done 
by Giinther, the fact having been lost sight of while correcting the proofs that 
Peters had shown them to be identical in the structure of the auditory appa- 
ratus. I do not think it probable that they should be retained as distinct on 
account of the remarkable difference in the degree of ossification of the 
ethmoid, which I have there pointed out. 

The structure of the sternum in Atelopus 1 o n gi r o s tri s throws much 
light on that of the genus Hemisus, discussed in the essay above quoted. The 
latter genus ought probably to have been compared with Phryniscidae rather 
than Engystoumidfe. I have already shownf that the clavical and coracoid 
are not in contact in Atelopus, but are connected by a simple longititudinal 
cartilage. This is the structure in all the Phryniscidae I have examined, and is 
quite different from the truly Raniform character of the Dendrobatidae and 
Colostelthidse. This elongation of the confluent epicoracoid cartilages — for 
such is its homology — reaches its greatest extent in the family, in Ate- 
lopus longirostris, making a distant approach to what is probably 
the condition in Hemisus. The anterior transverse element of the latter genua 
is therefore probably rather clavicle than coracoid, as suggested above. 

Atelopus l^vis Cope. Phrynicua Isevis Gthr. Catal. B. M. 
From the valley of Quito. 

Ranula APFINI8 ? Rana ajjfinia Peters, Monatsberichte, Berlin Acad. 

This may be Peter's species, though the latter is so briefly described that it is 
not readily identified. Having examined the type in Berlin, I am not prepared 
to agree with its learned describer that it is a climatal variety of Rana t e m- 
po r ar i a. 

Dr. Steindachner recognizes this genus, J but renames it Pohlia, and gives 
it a character of cartilaginous "Stirnbeine" in front, rather than cartilaginous 

The genus Ranula turns out to have simple terminal phalanges as in Rana, 
therefore three of the species formerly assigned to it by me, which have T- 
shaped phalanges must be regarded as belonging to another and unnamed, 
genus. This I call Tryphkropsis and refer toT. chrysoprasinus m. as 
the type. It represents the Hylarana of the Old World, and bears the same 
relation to Ranula that the former does to Rana. 

Size and form that of liana c 1 a mi t a n s, but with small membranura tym- 
pani — equal to orbit, and 1*5 length of muzzle. Toes palmate to near end of 
last phalange, to basis of the same of longest toe. Head plane above, 
fronto-parietals broad without posterior crests, equal between orbits the 
length of ethmoid cartilage. Canthus rostralis sharp, loreal region concave ; 
muzzle truncate in profile. Prefrontal bones three times as long as wide. 
Vomerine teeth in two small fasciculi, exactly between inner nares, nearer to 
each other than to tlie latter. Nares considerably less than ostia pharyngea. 
Outer nostrils half as far from end of muzzle as from orbit. Skin everywhere 
smooth, except a few minute granulations on posterior pelvic region. Fingers 
elongate, the inner longer than the second, all with a narrow dermal margin. 
When extended, the bases of the metacarpals mark, the end of the muzzle. 
The hind limbs extended, nearly measure to the end of the muzzle with the 

• Journ. Ac. Nat. 8cl. 1867, 189. 

t Nat. Hi8t. Review, 18ti5. 

I Characterized Proc. Academy, 1860, 129. 



Length of head (to opposite hinder margin tympanum) 14 | 5 times in 
length, vent equal width of head behind. 

In. Lin. 

Length head and body ....»» 2 6-5 

" of muzzle to orbit. ....... 4-6 

" of fore limb..... 1 6 

« of hand 8 

" of hind limb 3 11-5 

" of foot : 1 10 

" of tarsus 8 

Color above light olive, with a few small black spots on the pelvic region. 
A black line on canthus rostralis on edge of upper lip and one round tympa- 
num. Femur and tibia each with two narrow black cross bands. Numerous 
black spots on groin and front of femur. Femur and tibia behind closely marbled 
with deep black. Tarsus and forearm black below. An indistinct yellow baud 
from nostril to axilla. 

Two specimens from the Napo or Upper Maranon. 

This species differs from the R. palmipes of Spix, according to the com- 
plete description of Steindachner in having a considerably shorter and more 
truncate muzzle. In the last named the nostril is equidistant between muzzle 
and orbit, and the diameter of the latter is one half the same distance ; in this 
species it is two-thirds. Our species has the thumb longer, and the black 
marbling of the femoral regions is probably characteristic, as Steindachner 
does not mention it. 

How it differs from the R. affinis [Rana Peters) the description of the 
latter author does not furnish the means of determining. The latter has the 
same obtuse muzzle. 


CECILIA PACHYNEMA GUnther, Proc. Zool. Soc London, 1859. 

Two specimens from Guayaquil. They have 170 — 180 annuli respectively. 
In the larger the eyes are distinct; there are eight teeth on each side the 
upper and six on each side the lower jaw, with five vomero-palatines on each 
side. In the smaller specimen the eyes are invisible ; in both the narial 
valvules are present on the tongue. Giinther did not find these, nor eyes, and 
counted only 5 | 3 j 3 teeth. He describes blue spots on the sides ; these are 
accidental and dependent on the condition of the integment, 


From Lower Napo or Amazon. 

The whole number of species brought by the Expedition is : 

Crocodilia 1 Ophidia , 34 

Testudinata , 3 Batrachia 16 

Sauria..w...... 19 — 

Total 73 

These are from three distinct faunal districts — those of the Western Coast, 
the Table land of Quito, and of the Eastern Slope of the Andes. The number 
of species found in each is as follows : 

Western 27 

Table Land 16 

Eastern 44 

In the Western district are five species which occur in Brazil, and one 
(Chelydra) which extends from Mexico to the cold regions of North America. 
Two species of the same list occur in Middle Mexico. Of the species from 
near Quito, four occur in the Western List, and four also found in Eastern 
Brazil ; one is common in Middle Mexico. Of the species of the Eastern list, 
the Sauria were chiefly obtained from points within the limits of Equador, and 
the Ophidia from near the Brazilian frontier. Of the last, twelve are also 



Eastern Brazilian ; of the first, and Batrachia, seven are found in the latter 

Of generic types none of any extent appear to be restricted to either of the 
Western regions. Trachyboa with one species does not probably occur out of 
the West Coast region. Euspondylus, so far as known, is confined to the eleva- 
ted regions and the adjoining Eastern and Western Slopes. Teleuraspis is 
largely developed in Central America and Coniophanes in Mexico. Of the 
genera of the Eastern district, Centropyx, Teius, Hypsibatus, Hyla, Pithecopus, 
Hypsiboas, Ranula, Himantodes, Olisthenes and Typhlops, have not been 
brought either from the Table Land or the Western district. The absence of 
Hyla has been already noted by Giinther. 

The sources of information respecting the cold blooded vertebrates of Equa- 
dor are the collections of Eraser, made in the Western district, and identified 
and described by Giinther in the Proc. Zoological Soc. London, 1859 ; and the 
collections of the Prussian Consul Reiss, published from time to time by Pe- 
ters in the Monatsberichte of the Berlin Academy. 

Eraser procured forty-nine species ; to this number Peters added four, and 
the present enumeration four. The new species of the present list are mostly 
from the Table Land and Eastern region, and number twenty-four. 

Additional descriptions of Neotropical Reptilia and Batrachia not previously known. 

This genus presents a peculiarity of the skeleton which has never been 
noticed. This is, that the vertebral elements of the carapace are not pro- 
longed to the posterior marginal bones as in Emydidae* but terminate so as to 
allow of three costai uniting in a median dorsal suture. This character has 
heretofore been supposed to characterize the Ciuosternidae, which also lack the 
mesosternal bone. In this genus the mesosternal is well developed. Cistudo 
has, however, the last pair of costal bones joined by suture, and in the same 
family. Claudius Cope, is another genus possessing the same character. It 
is a character also of the genus Hydraspis. 

The genus Pelomedusa Wagler I have shownf to possess only two series of 
phalanges instead of the usual number, three. It is on this account as separate 
from the other Pleurodira, as Testudo is from the remainder of the Cryptodira. 
On this ground I consider it to represent a family hitherto unnoticed — the 

Sternothaerus Bell possesses an important structure hitherto unobserved. As 
in the extinct genus Pleurosternum ; the hyosternal bones are divided trans- 
versely, giving ten bones to the plastron instead of eight. It therefore repre- 
sents a family which I call the Sternothaeridoe, representing among the Pleuro- 
dira the extinct family Pleurosternidie among the Cryptodira. It may be here 
mentioned that I have found a fine new Pleurosternum — PL pectorale m. — 
in the cretaceous Green Sand of New Jersey. 

The above facts confirm the supposition of Agassiz that the Pleurodira 
would be found to constitute a series of families, rather than one family. 

One species of Dermatemys, the D. mave i, is recognized by Dr. Gray as in- 
habiting Venezuela and Mexico. The same species, according to the same 
author, has been subsequently named Emys berardi by Prof. Dumeril. I 
have not had an opportunity of seeing South American specimens, but the 
excellent figure and description of Gray render it certain that the individuals 
from that country on which the species was based really belong to another 
species from those of Mexico. The collections of the Smithsonian Institution 

* Agassiz BtateH— Oontrib, Nat. Hist, U. States i, that in all Emydidie the vertebral series 
of bones is uninterrupted, 
t Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila,, 18Ca, p. 184. 



furnish another species from Belize, which I have heretofore identified with 

the same. 

The species may be thus distinguished. 

One gular scute, no intergular; five inner marginals, the posterior 
triangular, not in contact with the femoral or abdomi- 
nal. Abdominal narrower than pectoral or femoral. 
Sternum little emarginate behind. Vertebral scuta broader 
than long, the median except behind covering a keeled 
ridge abnormis. 

One gular, and an intergular behind it ; four or five inner margin- 
als, the posterior in contact with femoral and abdominal ; when 
only four, the median elongate; vertebral scuta much longer 
than broad ; no dorsal keel. Abdominal scuta equal or wider 
than those adjoining berardii. 

Two gulars, no intergular ; four inner marginals, the median shorter 
than the hinder, joined as in the last ; abdominal as in the last ; 
vertebrals much longer than wide, no dorsal keel. Sternum 
well emarginate behind mavbi. 

Dbrmatemys abnormis Cope, sp. nov. 

The greatest breadth of the vertebral plates exceeds the length of the cos- 
tals ; the length of the same equals the width of the anterior costals, exceeding 
the width of the posterior. The form of the head is elongate, and acuminate ; 
there is a strong basal angle all round the mandible below the cutting edge. 
Though the carapace measures seven inches in length, the costal bones 
are only united for half their length, and the hyo- and hyposternal 
bones are entirely separated from the marginals. This lateral fontanelle 
is eight lines wide medially. The plastron is well developed, except a very 
small fontanelle at the middle of the hyo-hyposternal suture. This, with the 
wider vertebral shields, indicate a young animal, and though there are no signs 
of immaturity about the head, it doubtless is such. Nevertheless, I cannot 
suppose the vertebral scutes become as narrow, nor the carapace as fully ossi- 
fied at maturity, as in the other species, and its distinctness is confirmed by 
other characters as given. 

Above light brown, below and inner faces of limbs light yellow. 

Length of plastron 5 in. 9 lin. ; width of same at axillae 3 in. ; at posterior 
end 11-5 lin. ; total width at groin 5 in. 5 lin. ; length head from behind ear 
17 1. ; greatest width head 1 in. 

From Belize River, Yucatan. Museum Smithsonian, No. 6545 ; from Dr. 



pROCTOTRETUS PRASINUS Tope, sp. nov., of the group Rhytidodira Gird. 

Head broad, short, vertex and front plane longitudinally and transversely. 
Canthus rostralis strong, loreal region concave. Nostril just below the edge 
of the canthus. Scales of head above smooth, angulated. A transverse scale be- 
hind rostral ; a united pair of supranasals, the larger divided internasals between 
the smaller longitudinal posterior supranasals. Three pairs frontonasals, the 
two anterior in contact with canthal row, and separated by four scales ; the 
posterior largest, and in contact. No superciliary series, except from the 
frontal backwards; frontal little longer than broad. Occipital (= interparie- 
tal) small, in contact with superciliary rows, and followed by two plates a 
little larger. Occipital and temporal regions covered with rather large, smooth 
scales, those of the latter smaller, and rounded behind. Supraorbitals of ir- 
regular size, smooth, the three inner larger, little broader than long ; together 
three rows scarcely separated within by a series of small scales. Two marginal 



rows. Three loreal rows, the lower continued below the suborbital. Labials 
5 — 6 ; two rows infralabials, the inner shorter, of broader scales, the first pair 
in contact. Auricular meatus large, no marginal scales. 

Scales of dorsal region small, not larger than ventral, little larger than 
lateral, not longer than broad, with a keel on the distal half and obtuse mucro. 
They are in series, which converge upwards and backwards. Sixty-nine series 
from rump to occiput ; fourteen across the nape. A broad granular band ex- 
tends from the ears to more than the length of the humerus behind the axillae. 
A pair of longitudinal folds extend from above and below the meatus, and 
unite half-way to the axilla, to which point the single fold extends. Another 
extends along the side. 

Lateral and abdominal scales smooth, the latter rounded, smooth, occasion- 
ally slightly notched ; gulars entire ; caudal scales small, in whorls, strongly 
keeled. Extended fore limb reaches -66 to groin ; hind limb to union of side 
folds of neck. 

In. Lin. Lin. 

Total length (tail mutilated) : 5 11-2 

Length to vent 2 1 Length to orbit 2-5 

" axilla 11-5 Width of head 5-5 

" meatus of ear 1 Lengthofpes 10 

Color above brilliant green, with a double series of black dorsal spots, with 
angles projecting laterally, which posteriorly meet similar angles from a late- 
ral series of larger deep black spots. The green continues as a band to orbit. 
A series of vertical black bars on sides ; limbs green-black, cross-banded ; tail 
brown-black ringed ; top of head black, brown and green specked. Lower jaw 
black-barred. Belly light green. 

From 603. Museum Comparative Zoology, Cambridge. From Chili. 


Having had a large number of individuals of this genus at my disposal, as 
the species are but little known I give the following synopsis. Gray, who 
gives the fullest list (Catalogue Sauria Brit. Mus. 1845), enumerates five. There 
are at present fourteen known. 

L Several series supraorbital scales ; no transverse plates. Abdominal 
scales smooth. 
L. ornatus Gray, Catal. L. trachycephalus Dum., Catal. Method . 
The former from Guayaquil, the latter from Bogota. 

n. Transverse series of plates on the supraorbital region ; abdominal 
scales smooth. 
at. Parietals and interparietals united. 
Supraorbital region scaled in front ; a black spot on 

throat. Gallapagos Is L. grayi. 

oa. Parietals and interparietals distinct ; the 
former transversely divided. 
Three pairs frontonasals ; three interparietals ; a black 

spot on throat. Equador L. iridescens. 

a*. Parietals and interparietals distinct ; the 
former longitudinally divided. 

j3. Four pairs frontonasals (four rows plates 
across front). 
Outer parietals larger than inner ; interparietal short, 
triangular; two rows scales above infralabials ; 
tail crest high. Brown, with many light cross- 
bars L. e r e m 1 1 u s . 

1868.] 9 


/?/?. Three pairs frontonasals. 

•y. Outer parietals much larger than inner. 
Top of head smooth ; plates of front wide ; interparie- 
tal long and narrow ; one row above infralabials. 

Light olive. Bahamas, Cuba L. carinatus . 

yy,. Outer parietals narrow, equal inner. 
L. vittatus Hallow, and L. macropus Cope, both from Cuba. L. 
schreibersii [Pristonotus schreibersii Gravenhorst, not L. schreibersii Gray 
= L. vittatus), and L. melanochlorus Cope, from Hayti. 

/?/?. Two pairs of frontonasals. 
Scales smaller ; temporal scales small, keeled ; of 

front much keeled ; auricular scales elongate ; 

interparietal very small. Hayti L. raviceps. 

Scales larger ; temporals large, smooth ; auriculars 

short, thick ; scales of front little keeled. From 

Hayti L. personatus and L. t rig em i n a tus . 

The last two are much alike in structural features, but differ greatly in 
coloration ; they do not appear to be sexes of the same animal, as I have seen 
both (^ and 9 of the latter. 

III. Transverse series supraorbital plates ; abdominal scales keeled. 

Scales on nape in 5 — 1 — 5 rows ; seven supraorbitals ; frontal scales many, 

L. herminieri Dum. Bibr,, from Martinique. 

I am not acquainted with L. macleayi Gray, from Cuba ; it is probably 
allied to the L. carinatus and L. vittatus. 


Head moderately elongate, profile an inclined plane. Front with four cross- 
rows of plates posterior to supranasals, the posterior smallest ; two pairs of 
internasals, separated from each other, the anterior from the rostral also ; the 
posterior pair of the same in line and continuous with the divided frontal. 
Interparietal very short, the parietals largely in contact behind, the outer twice 
as wide as the inner. All the scales of head smooth, except the supraorbitals. 
The latter weakly keeled, six on each side, separated by one row scales from 
supraorbitals ; also by one row small scales from superciliaries. Parietals 
bounded externally by two rows larger scales, then minute scales, then medium 
keeled preauriculars. Auricular scales elongate, four, Postauriculars not 
granular. Scales above large, eight rows on median nuchal region. Dorsal 
crest high on tail, elsewhere moderate. Lateral and abdominal scales smaller 
than dorsal. Scales of lower surfaces entire, the preanals smaller, keeled. 
The muzzle marks the end of the metacarpus on the extended fore limb, and 
the front of the orbit the longest toe. Tail moderately compressed. Folds of 
side of neck strong ; two oblique, one nearly horizontal. Scales of tail shiny, 
keeled below except at basis. 

Coloration plain. Ground dark olive-brown, with a deep brown dorso- 
lateral longitudinal shade, connected by numerous indistinct cross-bars, which 
are light margined behind. Lower surfaces brown, with numerous scattered 
whitish scales, which are most thickly gathered on the pectoral region. A 
dark brown spot between eye and ear. 

In. Lin. 

Length from end muzzle to vent 2 5-5 

" " to ear 8 

" of hind foot 13-5 

"Width of head 6 

One specimen of this species was sent to the Smithsonian Institution by W. 
J. Rasin, from the island of Navassa, W. L, which lies to the south-west of St. 
Domingo, in line with Jamaica. 




Curios, xviii, 739. Tab. 

This species is not anywhere described in tlie English language. I therefore 
append the following, which I took from specimens in the Mus. Leyden : 

Crest very long, equal ; scales longer than high, other sc. small, keels not 
prominent. 7 — 1 — 7 sc. on nape ; on rump, 7 or 8 — 1 — 7. Smaller lateral sc. 
in a not wide band. Abd. sc. in 23 rows, rhombic. Sc. from ear to shoulder 
granular; tail compressed. Extended hind limb, near to ear. Interparietal 
narrow ; 8 supraorb. Supercil. not separated. 3 pair frontonas., the poster, 
often double ; 4 in the median row ; the frontonas. as broad as long. Head 
sc. keeled. 

Olive-brown ; with or without traces of a light band on each side of back, 
which are naost distinct on tail ; sides with a band of brown speckles. Green 
below, with 4 or 6 cross-bands of blue-white bordered spotlets ; obsolete ante- 
riorly. Bluish on»gular region. Head lighter, uniform ; feinus with two transv. 
series of spots? Fern, with 2 longit. dors, stripes, and a distinct one on lower 
part of each side. Transverse angulated brown bands behind white border, 
from side to side. A yellow band on post, face of femur. Dors, crest very 
small, scarcely on tail. Head sc. broad, keeled. 

Catal. Lizards Brit. Mus., 117. 

This genus, in my opinion, embraces the Diploglossinae, with normal extre- 
mities, in which the frontonasal plates are fused together in one shield; it 
therefore includes most of the species of Diploglossus, as understood by Gray. 
Diploglossus was originally based by Wiegmann on D. monotropis and 
D. fas ciatus, species in which the frontonasals are quite distinct. Both 
are from the South American continent ; the first-named is the type of Camilia 
(C. jamaicensis) of Gray. The correspondence of the Smithsonian Institution 
has procured numerous additions to this genus, which are here added : 

A. Internasal plates confluent with frontonasals. 

I. Scales in 32 — 6 rows. 

Two frontals, one above the other ; two postnasals do. ; 

scales all 8 — 10 keeled ; olive, sides black- spotted, stbindachneri Cope. 

One frenal and postnasal ; scales smooth in front, keels 
increasing to 16 on tail ; sides and limbs black ; 
above olive, the scales black-edged CHALYBiEus Cope. 

Keels of the scales eight to ten ; one postnasal, two fre- 
nals, both on labials ; meatus of ear large ; anterior 
limb two-thirds head. Brown, with blackish band 
on upper part of each side plbii Dum. Bibr. 

Keels of the scales eleven, all equal, on posterior re- 
gions ; anterior scales smooth, together in 36 rows ; 
nasal plate extending to rostral ; two loreals, both 
higher than long ; ear minute, head and limbs very 
short, latter -75 former, and -2 from axilla to groin; 
a blackish lateral band above, cross-lined before, 
spotted behind dbgbneb Cope. 

Keels of the scales fifteen, all equal ; one postnasal, 
two frenals, both on labials ; ear meatus small. 
Serpentiform, fore limb five-sixths head. Brown, 
with dark lateral band above sagr^b Coct. 

II. Scales in 41 — 2 rows. 

Keels 14; none larger; head narrow, sharp, muzzle 
longer than interorbital width ; front plane ; parie- 
tal separated from supraorbitals by two plates, 
loreal longer than high ; gray, sides black, cross- 
banded ; loreal higher than long phoxinus Cope. 



Keels 15, a median stronger ; front convex; distance be- 
tween orbits in front equal length muzzle ; both 
loreals higher than long ; one plate between parie- 
tal and supraorbitals ; brown, a deep brown dorso- 
lateral band, and numerous longitudinal series of 
brown spots on the back weinlandii Cope. 

Keels 25, none larger ; head flat, acute, muzzle longer 
than interorbital width ; many close, short bay- 
stripes ; loreal higher than long badius Cope. 

Keels 25 to 35, one median much stronger; head short- 
ter, obtuse, muzzle equal width between eyes ; uni- 
color, with vertical lateral bars ; two loreals, longer 
than high stenurus Cope. 

III. Scales in 49 — 51 rows. 

Keels 34 — 8, the median stronger on dorsal region ; form 
stout, fore-limb one-third longer than head; tail 
much compressed ; yellow or light brown, with 
about fifteen brown cross-bands occiduus Shaw. 

Keels 17, scales with a cross elevation and marginal de- 
pression, making rows of pits ; head wide, muzzle 
short, equal interocular width ; tail cylindric ; 
brown, with 18 cross-bars on dorsal region impressus Cope. 

Keels 19, equal, scales plane ; head elongate, narrow, 
muzzle longer than interocular width ; brown, with 

14 cross-bars on back ?striatus Gray. 

AA. Internasal plates separate, small. 
Scales in twelve longitudinal series on the dorsal re- 
gion, with fifteen striae and a weak median keel ; 
body anguiform, anterior limb long as head. Pale, 
with numerous short longitudinal reddish bands. 

Otherwise as C. o c c i d u u s ." Dum. Bibr owenii D. B. 

Species unknown to the writer: C. hewardii Gray, Catal. 1. c, from 

Jamaica, and C. macrolepis Gray, 1. c, West Indies. 

Synopsis of Species. 

C. STEiNDACHNERi Copc. Diploglossus Copc, Proc. Ac. N. Sci. Phila. 1864, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico. Mus. Smithsonian. 

C. CHALYB^us Cope. Diploglossus Cope, 1. c. 1866. 
Vera Cruz, Mexico. Mus. A. N. S. ; Smithsonian. 

0. PLEii m. Diploglossus Dum. Bibr., v, 605. Do. (oneyda) Gray, Catal. 
Eab, — Martinique (Mus. Paris). 

Celestus degener Cope, sp. nov. 

This is the most Seps-like of the genus, having shorter and weaker limbs 
than the C. s a g r ae , and a shorter and broader head. The toes are very short, 
though of the normal number ; it perhaps will approach the genus Sauresia 

Width between fronts of orbits 1-5 times in length of muzzle anterior to 
same. Length of head to middle postparietal plate equal width of same at ear 
openings. Width of frontal plate behind greater than length of the same. 
Supraorbitals five, separated by two scales from parietal. One preocular ; two 
loreals, both higher than long ; an elongate oblique postnasal in contact with 
anterior supranasal. Nasal meeting rostral by a suture. Eight upper labials, 
fifth and sixth supporting a long suborbital, which is convex below. Two 
rows of infralabials, the upper of longer, lower of wider scales. Toes short ; 
behind, fourth much shorter than first. Whitish below ; chin reticulated with 



brown. Sides with longitudinal brown lines, the upper confluent, much darker, 
and with a zig-zag upper margin. Above, fawn brown, with seventeen cross 
lines to middle of back, and small brown spots in quincunx behind them. Tail 
with a deep brown band on each side. 

In. Lin. In. Lin. 

Length to vent 3 2.25 Length foreKimb 4-6 

" to axilla 11.75 " hind limb 7- 

" to ear 5-6 

A single specimen of this interesting species is contained in a collection 
from Porto Rico, West Indies, sent to the Smithsonian Institution by George 
Latimer, correspondent at that island. 

C. SAGRiB. Diploglossus Cocteau, Hist. Isle Cuba, Dum. Bibr. v, 602. 
Hah. — The whole of Cuba. Mus. A. N. Sci.; Smithsonian. 

Celestus phoxinus Cope, sp. nov. 

A fusiform species, the body rather stout and flattened, the outlines tapering 
gradually to end of muzzle and tail. Head flattened, with strong canthus ros- 
tralis, and concave loreal region. ' Postnasal and postloreal longer than high ; 
preloreal higher than long. Five supraorbitals ; scales behind postparietals 
not larger than those of the nape. Dorsolateral angle strong on scapular 
region. The eighth upper labial is the first one angulated above ; rostral plate 
broad and low. The limbs, when pressed to the sides, fail to meet by the 
length of the hand. Keels of the scales strong. Tail slightly compressed. 

Above light gray; sides from orbit to groin dark brown, with regular ver- 
tical brown bars, which are margined behind by a close series of light spots. 
Two series of small brown spots on each side the dorsal region, the median 
stronger on the nape, all vanishing behind. Below immaculate ; limbs with 
brown light-edged cross-bars. 

In. Lin. In. Lin. 

Length to vent 3 3- Length to orbit 3- 

" to axilla . 1 2-8 Greatest width head. 4-8 

" forelimb 8-6 Length hind limb 1 0-1 

This elegant species was found by Dr. D. F. Weinland, near Jeremie, Hayti, 
and was placed by him in the Museum Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass., in care of Prof. Agassiz. 

Celestus weinlandii Cope, sp. nov. 

This species is near the last, but is less regularly fusiform ; the body, and 
especially the head, are less depressed ; the canthus rostralis is depressed and 
the loreal region plane. Both loreals higher than long, and the seventh 
upper labial is the first angulated above. Rostral deeper, rounded above. 
Five supraorbitals, separated from parietals by but one plate besides fronto- 
parietals. Auricular opening small. Limbs when pressed to sides meet. 
Larger median carina of scales wanting on those of anterior nape and tail. 
Vent with three cross rows, rather larger scales in front. 

Below the dorsolateral brown band is another formed of spots in line ; they 
continue with a vertical series of brown spots on the sides. Ground above 
dark brown ; sides of neck and gular region brown-lined. Limbs with brown 

In. Lin. In. Lin. 

Length to vent 3 6-8 Length fore limb 9-7 

" to axilla. 1 4- " hind limb 1 2-4 

" to orbit 3- Width head 5-9 

This species is found on Gonave Island, on the western side of Hayti. Mus. 
Smithsonian. From T. Younglove. Named in honor of Dr. F. Weinland, M.D., 
ot Frankfort o. M., who has contributed much to the history of the Reptilia 
of Hayti. 



Cblestus badius Cope, sp. nov. 

This species, though larger than either of the preceding, possesses a more 
acute muzzle; the front is plane as in D. phoxinus, but the snout lightly 
convex, though less so than in D. weinlandii and with obtuse canthus 
rostralis and plane loreal region. 

The (sixth or) seventh upper labial is the first angulated above, while the 
suborbital and lower postorbital plates are shorter and deeper than in the pre- 
ceding species ; both loreals higher than long. There are two plates besides 
the fronto-parietal between parietal and the posterior of the five supraorbitals. 

The limbs are short, and when pressed to the side fail to meet by the length 
of the hind foot. The digits of the fore foot are relatively shorter and weaker 
than in the two species preceding. 

The eye fissure is small, measuring 2-5 times from its hinder margin to the 
ear ; but twice in the D. w e i n 1 a n d i i ; it is less than double the diameter of 
the meatus. Transverse series of scales, from groin to above middle of meatus, 
ninety-four ; those of the tail keeled like the rest. Three rows larger preanal 

In. Lin. , In. Lin. 

Total length (?tail reproduced.) 8 Length fore limb 9- 

Length to vent 4 1- " hind limb 13-5 

" to orbit 4-5 " hind foot 6-3 

Greatest width head 7-5 

Ground color cream, almost obscured above by many longitudinal bands 
and lines of bright bay ; these are more or less broken up, of irregular width, 
and often confluent. Top of the head and sides closely spotted with bay, on 
the latter region in a longitudinal direction or in lines directed obliquely 
downwards and forwards. A dorsolateral band of ground color extends from 
superciliary region, more or less completely to the iliac, and is bay margined 
below and sometimes above. Throat and belly uniform yellow. Limbs bay 
red with white spots. 

From Island of Navassa, W. I. From W. J. Rasin. 

The collection sent to the Smithsonian Institution from this small Island 
consists of the following species : 

Typhlops sulcatus Cope, Metopocerus cornutus Wagl., 

Ungalia pardalis Gosse, Celestus badius Cope, 

Liocephalus eremitus Cope. 

Celestus stbnurus Cope. Diploglossus Cope, Proc. A. N. Sci. Phil. 1862. 

From near Jeremie, St. Domingo. Mus. Compar. Zoology, Cambridge. 

I append a description of another specimen, referred to this species with 

This is a large species with broad head, and short muzzle, the latter being 
shorter than the width between anterior margins of eye fissures. First upper 
labial angulated above the seventh ; suborbital and lower postorbital elongate, 
narrowed. Nasal very small ; preloreal higher than long, loreal nearly square. 
Front convex, canthus obtuse. Eye fissure one-half distance to meatus of ear. 

Eighty transverse rows scales from above meatus to groin. Supranasal 
plates small, narrow, the posterior nearly divided by the anterior (right) angle 
of the elongate internasal. Scales with from 26 to 35 keels, a median one 
rather stronger on some. Two scales bound the parietals in front besides 
the fronto-parietals. Four rows large scales in front of vent. The limbs 
pressed to the sides nearly meet. 

Light-brown, with three rows of small subquadrate dark-brown spots on the 
median dorsal region. Limbs brown with light spots arranged in indistinct 
cross-bars. Head above light-brown with darker shades ; labial plates above 
and below broadly brown margined. Below immaculate. 

Length to vent 5 in. 9-7 lin. To orbit 5-1 lin. "Width head behind 9-6 lin. 

A number of digits in this single specimen exhibit a loss of the claws, others 



have lost one, two or three phalanges. This may have a natural cause, since 
the allied genus Panolopus is deprived of these members entirely, though with 
well developed limbs. 

From Gonave Island, near Hayti. From Thos. Younglove. The reptiles 
found by this correspondent in this Island are : 

Homalochilus fasciatus Fisch., Diploglossus weinlandii Cope, 

Dromicus parvifrons Cope. {D. pro- Diploglossus ? stenurus Cope, 

tenus Jan), Ameiva chrysolaema Cope, 

Uromacer catesbyi D. B., Trachycephalus marmoratus D. B., 

Uromacer oxyrhynchus D. B., Lithodytes lineatus Grav., 


Cblestus occiduos Gray, Catal. Lacerta occiduus Shaw. Diploglossus Shawii 
Dum. Bibr., Erp. Gen. v, 590. 
Jamaica. Mus. Smithsonian. 

Celestus imprbssus Cope, spec. nov. 

This is an elongate species with a tail cylindric for its proximal half, a little 
depressed at base ; the body is quite cylindric and the limbs short. The ear 
is large and the head abruptly widened at the temples. The muzzle is short 
and flat, and the superciliary regions are slightly elevated above the frontal 
plane. Loreal region grooved. Ten upper labials, of which the eighth rises 
between suboculars. Postnasal distinct, prefrenal much higher than long, 
frenal square, two preoculars. Scales with equal keels, their hinder halves 

The limbs appressed to the sides fail to meet by the length of the anterior 
without the hand. 

In. Lin. In. Lin. 

Length to posterior edge ear... 10-2 Length fore limb 11-66 

" to axilla 19.75 " hind limb 15-3 

" to vent 3 8-V5 " tail (reproduced) 5 9- 

Color above olivaceous, below yellowish. Back and sides crossed by about 
18 narrow brown bars, which are three times broken and alternating on each 
side the middle line. Tail cross-lined, throat and breast cross-banded less dis- 
tinctly. Lateral plates, a short band behind orbit, and four quadrate spots 
above throat and axilla, deep brown. 

Two specimens in Mus. Academy from Jamaica, collected by Charles B. 

Cblestus striatus Gray, Ann. Nat. Hist, ii, 288. Catal. Brit. Mus. Diploglossus 
cliftii Dum., Bibr. v, 59G. 
Jamaica. Mus. Academy, Phila. 

Cblestus owenii m. Diploglossus Dum., Bibr., do. {Oneyda) Gray, Catal. B. M. 
Habitat. — Unknown. (Mus. College Surgeons, London.) 

AMEIVA Cuvier. 

Ambiva chrysol^ma Cope, sp. nov. 

Char. — Twelve series abdominal plates ; no horny tubercles on the heel ; 
median and lateral gular scales equal. Frontal undivided, supraorbitals four. 
Teeth mostly bicuspid. Olive with numerous series of white spots, sometimes 
indistinct on dorsal region. Gular fold black, throat yellow ; belly green and 

Description. — One of the larger species. Four parietals and one interparietal, 
subequal. Two posterior supraorbitals bounded by granules within ; frontal in 
front nearly broad as long ; prefrontals longer than broad. Nostril in nasal 
plate near suture. A postnasal, one very large frenal, two preoculars and two 
suboculars. Labials 6 — 7, the anterior in both series very narrow. Infralabi- 
als eight in lower series, three in upper behind, all separated from labials by 



granules. Gular fold margined broadly with granules, with three larger series 
of hexagonal scales. 

Brachials rather small, in seven rows above, and two below, not separated 
from antebrachials by granules, but joining an area of small scales in seven rows 
above, and ending in one row of broad and one of narrow antebrachials be- 
low. Postbrachials small, three rows larger. Tibial plates in four rows, two 
on under face, the outer of seven plates, of which the third and fourth are very 
large. Outer toes just exceeding inner. Femoral pores twenty. 

In. Lin. In. Lin. 

Total length .16 9. Length to orbit 8- 

Length to vent 5 5* " of fore limb 2 1- 

" to edge collar . 1 10.5 " of hind limb 3 9- 

" of anterior claw 3- " ofhindfoot 1 10-5 

Olive-green with five series of small white spots on each side, and seven on 
the dorsal region. The latter tend in a smaller specimen to form tAvo pairs of 
incomplete dorsal stripes. Upper arm and hind leg with small white spots. 
One or two series white spots on the lateral abdominal scales. Latter black- 
ish olive-yellow margined. 

The anterior claws of this species are particularly large, and slightly curved. 
There are twenty teeth on each maxillary bone, which are nearly all bicuspid, 
the longest cusp posterior. In one individual there are mingled with these, 
posteriorly, three tricuspid. 

Two specimens sent to Mus. Smithsonian from Gonave Island, on the west- 
ern side of the Island of Hayti, by Thos. Younglove. 


Typhlops sulcatus Cope. 

This species exhibits most of the characters of the T. lumbricalis. These 
are, the presence of a preocular plate, the obtuseness of the muzzle plates, four 
upper labials, a nasal entirely divided by the suture through the nostril, and 
twenty longitudinal rows of scales. 

It differs in the much greater prolongation and depression of the muzzle, 
and hencte more slender form of the rostral and nasal, and greater prolonga- 
tion backwards of the upper part of the preocular. In the existence of a strong 
groove along the sutures of these plates, giving the muzzle a trilobate outline 
from above. In similar deep grooves along the upper sutures of the labials and 
around the small frontal superciliary and interparietal scales. These scales 
are not larger than those of the body ; a pair in place of the parietals are 
larger. The body is more slender than in T. 1 u mb r icali s , the length of 
the tail entering it 44-1 times. Tail short, acuminately conic. The length of 
the muzzle beyond the mouth equals from the nostrils to the opposite side of 
the rostral plate, or one-half the tail's length. 

Color pale yellowish-brown ; a darker brown line in the middle of each row 
of scales, on the anterior third of the length. 

Total length 6 in. 5-2 1. ; of tail 1-75 1. ; greatest diameter 2 lines. 

One specimen in Mus. Smithsonian from Navassa Island, southwest from St. 

Tropidophis Bibr. Notophis Hallowell. 

Thirty-five individuals, representatives of this genus before me, indicate 
a greater number of species than are at present recognized by naturalists. 
Some of the additional ones have been already named and imperfectly de- 

All that are known are from the Bahamas, Cuba, Navassa and Jamaica, a 
remarkably local distribution. They are distinguished as follows : 

* The correct spelling of this name is probably Ungualia. 



I. Scales in twenty-seven rows, keeled. 
Gastrosteges from 200 to 209 ; five or six lateral rows 

smooth ; yellow with black end of tail mklanoba. 

Gastrosteges 169 — 189, nine or more lateral rows smooth ; 

brown with rows of brown spots ; tail not black.... pabdalis. 

II. Scales in twenty-one — five rows. 
et. Scales keeled, a larger dorsal row ; 

Gastrosteges 168; scales in twenty three rows; gray 

with small dorsal spots cana. 

AOL. Scales smooth, dorsal rows equal. 
Short, stout, gastrosteges 142 — 150 ; head lanceolate ; 
scales in 23 — 25 rows ; brown or gray with usually 

dorsal and lateral spots maoulata. 

Long slender, head small lanceolate ; gastrosteges 202 — 
5 ; scales 21 — 3 rows; yellow with nearly complete 

broad brown rings or half rings sbmicincta. 

Long slender, head broad short ; gastrosteges 211, scales 

25 rows; brown with six rows of black spots dipsadina. 

The normal number of postoculars in this genus is three, but 'variations 
are not unfrequent. Thus a specimen ofU. raaculata has but two postoc- 
ulars on each side, another has two on one side only. Another has a com- 
plete circle of five scales round the eye on one side, and three postoculars on 
the other. I have seen no specimen with two preoculars as in the specimen 
figured by Jan as T. distinctus, but as the species does not appear otherwise 
different from U. macnlata, I suspect that this character also falls within the 
range of the variations of the latter. 

Ungalia melanura Gray, Boa, Schlegel. 

There are two varieties of this species. 

et. A narrow brown vertebral line; crown not spotted; [Notophis bicarinatus 
Hallow.), three specimens from Cuba, two of them from the east ; one with 
two keels on the vertebral row, the others with one. 

/?. [Boa melanura Schleg.) Two dorsal series of brown and gray spots, top 
of head much spotted. Five sp. from Cuba. 

Ungalia pardalis. Boa Pardalis Gosse, Ungalia maculata Gosse. 

Var. a. Shorter, gastrosteges 169; eight rows of spots, belly blotched. 
One sp. from Jamaica (Adams coll.) Smithsonian, 5763. 

/?. U. bucculenta Cope. Larger, gastrosteges 186 — 9; four rows of 
spots, dorsal pairs much confluent, belly specked ; head swollen behind. Four 
specimens from Navassa Id. Mus. Smithsonian. The largest of these 
measures 25 inches in length. 

Ungalia cana Cope, sp. nov. 

This species is intermediate between the U. pardalis and U. m a c u 1 a t a 
in many respects. Superior labials ten, all higher than long ; orbitals 1 — 3. 
Internasals longer than broad ; prefrontals broader than long ; postfrontals 
pentagonal, nearly equal sided. Temporals 3 — 3 — 4, Scales, except six exter- 
nal rows, weakly carinate. Muzzle narrow, acuminate, head rather wide be- 
hind: diameter of eye a little over twice in length muzzle. Total length 13 
in. 9 lin. ; tail 16-5 lines. General form neither very stout nor slender. 

Color gray brown above, below yellowish gray, densely punctulated at 
middle of gastrosteges. A series of tolerably approximated transverso-dorsal 
spots, which are short, and little distinct, in some specimens almost wanting. 
On each side on the third row of scales is a series of black dots two or three 
scales apart. A brown band from eye to side of neck, the labials below it 
yellowish ; mental region yellowish. 

Several specimens from the liabama Island of Inagua sent to the Smith- 



Unoalia maculata Gray. Tropidophis Bibron. Tropidophis distinctut Jan. 

Elenco et Icongraphie. 

<t. Two rows large spots on each side, the upper series usually confluent ; 
a large series each side the vent extending half across it ; eight specimens 
from Cuba. 

0. Two rows small spots on each side, those of the dorsal rows separate; 
no large blotches on the belly. Three sp. from New Providence ; Bahamas. 

y. Gray without spots or with traces only. Three sp. from New Provi- 

In this species two or three labials may enter the orbit irrespective of the 
number of postoculars. 

Ungalia semicincta, Vnff. maculata, var. semicincta Gundlach and Peters, 

Monatsberichte Preuss. Acad. 1864, 388. 

This is a handsome and distinct species, described as a variety as above, 
most probably, though the authors have not noted its essential peculiarities 
of proportions of body and the number of scuta. 

Three specimens (2 Smithsonian, 5746) from Eastern Cuba. Chas. Wright. 

Ungalia dipsadinaCopc, sp. nov. 

This is a long slender species, much compressed, with slender neck, 
and small flat and broad head ; its form is thus more like that of Dipsas than 
any other of the genus. The anterior upper labials are larger than 
in the other species, the second reaching to the preocular on one 
side, and within a hair's breadth on the other. Ten labials on one side, nine 
on the other, two only in orbit. Oculars 1 — 3; temporals 3 — 3 — 4; inter- 
nasals and prefontals of equal length ; occipitals short, separated by two 
scales. Eight dorsals, and the basal series of scales larger than the lateral 
scales, some of the latter slightly roof-shaped. Two pairs of longer genials. 
The eye is larger than in the other species, its diameter entering the length 
of the muzzle 1-5 times. The width of the head behind nearly equal its 
length from the end of the muzzle to near the end of the occipitals. The 
diameter of the body an inch behind the head, one half that of the thickest 
part of the body. Urosteges 42. 

Color above a deep reddish brown, with a row of black spots on each side 
the median line about two scales wide, and always distinct, and two alterna- 
ting rows of smaller black spots on each side. A series of blackish cross- 
bars on the belly, two and three scuta apart, sometimes divided and alterna- 
ting, invade the first row of scales ; no spots for two inches behind the chin. 
Head dark above, with a darker spot on the occipital region. Ground color 
below, yellowish brown. 

Total length 15-5 in. ; of tail 2 in. ; of gape 6 lin. 

Habitat. — Cuba, section unknown. Discovered by my friend Prof. Poey, 
of Havana, who sent a specimen to the Museum of the Academy of Natural 

COLOPHRYS Cope, gen. nov. 

Teeth equal. Anal shield simple, subcaudals divided. Two pair genials 
and frontals ; no preocular or superciliary, the vertical forming the eyebrow; 
two nasals. Scales smooth. 


Scales broad, in seventeen longitudinal 
series. Head slightly contracted, obtuse, 
depressed. Rostral shield visible from 
above; prefrontals moderate, their com- 
mon suture little less than that of post- 
frontals ; nasals large, as long as loreal, 




postnasal longer. Vertical (frontal) angulated in 
front, more acutely behind, where it has two su- 
tures on each side, owing to its confluence with 
the superciliaries — the exterior being the posterior 
sutures of the latter. Parietals much longer than 
wide, only margining anteriorly the whole of the 
narrow single postorbital. Labials six, all higher 
than long except the sixth, which only is separated 
from the parietals by a single temporal. Second superior labial in contact 
with postnasal and more with boreal ; third and fourth with orbit and post- 
ocular. Inferior labials seven, five in contact with genials. Scales in contact 
with parietal, 1 temporal, 4J squamae. Gastrosteges 144, urosteges 30; in 
a second specimen 140 — 41. Length of largest specimen 12 inches j tail 2 in. 
1-5 lines. 

Color of upper surfaces a rich slate brown, very iridescent ; lower surfaces, 
including first series of scales with labial and rostral shield, red orange. 

Three specimens of this species were brought by Dr. Van Patten from the 
elevated country in the neighborhood of the city of Guatemala. It bears con- 
siderable resemblance to the Catostoma chalybaeum Wagler, but besides 
the lack of superciliary shields, its eye is smaller and the head more com- 
pressed. In the C. chalybaeum there are but six inferior labials, of 
which four margin the genials ; it has also shorter nasals, and a vertical 
more truncate anteriorly. 


Catostoma nabale Cope, sp. nov. 

This species has, like that preceding and that 
following, seventeen rows of scales, of which those 
on the posterior part of the body and tail are 
weakly keeled, thus differing from the C. c h a 1 y- 
b ae u m where they are smooth. It also differs much 
from the same in the elongated form of the head 
and the great disparity in size between the pre- 
and postfrontal shields. In this species the former 
are less than one-fourth the latter in longitudinal 
extent, and about half in the transverse. The su- 
praorbitals are very small and subtriangular, the 
vertical broader than long, and what is unusual, 
as much angulated anteriorly as posteriorly. Pa- 
rietals longer than broad, the anterior margin 
touching the postocular and superciliary. Supe- 
rior labials eight, the last only separated from pa- 
rietals by a temporal, which is large in two, small 
in one specimen. First labial very small, third 
longer than high. Inferior labials seven, four in 
contact with genials. Seventeen rows of scales, 

which are small and more crowded above the vent than in any other species. 

Gastrosteges in three specimens 131 — 3 — 4 ; urosteges in the same 25, 30. 
Color above, including labial region and chin, iridescent slate brown ; 

belly and gular region pale yellow. Length of largest specimen 11 in. 1-5 

lines ; tail 2 in. 

This species is probably nearly allied to the C. s i e bol d i i of Jan, of 

which but few peculiarities are described. Jan's account of the scutellation 

indicates a more elongate species no doubt distinct: the scuta vary from ff. 

146—154, u. 34—8. 
Several specimens from near the city of Guatemala, presented to the 

Smithsonian Institution by Dr. Van Patten. Mus. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 




The genus Rhadinaea is nearly coextensive with Henicognathus Jan, and 
Ablabes Giinther. Ablabes of Dum. Bibr. was, however, established on the 
Coronella rufula of Schlegel. which has the prolonged series of gastric 
hypapophyses, and is therefore quite different, while Henicognathus is 
characterized by a peculiar structure of the mandible, which so far as I am 
aware occurs in only one American species, the H. a n n u 1 a t u s D. B. Conse- 
quently the majority of species attached to this genus belong to Rhadinaea, 
as the E. melanocephala D. B. etc. In the description of this last 
species, three are mingled, as* I have ascertained both from a reading of the 
same, and from an examination of the originals in Mus. Paris. One of these 
is our R. o b t u s a, the other is the true R. melanocephala, which 
should be described as follows, and the third is a species as yet undescribed, 
which I call Lygophis n i c a g u s Cope. Dum^ril and Bibron give both the 
Island of Guadaloupe and Brazil as habitats of their species. I suspect, 
however, that the specimen of R. o b t u s a was accidentally introduced into 
the jar containing the other two, and that it is confined to South America, 
where it is not uncommon. It is figured by Jan in his Iconographie, as the 
second specimen ofR. melanocephala. His first specimen of the same 
as figured, is our Lygophis n i c a g u s, a serpent with a diacranterian denti- 

The true R. melanoce-phalais probably confined to Guadaloupe and 
the neighboring islands. Its description has been so mingled with those of 
the two other species as to require a rediscription. It is to be regretted that 
this, the type of the species, should not have been figured in the beautiful 
work of Jan and Sordelli. 

Rhadinaea melanocephala. Enicognathus melanocephalus D. and B., part. 

Head broader and shorter. Common pre- and postfrontal suture 2^ times 
in length, from vertical ant. sut. to end occip. suture, and equal diam. eye. 
Vertical a little longer than occip. Common sut. occip. = anterior sut. occip. ! 
Postfront. descending low on (sides of) loreal seg. Loreal longer than 
high, 8 and 9 sup. lab., 4 and 5 or 4? 5 and 6 in orbit; of the 3 behind the 
5th or 6th — 1st is higher than long, 2d longer than high, 3d and last of all 
twice as high as long. Temporals 2 | 2 | 2 | the infer, of 1st row between pe- 
nult, and antepenult, labials. Yellow band round canthus rostralis and upper 
part of rostr. plate edge of supcil. and across post, part of sapcil. and vert. ; 
brown area enclosed. Occips. brown, connected by long, line with broad 
brown collar yellow edged, which is 6 scales long. Yellow vertebr. band on me- 
dian row sc. with occasional round brown spot on a single scale, small round 
spot on end gastrosteges. Labials yellow, edged above with brown. Tail 10''''. 
Total 32^/ 5^^^ 

From Guadaloupe. Mus. Paris. 

LYGOPHIS (Fitz.) Cope. 

Lygophis nicagus Cope. Enicognathus melanocephalus Jan, Iconographie Livr. 

xvi. Tab. 1, fig. 4, (not of Dum. Bibr.) 

Length of coram, suture of pre- and postfront. one-third dist. from anter. 
suture vertic. to end of comm. sut. of occipitals. Vert, long, sides straight, 
converg., as long as comm. sut. occip. Occip. long, a little divaricate at tips. 
Diam. eye = comm. suture pre- and postfronts. ; 7 sup. lab. ; 3, 4, 5 in orbit ; 
Vth largest, higher than long, 8th longer than high. Loreal higher than long. 
Temp. 1 I 2, 17 r. sc. Below yellow, immaculate, near end of gastrost. a 
longit. spot, forming together longitud. line. Above this line brown, 
darker to 4th row of sc, forming band with numerous light points mixed ; and 
on 8, 9, 10 rows where a median longitud, band is formed with undnlatory 
edges and varied with whitish points. On anter. part body the intermediate 



pale lateral band crossed by vertical brown bars. Dark spot on nape and 
middle of occips., which are bordered all round with pale and have a pair 
pale spots in middle (Tropidonotus style.) Superciliar. with a posterior bor- 
der. Tail 1^^ r^\ Total 36^^ 3'^'. 

A review of the species of this genus is given by Giinther in Ann. Mag. N. 
History, 1863, 353, in which he enumerates six species. He omits the East 
Indian species, and places them in Tropidonotus in his volume on the Reptiles 
of British India, — an arrangement which I had long thought necessary, on ac- 
count of the hypapophyses of the posterior vertebrae of the latter (vide Proc. 
Acad. 1864), Jan places Liophis bicinctus of Dum. Bibr. with Xenodon 
gigas D. B,, a closer approximation to nature than any other arrangement. 
He, however, regards them as a genus distinct from Xenodon, the truth of 
which position I doubt, and refer them both to Xenodon. The species of the 
latter genus will then be as follows, two not previously known being added: 

I. An orbital ring of scales. 

X. bicinctus. X. gi gas Dum. Bibr, 

II. One labial entering the orbit. 
X. irregularis Gthr. 

III. Two labials entering orbit, 
o. Eight superior labials. 

/?. Anal bifid. 
X. severusL. X. neovidii Gthr. 

/8/?. Anal entire. 
X. colubrinus Gthr. X. suspectus Cope, sp. nov. X. angustiros- 
tris* Peters. 

tct. Seven superior labials. 
X. r h a b d c e p h a 1 u s Boie. 

I have before me, of X. g i g a s two sp., X. severus five sp., X. neo- 
vidii one sp., X. colubrinus three sp., X. suspectus one sp., X. 
a n g u s t i r s t r i s four sp. 

Xbnodon suspectus Cope. 

Scales in nineteen longitudinal rows, in transverse series and very imbri- 
cate. Body rather slender, compressed, head distinct ovate, plane in profile, 
the muzzle not depressed or arched. End of muzzle not projecting; eye 
large, contained 1^ times in length muzzle, and 1§ in interorbital width. 

Prenasal more elevated than postnasal ; loreal large, higher than long. 
Two postoculars, the superior considerably more elevated, in contact with one 
temporal, which is higher than long; sixth and seventh labials higher than 
long, the seventh not reaching postoculars, separated from occipital by two 
temporals. Last labial a little longer than high'. Supraorbitals each a tri- 
angle truncate anteriorly. Frontal nearly long as broad, subtriangular, the 
occipital sutures being very short. Occipitals very short, subtriangular, sides 
concave, width equal common suture. Inferior labials 9 (one less than other 
species) ; genials, the pairs short, equal. Gastrosteges 134, urosteges 35. 

Color: above a bright dark olive, wiih fourteen blackish cross-bars con- 
tracted in the middle, as wide as their interspaces ; the ground color appears 
in the middles of these bars, reducing them to skeletons. Sides of belly 
black, with irregular bright yellow spots, most distinct on the end of every 
other scutum. Top of head with ground like the back, and, like it, thickly 
covered with black specks. Sides of head and of muzzle black, speckled 

* Two specimens of this species are in the museum of the Academy, presented by Dra. 
Gallaer and Le Conte. Two other apeciineas, of unknown locality, are to be referredf to the 



with yellow, on the temple abruptly bounded above by the olive in a line to 
rictus. Labial plates with a yellow blotch in the middle. An indistinct 
brown band on each side the head from the occipitals backwards. Throat 
bright yellow, with black blotches behind, which continues on the anterior 
fourth the length. Belly brown, clouded yellow laterally, becoming blacker 
behind ; tail yellow below. 

Total length 22 in. 4 1. ; of tail 3 in. ; of gape 111. 

This, the brightest species of the genus, was brought from Lake Jose Assu 
by the Thayer Expedition to Brazil, under direction of Professor Agassiz. 
M. C. Z. 362. 

EUT^NIA Bd. Gird. 
Bothnia phenax Cope, sp. nov. 

This is a handsome and peculiar species, being the only one of the genus 
which is cross-banded. 

Scales in nineteen rows. All keeled except the first. General form much 
as in E, sirtalis . Head rather short, muzzle obtuse, eye large, supercili- 
ary plates arched. Diameter of eye equal from same to rostral plate along 
the labials. Frontal shortened behind, with straight sides, -75 of parietal 
common suture. Parietals truncate behind. Upper labials eight, fourth and 
fifth in orbit. Loreal longer than high, one preocular, temporals 1 — 2. In- 
ferior labials nine, sixth largest ] genials equal. Urosteges 63 ; anal 1 ; 
gastrosteges 161. 

Total length 23 in, 5 L ; of tail 5 in. ; to rictus oris 9 lin. 
Coloration. Above reddish-olive, crossed by thirty-six transverse spots, 
which are of a bright brownish-red, with a narrow black margin. They are 
separated by transverse intervals of only a scale in width, hence the black 
margins appear as paired cross-bars. These cross-bars extend to the first 
row of scales, and are as often continuous on the side as not. There is no 
lateral stripe, but there are black spots on the corner of the end of the gas- 
trosteges. The margin of the first brown spot is in form of two black lines, 
diverging from the parietal plates backwards. There is a brown bar in front 
of frontal, one on the frontal and superciliaries behind (imperfect), and a 
longitudinal on each parietal. No pair of light parietal spots. Labials below 
eye with the last black-margined, otherwise light olive. Below, a strong 
green, unspotted. 

This species is common near Cordova, Vera Cruz, whence Francis Sami- 
chrast has sent specimens to the Smithsonian Inst, and Mus. A. N. S, 


Masticophis melanolomus Cope, sp, nov. 

A slender species, with one preopercular plate, and smooth scales in fifteen 
longitudinal series. Loreal an elongate parallelogram, not encroaching on 
the preocular. Postoculaps two, the inferior very small. Superior labials 
nine, the fourth, fifth and sixth in orbit, seventh subtriangular, eighth and 
ninth longer than high. The last mentioned arc separated from occipitals 
by two horizontal series of temporals, each of three plates, the anterior of the 
lower, and posterior of the upper, the longest, lower posterior widest. Occi- 
pitals broadly emarginate behind, their width in front equal the common 
suture and four-fifths frontal plate. Latter much narrowed ; superciliaries 
broad, projecting. Internasals a little longer than broad, rostral just visible 
from above. Inferior labials ten, postgenials considerably longer than pre- 
genials. A row of plates in an open chevron bounds the occipitals and tem- 
porals behind. Scales of body not narrowed j anal as in the genus, divided. 

Gastrosteges 184; urosteges 128. Total length 44 in. 3 1.; of tail 14 in. ; 
of rictus oris 1 in. 1 1. 

Coloration grayish-olive, all the scales with a narrow black border, which 
become longitudinal lines on the posterior part of the length ; one of these, 



on the line of the second and third rows of scales, extends throughout the 
posterior five-sixths the length. A dark shade through eye. Middle half of 
gastrosteges yellow. 

From Yucatan; A. Schott, of the Comision Cientifica. 

I had enumerated this as the M. bilineatus of Schlegel (Pr. A. N. S. 
1866, 127), but an examination of Jan's beautiful figure enables me to correct 
the error. 

Giinther, Jan. 

A review of the species of this interesting genus has been already given. I 
give here references to all the species, and descriptions of some new ones not 
contained in the Williams College collection. 
Leptognathus bucephala Cope, Shaw, see Catalogue. 

Leptognathus variegatus Dum. Bibron, Erpet. Gen. vii, p. 477. Dipsadomo- 
rus Jan. 

From Surinam. No specimen of this species has fallen under my observa- 

Leptognathus catbsbyi Giinther, Weigel. See Catalogue. 

Leptognathus pavonina Dum. Bibr. Schleg., Erpet. Gen. vii, 474. 

Leptognathus articulata Cope, sp. nov. '^Dipsas brcvis Dum. Bibr.," Cope, 
Proc. A. N. Sci. Philada. 1860. Not of Dum. Bibr. 

The most slender, compressed species of the genus. Muzzle very short ; 
frontal plate hexagonal, sides converging, length equal width ; occipitals 
broad and squarely truncate behind, not reached by the vertebral series of 
plates. Fourth and fifth superior labials entering orbit, sixth nearly excluded 
by the long lower postocular. Temporals two — three, with one inferior addi- 
tional in contact with postocular. Sixth and seventh inferior labials con- 
nected by one transverse plate. 

The brown annuli are wider anteriorly than posteriorly ; the second covers 
lOj rows of scales, the seventeenth, just in front of the vent, 6J. The yellow 
annuli are of nearly uniform width — 4^ scales, — and without spots above or 
below. Top of head, sides, and upper labials in front of eye, all the lower 
labials, brown; rest of head with numerous short lines on the muzzle, yellow 
or white. 

Gastrosteges 215; anal 1; urostegeg 135. Total length 26-5 in. ; of tail 
8-75 in. ; of gape 6 in. 

From Veraguas, Costa Rica; sent to the Academy by R. W. Mitchell. 

Leptognathus mikakii Gunther, Schlegel. Anholodon mikanii Dum. Bibr. 
vii, 1165. 

Eastern Brazil. 

Body not elongate, but much compressed. Head less elevated, and with 
flatter muzzle than in the last. 

Loreal square ; frontal nearly equally hexagonal, with straight aides ; occi- 
pitals elongate, rounded posteriorly. Third and fourth labials bounding or- 
bits, the anterior little higher than long, posterior two much longer than 
high. Temporals 1 | 2, all longer than high, anterior in contact with both 

Dorsal cross-bands two scales wide, four scales apart, with zig-zag outlines 
from never crossing a scale. Posteriorly their extremities are broken off into 
a lateral series of spots. Belly with a series of elongate blotches on each 
side, which alternate with the lateral spots; dusted with brown medially. 
Top of head dark brown, with five darker light-edged spots ; one on the junc- 
tion of prefrontals with frontal, on one outer posterior angle of latter, and 
one on each occipital plate. Labial plates all reddish- brown margined. 



Gastrosteges 165; anal 1; urosteges 74. Total length 16 in. ; of tail 3-75 
in. ; of gape 5 1. 

Frem Bahia, Brazil. Spec, in Mus. Academy, presented by E. D. Cope. 

Leptognathus vaga Jan., Elenco Systematico (nondescripta). 

This species has not been described, so far as the writer is aware, but it 
can be assigned to its place in consequence of an examination of the original 
specimen, which was permitted the writer through the attention of Prof. Jan. 

It belongs to group II, and has but two postocular plates ; of itspreoculars 
nothing can be said. Superior labials eight. There are four pairs of genials. 
General form less compressed than the types, with rather short body and tail. 
Above wood-brown, with indistinct cross series of spots. Below yellowish, 
tesellated with brown. Size not large for the genus. 

This species is said to have been brought from Hong Kong, but this is alto- 
gether improbable ; it is probably South American. 

Another species, L. irtcerius^ from Surinam, is named but not described by 
Jan, and is therefore likely to remain incertus. 

Leptognathus brevis Dum. Bibr., vii, 476. 

This species is not described in sufficient detail to allow me to refer it to 
its place in this genus. It appears, however, to be different from any species 
here enumerated, though it has the coloration of several Mexican species. 

Mexico, Dum. Bibron. 
Leptognathus orbas Cope. See preceding Catalogue. 

Leptognathus in^quifasciata Cope. Cochliophagus insequi. Dum. Bibr., vii. 
From Brazil, with doubt. D. B. 

Leptognathus nebulata Giinther, Linn. Petalognathu« Dum. Bibr. Coluber 
variegatus Hallowell, Pr. A. N. S. ii, 214. See Catalogue. 

Leptognathus anthracops Cope, sp. nov. 

A strongly marked species, having a general resemblance to the L. 
sar to rii . 

Muzzle short, narrowed, frontal plate longer than wide, with straight sides ; 
occipitals not shortened, broadly rounded behind. Anterior three labials 
narrow and high, fourth and fifth only touching orbit. Sixth upper labial 
much higher than long; seventh much longer than high. Inferior postocular 
larger than superior. Temporals rather small, subequal, 1 | 2 | 3 ; loreal 
longer than high. Sixth inferior labial enlarged. Second pair genials longer 
than wide, third pair wider than' long. 

Yellow annuli, 9J rows scales apart anteriorly, four rows distant posteri- 
orly ; yellow rings, wider behind. There are twenty-three on the body, 
twelve on the tail. They are often alternating on the belly, which is other- 
wise unspotted. No white markings on top of head. 

Gastrosteges 177; anal 1 ; urosteges 76, some dozen or more at the tip of 
the tail undivided in the individual at hand. 

Total length 19 in. 8 1.; of tail 5 in. 3 1.; of gape 4-75 1. 

From Central America ; one sp. in Mus. Academy from E. D. Cope, pro- 
cured from the traveller and collector, Robert Bridges. 

Leptognathus brevifacies Cope. Tropidodipsas brevifacies Cope, Proc. A. N. 
Sci. Philada. 1866. 
From Yucatan. 
Leptognathus turgida Cope, sp. nov. " Cochliophagus insequifasdatus D. B.," 
Cope, Proc. A. N. Sci. Philada. 1862, 347 ; not of Dum. Bibr. 
This species has the head very little distinct from the body when viewed 
from above, and the neck but little compressed. In profile the frontal region 
is seen to be concave, and the top of the muzzle swollen both longitudinally 
and transversely. The internasals are but little broader than long; the same 
f [March, 


may be said of the large prefrontals. Frontal hexagonal, scarcely longer than 
broad, with strongly convergent sides. Occipitals narrowed, emarginate be- 
hind. Temporals 1 | 2 | 2, the anterior not large, in contact with both post- 
oculars and fifth and sixth upper labials. Seventh labial bounded by two. 
The five anterior labials are higher than long, the two others a little longer 
than high, third and fourth entering orbit. Loreal longer than high. Eight 
inferior labials, fifth with greater transverse than longitudinal diameter. 

Gastrosteges 159; anal 1; urosteges 41. 

Color above a rich yellow-brown, with a series of black spots on the dorsal 
region, which are longer anteriorly, but separated by nearly equal spaces of 
1-5 to 2 scales; length of third spot 7-5, scales of tenth, three scales. Behind 
the third spot the lateral portions are separated and sometimes divided, and 
extend to the ends of the scuta. Below nearly unspotted, except on tail. 
Gular region also immaculate. Head above thickly dusted with brown, paler 
on nape and top of muzzle. A pair of deep brown, yellow-edged spots on 
each occipital plate, converging behind ; labials brown-dusted. 

This is one of the most handsomely colored of the species, and of aberrant 

From the Northern part of the Paraguay river. 

Leptognathus fasciata Cope. Tropidodipsas fasciata GUnther, Catal. Snakes 
Brit. Mus., 1858. 
From Mexico. 

Leptognathus sartorii Cope. Tropidodipsas do. Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
1863, 100. 
Vera Cruz, Mexico. 


Peostherapis INGUINAL18 Copc, genus et species novae Colostethidarum. 

Char, gener. — Xiphisternum membranous (difficult to discover), manubrium 
a bony style, with cartilage disc; metatarsus slightly webbed, dilatations 
strong, each with two dermal scales on the upper side, separated by a fissure ; 
terminal phalanges small, T-shaped ; tongue cylindric, free ; no vomerine 
teeth ; belly not areolate. Pupils longitudinal. Ethmoid well developed an- 
teriorly, the prefrontals lateral, well separated. 

This genus is interesting, as constituting the second of the little known 
family of the Colostethidae, which was established by the writer in 186*7. Its 
general appearance is that of a Phyllobates, and it is related to Colostethus 
much as Limnocharis is to the first-named. The two leathery scales of the 
pallettes are peculiar, and resemble those of the under side in Phyllodactylus. 
The distal phalanges are short, and extend very little into the dilatation. 

Char, specif. — Muzzle and canthus rostralis angulated, the former project- 
ing, rounded, truncate from above ; the loreal region nearly vertical. Nostril 
nearly terminal, eye large, its long diameter equal to near end of muzzle. 
Membrana tympani concealed. Skin everywhere smooth, a weak fold on the 
distal half the tarsus. Free portions of the metatarsi only webbed, all the 
toes with strong dermal margin ; the fingers with a weaker one. Digital di- 
latations extended rather transversely; two metatarsal tubercles, both small, 
inner elongate. Inner nares almost lateral, ostia pharyngea small, half the 
size of the former. 

Width head and jaws one-third length to end coccyx, and equal length head 
to opposite usual position of posterior margin tympanum. Heel to middle 
of orbit, wrist to beyond end muzzle. 


Length head and body r2'6 

" fore limb 8 

" hind limb 18-5 

" foot without tarsus 6-6 

1868.] 10 


Color dark brownish-leaden, below dirty white. The almost black of the 
sides bounded below by an irregular pale border, below which are some dark 
marblings. The same border extends, with an axillary interruption, to the 
orbit, and continues on the upper lip as a series of light dots. A light band 
commences at the groin above, and extends to opposite the sacrum, convert- 
ing the dark color of the side into a half band. Femur and tibia dark, marbled 
before and behind. 

From the river Truando, New Grenada. Brought by the expedition under 
Lieut. Michler, by Arthur Schott. This species and the Dendrobates tinc- 
t o r i u s Wagl. were accidentally omitted from the report of this expedition, 
published in Proc. Acad. 1862, 355. 


Ridges of cranium superciliary and supratympanic ; no parietal branch. 
Parotoids elongate trigonal, the long angle prolonged towards the sides. Two 
weak metatarsal tubercles. A tarsal dermal fold ; toes little webbed. Muzzle 
elongate, not much depressed or projecting beyond labial border. No pre- 
orbital ridge; superciliaries nearly parallel. Skin rather finely rugose. 

Males olive-grey ; females with a pale vertebral line, and a series of brown 
spots on each side of it. Crown, lips, and below unspotted. Length of head 
and body 2 in. 9 1. 

This species is to be compared with the B. granulosus of Spix, which 
it represents in another region. It differs in lacking the preorbital ridge, and 
having a longer muzzle. 

Numerous specimens in Museum Smithsonian from Colima, Western Mexico, 
from U. S. Consul, John Xantus. 

Second Supplement on some New Raniformia of the Old World. 


Head rauiform, little elevated ; end of muzzle recurved, loreal and subor- 
bital regions concave, the edge of the maxillary region strongly projecting. 
From orbit to margin of jaw below it less than diameter of tympanum, two- 
thirds that of orbit. Tympanum elliptic, subvertical, about -66 long diame- 
ter eye fissure, latter -2 greater than from edge of same to external nostril, 
and 1'5 least interorbital width. Frontal and prefrontal regions slightly 
grooved medially. Vomerine teeth in two very short, nearly transverse, lines 
opposite the middle margin of the inner nares. Latter large, about equal to 
ostia pharyngea. 

When the limbs are extended the carpus attains the end of the muzzle, 
and the heel the middle of the orbit. Tarsus equal third toe without last 
two phalanges. Cuneiform shovel small for the genus, equal inner toe less 
the last phalange. Webs large, measuring '66 the third and fifth toes. 
Thumb longer than second and fourth fingers. Skin of upper surfaces with 
numerous narrow irregular folds ; eyelids slightly rugose behind. A strong 
fold above the tympanum decurved behind it. 

In. Lin. In. Lin, 

Total length head and body... 2 4-5 Length tarsus 6- 

" " hind limb 3 4-5 " foot 1 

Length tibia -13 Width head behind 1 

Color above gray-olive, with paired blackish spots, on each side a light 
vertebral band. The anterior of these are a triangular blotch on top of muz- 
zle and band across middle of each eyelid. Side of head blackish-gray with 
a pale gray band on end of muzzle, one from front of orbit to lip, and one 
below eye, longitudinally past lower edge tympanum bordered by blackish 
from orbit backwards. Femur with three, tibia with four, and outer edge 
foot with four blackish-gray cross-bars ; femur pale-brown behind. 



This species is more slender in form than the others of the genus, and ex- 
hibits a fuller palmaiion of the feet ; it does not differ more from the species 
of Hoplobatrachus Pet. than the Rana; do among themselves. One spec. 
(282) has the whole upper surface of the head, and a broad vertebral band 
yellow. Of the types are two specimens (No. 283) in Museum Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, all from Madagascar, presented to Prof. Agassiz by G 
W. Goodhue. 


Toes nearly completely webbed, 2-3 phalanges of the fourth toe free. Muz- 
zle obtuse ovate from above, decurved in profile, as long as diameter of eye- 
slit. Top of front and muzzle plane, canthus distinct, contracted, obtuse 
loreal region with a longitudinal concavity. Tympanum round, nearly as. 
large as eye, distinct From orbit to maxillary border '66 diameter tympan- 
um ; lip rather prominent below orbit. Vomerine teeth in two fasciculi op- 
posite middle or hind margin of choanae, nearer each other than margin. 
ChoansB smaller than the large ostia. 

Fingers with very small web at base, thumb longer than second, equal 
fourth. Tarsus of extended limb beyond end muzzle ; heel to front of orbit. 
Tarsus 2-3 times in longest toe. Cuneiform shovel 2-66 times in tarsus. 

In. Lin. In. Lin. 

Length head and body 2 1-75 Length head to tympanum 

Hind limb 3 3 75 behind 8-25 

Tibia -11 Width head same point 9* 

Hind foot 1 -7 

A glandular dermal fold from above tympanum to above groin on each 
side ; the greater part of the eyelid glandular and covered with pores. A 
glandular fold from angle mouth to behind above axilla. No tarsal folds. 

Color above brown, with dark-gray shades ; in one specimen an imperfect 
pale-gray vertebral line. Under surfaces white, sides coarsely and hand- 
somely marbled with brown and white below and gray above. Head dark- 
brown, a pale line on the lip, a slight margin to lower lip. Femur brown 
with pale marblings. 

This species is abundantly different from those hitherto known, and seems 
to indicate that the genus Hoplobatrachus Peters is less distinct from Tomop- 
terna than hitherto supposed. 

Three specimens (No. 305), Agassiz' Mus. Compar. Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass. From Kanagawa, Japan. From Dr. J as. T. Gulick. 

Hylorana lbptoglossa Cope, sp. nov. 

This species is most nearly allied to the H. temporalis Gnnther of Cey- 
lon. The points of difference are italicised in the following description : 

Hind limbs as in H. t e m p o r a 1 i s, and the fourth toe is only -33 longer 
than the third and fifth. Two well marked metatarsal tubercles. Vomerine 
teeth in two very short oblique rows commencing opposite the posterior 
margins of the choanse and directed backwards ; they are about as far from 
each other as from choante. Tongue narrow, not filling rami of jaws. Tym- 
panum as large as eye ; latter contained 1-5 times in length of muzzle, extending 
beyond nostril. A heavy glandular dorsolateral fold, separated by a groove 
from another interrupted one below it. A deep groove from axilla to near groin. 
A short glandular fold from angle of mouth. Muzzle flattened acuminate at the end. 
Heel of hind limb to front of orbit. Fourth toe more than half length bead 
and body ; no dermal fold on upper edge of tarsus. 

Above olivaceous, with a blackish band from end mu«zle to groin, margined 
with yellow below, from below eye to axilla. Pale yellow below, sides black- 
ish spotted. Femora behind black, yellow veined. Limbs paler, rather close- 
ly cross-barred. 

Lin. Lin. 

Length head and body 21-6 Width head behind tympanum.. 7.75 

" bind limb 20- Length hind foot 14-5 



Three specimens (623) in Mus. Compar. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. From 
near Rangoon, Burmah. With many other valuable specimens, these were 
procured by Wm. Theobald, Jr. 

Hylorana subccerulba Cope, sp. nov. 

Fourth toe somewhat more than half the length of the head and body. 
Two lateral glandular folds, the inferior much narrower, not reaching groin 
from angle mouth. No groove on the side of the belly. General form slen- 
der, the head elongate, the muzzle produced, 1-5 length of eye fissure, the 
nostril measuring two-fifths this distance. Tympanum -66 the diameter of 
eye. Interorbital width equal from eye to nostril. The middle of the meta- 
carpus measures the end of the muzzle, as does the proximal two-fifths the 
tarsus. Skin above smooth except on posterior iliac region, where are small 
warts. Sides scarcely glandular. A delicate fold on tarsus ; one metatarsal 
tubercle. Tongue rhombic, filling space between rami, contracted a little 
behind. Vomerine teeth in two rather long series originating at the front of 
the choanae, and extend very obliquely backwards, and well separated. 1*3 
phalanges of third and fifth toes free, and three phalanges of fourth toe. 

Above glossy blue, sides with a blackish-blue band from end muzzle to 
groin. Dermal folds and a band all around the upper lip brassy yellow. 
Femora behind speckled and marbled with yellow on a blackish ground, and 
with a dark longitudinal band below ; upper face tibia golden brown, not 
cross-barred. Arm not crossed-barred. Everywhere below brown shaded, 
palest on the belly. In a younger specimen the belly is white and the upper 
surfaces pale brown. 

Lin. Lin. 

Length head and body 15-1 Length hind limb 2.8 

" tibia &• '' to behind tympanum... 6- 

" tarsus 4-5 Width at same point 4-5 

" foot : 8-25 

This very handsome animal is nearest in general characters to the H. m a- 
crodactyla Giinther, a specimen of which was procured at the same 
locality, viz.: Rangoon, Burmah, by Wm. Theobald, Jr., above recorded. Its 
feet are much less palmate than those of the H. chalconota, from Java, 
which it also resembles. It is one of the best illustrations of a genus which 
has been particularly furnished among the Batrachia with beauty of hue and 
lustre. Mus. Compar. Zoology (624 — 626), three specimens. 

Sexual Law in ACER DASYCAEPUM Ehrb. 

Noticing among the silver maple trees at Bristol, Pa., some trees which had 
evidently borne only pistillate flowers for many years, and had subsequently 
pushed forth branches which bore only male flowers, it occurred to me 
that possibly extended observations might enable me to discover the law 
which governed the production of male or female forms respectively. I af- 
terwards examined carefully some thousands of trees in blossom, and though 
I failed in the immediate object, the discovery of the law, it may serve an 
useful purpose to place on record the facts observed in the investigation. 

The staminate flowers are easily distinguished from the pistillate ones, not 
only by their larger size, owing to the development of the stamens, bat by 
the pale yellowish-green of the filaments. The awl-shaped styles of the 
female flowers do not project far beyond the scales, and are reddish-brown. 
The Bristol trees were about a foot in diameter, very healthy, judging by their 
clean smooth bark, and had probably been in fruit-bearing condition for at 
least ten years. The proportion of male to female trees was about equal. 
There were many instances of branches with male flowers which had perhaps 



within the last three or four years pushed out on trees which had evidently 
once borne only female ones; but in no instance did a female branch start 
out from a male tree. Having once began to bear male flowers, these 
branches continued to develop these only, presenting the appearance of an- 
other variety grafted on another stock. 

Returning to Philadelphia, noting every tree I met on the side walks, I saw 
a very few trees which had male and female flowers scattered promiscuously 
over the same branches. These are very rare; but the fact of their existence 
may have an important bearing on any attempt to evolve the laws governing 
the production of separate sexes. 

At Germantown I chose for the field of my investigation the large estate of 
Mrs. G. W. Carpenter, on which are many hundreds about twenty-five to 
thirty years old ; but amongst all these I did not note one which showed any 
tendency to branch into distinct sexes like those at Bristol, or any one with 
mixed sexes like the few seeii in Philadelphia. All the trees were either ex- 
clusively male, or exclusively female. 

The parts of fructification in Acer dasycarpum have no^, to my knowledge, 
been minutely described. It will be of interest, in connection with the sub- 
ject of this paper, to note them. 

There are three classes of buds on the tree : leaf-bearing, staminate, and 
pistillate. The leaf-bearing buds are formed of eight imbricated scales in four 
pairs, the scales all distinct and beneath the uppermost pair ; five embryo 
leaves, rolled up to look very much like imperfect anthers, form a sort of 
crown. The bud bearing the staminate flower, or rather which forms it, 
has also eight scales, the upper two uniting for nearly half their length, and 
recurved at their summits when the flower is fully formed, making a cup-like 
involucre, at the bottom of which arise five (rarely seven) corollas, which are 
separated from each other at their bases by a fuscous down. These corollas 
are about one-fourth of an inch long, the lower half tubular, the upper half 
funnel-shaped, the five (rarely seven) stamens arising from the base of the 
funnel. The filaments are double the length of the corolla, which we may 
properly term it. 

The female flower primarily resembles the other two in this, that it is com- 
posed of eight scales imbricated in pairs ; but what in the male we call a 
corolla is reduced to a pair of united scales not more than one-thirty-second 
of an inch in depth, united into a flattened cup, with the edges rather in- 
clined than to turn out. In the center is the two-styled ovary, and at its 
base arise seven stamens, although sometimes only four, generally five, push 
•their anthers above the minute scaly cup outside. These anthers appear 
large and well-developed, but I have failed to find pollen in any one, and in 
no instance have I been able to find a perfect stamen like unto those formed 
in the staminate flower. These rudimentary stamens never push beyond the 
scales. Though classed as a Polygamous species by authors, it would appear 
from these observations a monceciously Dioecious plant. 

In trying to classify mj' observations, in order to evolve some sexual law, 
I found that vigor made no difference; weak trees or weak branches were 
alike male or female Some individuals are more years coming into flower 
than others. I fancied I had once got a clue in the fact that in the com- 
mencement of my observations 1 found numerous specimens of great size 
which were apparently commencing their fruiting age, and which were female 
trees in all cases; but at length I discovered two trees of the same character 
of the masculine kind. 

The only positive fact in relation to the matter seems to be that the sexual 
character of the maple is not unchangable after the infancy of the tree; and 
that the tendency of development is from female to male. 



April 7th. 

Isaac Lea, LL.D., in the Chair. 

Thirty-one members present. 

The following was presented for publication : " Description of 
Sixteen new species of Unio of the United States." By Isaac Lea. 

April 14th. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice President, in the Chair. 
Twenty-nine members present. 

April 21st. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-four members present. 

The following was presented for publication : 

" Notes on some singular species of Unio." By Isaac Lea. 

A letter from Mr. A. R. Koessler, dated Washington, April 18, was 
read, stating that he had examined a specimen of tin stone, from the 
vicinity of Ironton, Mo., and had found it to contain a " very favor- 
able percentage of metal." 

Dr. Genth remarked that he had examined specimens of the best 
tin ore of Missouri, and found that they contained only six pounds 
of tin to the ton of ore. 

April 2Sth. 
Mr. Jos. Jeanes in the Chair. 

Forty-three members present. 

The resignation of Mr. Samuel Jeanes, as a member of the Aca- 
demy, was read and accepted. 

The death of Mr. Isaac Barton was announced. 

The following gentlemen were elected members : Dr. H. C. Chap- 
man, Mr. Charles Wilson Peale, Mr. Benj. Bullock, Mr. Thos. Web- 
ster, and Dr. E. Dyer. 

Dr. T. H. Turner, U.S.A., was elected a correspondent. 

On favorable report of the committees, the following papers were 
ordered to be published : 


This mineral, for which I propose the name Ivigtite, from its locality, was 
first observed in 1866, but only recently has been obtained in sufficient quan- 
tity for examination. 

It occurs disseminated in films and seams through massive cryolite — some- 
times forming a coating between crystals of carbonate of iron and the cryo- 
lite in which the carbonate is imbedded. Color pale yellowish-green, some- 



times yellow. Structure fine granular, approaching micaceous. Hardness 
2—2-5 S. G. 2-05. B. B. alone blackens slightly and fuses rather easily to 
a white slag. With carb. soda fuses readily and with effervescence to a green- 
ish bead. In borax dissolves readily iron reaction. In microcosmic salt dis- 
solves readily, except silica skeleton, bead yellow while hot, bluish opalescent 
when cold. In closed tube yields acid water. 

With considerable difficulty 0-6V9 gm. of the mineral, free from admixture, 
was obtained and submitted to analysis with the following percentage result : 

Water 3-42 

Fluorine •7 5 

Silica 36-49 

Sesquioxide of iron 7-54 

Alumina 24-09 

Soda... 16-03 

Loss 11-68 

The very small quantity of the mineral which could be procured prevented 
a more satisfactory result, but from the foregoing characteristics I feel justi- 
fied in pronouncing it a new species, and hope that a larger quantity may be 
procured and a correct analysis made. 

Pachnolite, besides its usual occurrence in honey-combed cryolite, nearly 
or always in juxtaposition with the so-called Hagemannite. has been observed 
in crystals implanted on massive cryolite, and also coating crystals of the 
latter, mixpd with microscopic crystals of cryolite. The crystals of pachno- 
lite are always small, rarely exceeding the fiftieth of an inch in diameter, but 
those of cryolite have been found measuring over 3-lOths of an inch cube. The 
crystals of carbonate of iron, found in the cryolite, have probably never been 
excelled for size and beauty. They are usually simple rhombohedrons, often 
of fine polish and measuring from half an inch to four inches across. A 
black blende, containing much iron, has been found in the massive cryolite, 
crystallized in perfect octahedra. 
Philadelphia, March 23, 1868. 

Deicription of Sixteen New Species of the Genus IJNIO of the United States . 

Unio Murrayensis. — Testa laevi, obliqua, tumida, solida, valde inaequila- 
terali, postice rotundata, antice truncata; valvulis crassis, antice crassiori- 
bu8 ; natibus valde elevatis, tumidis ; epidermide luteo-fuscata, concentrico- 
vittata, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus crassis, subelevatis; lateralibus 
crassis, obliquis rectisque ; margarita argentea et iridescente. 

Hah. — Murray County, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie ; Etowah River, Georgia, 
Bishop Elliott. 

Unio fassinans. — Testa laevi, elliptica, subcompressa, inaequilaterali, pos- 
tice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata; valvulis crassiusculis, antice crassi- 
oribus ; natibus subprominentibus ; epidermide tenebroso-rufo-fusca, eradi- 
ata; dentibus cardinalibus crassiusculis, corapressis, obliquis; lateralibus 
sublongis, crassis, obliquis corrugatisque ; margarita salmonis colore tincta, 
splendida et iridescente. 

Hab. — Headwaters of Holston River, Washington Co., Va., Prof. E. D. Cope. 

Unio si'arus. — Testa laivl, lato-elliptica, subinflata, valde inrequilaterali, 
postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata; valvulis subtenuibus, antice cras- 
sioribus ; natibus prominulia, ad apices minute undulatis ; epidermide sub- 
crocca, valde radiata; dentibus cardinalibus parvis, erectis, conicis; lateral!* 



bus longis subcurvisque ; margarita salmonis colore tincta et valde irides- 

Hab. — Swamp Creek, North Georgia, Maj. T. G. Downie. 

Unio Gopei. — Testa laevi, elliptica, subcompressa, insequilaterali, aatice et 
postice rotundata ; valvulis subcrassis antice crassioribus; natibus prominu- 
lis, ad apices uadulatis; epidermide tenebroso-fuscata, ad marginem squamo- 
sa, eradiata; dentibus cardinalibus subcrassis, elevatis, compressis, corrugatis, 
in utroque valvule duplicibus ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis, subcurvatisque ; 
margarita purpurea et valde iridescente. 

//a6.— Headwaters of Holston River, Smith Go., Va., Prof. E. D. Gope. 

Unio cylindrellus. — Testa laevi, late elliptica, cylindracea, valde inaequi- 
laterali, antice et postice rotundata; valvulis subcrassis, antice crassioribus ; 
natibus prominulis ; epidermide luteola, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus 
parvis, subconicis corrugatisque ; lateralibus longis aubrectisque ; margarita 
intus purpurea et valde iridescente. 

Hah. — Duck Greek, Tenn. : Swamp Greek, Murray Go., Ga., Major Downie ; 
and North Alabama, Prof Tuomej. 

Unio dippicilis. — Testa laevi, elliptica, inflata, valde inaequilaterali, postice 
obtuse angulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis tenuibis, antice crassioribus ; 
natibus prominulis ; epidermide luteola, valde radiata ; dentibus cardinali- 
bus parviusculis, conicis crenulatisque ; lateralibus sublongis rectisque; 
margarita alba et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Swamp Greek, Ga., Major Downie; Holston River, Washington Go., 
Prof. Gope. 

Unio Topekabnsis. — Testa laevi, lata, subcompressa, valde inaequilaterali, 
postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata; valvulis crassiusculis, antice cras- 
sioribus ; natibus prominulis, ad apices undulatis ; epidermide tenebroso- 
fusca, radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus erectis, compressis crenulatisque ; 
lateralibus longis rectisque ; margarita ca^ruleo-alba et valde iridescente. 

^a6.— Topeka, Kansas, Prof. Daniels; Little Arkansas, Dr. Le Gonte, &c. 

Unio Brazosensis. — Testa plicata, subrotunda, ventrieosa, valde inaequila- 
terali, antice et postice rotundata; valvulis percrassis, antice crassioribus; 
natibus prominentibus, tumidis, incurvis, ad apices minute undulatis; epi- 
dermide tenebroso-rufo-fusca, eradiata; dentibus cardinalibus percrassis, 
solidis, erectis corrugatisque ; lateralibus longis, subcrassis et obliquis ; mar- 
garita argentea et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Dallas Go., Texas, Prof. Forshey ; Brazos River, Dr. Lincecum. 

Unio Lincecumii. — Testa plicata, rotundata, subglobosa, valde inaequilater- 
ali; valvulis precrassis, antice crassioribus; natibus prominentibus, tumidis, 
incurvis, ad apices minute undulatis ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, nigricawte, 
eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus percrassis, solidis, erectis corrugatisque ; 
lateralibus longis, subcrassis et obliquis ; margarita argentea et valde irides- 

Hab — Dallas Gounty, Texas, Prof. Forshey ; Brazos River, Texas, Dr. G. 

Unio corvinus. — Testa laevi, elliptica, inflata, valde inaequilaterali ; antice et 
postice rotundata; valvulis subcrassis, antice crassioribus; natibus vix pro- 
minentibus, epidermide nigra, subsquamea, eradiata; dentibus cardinalibus 
parvissimis decussatisque ; lateralibus longis subrectisque ; margarita alba 
et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Flint River, Geo., J. G. Plant and Dr. Neisler ; Neuse River, N. G., 
Prof. Emmons. 

Unio corvunculus. — Testa laevi, elliptica, subinflata, valde inaequilaterali ; 
antice et postice rotundata ; valvulis crassiusculis, antice crassioribus ; nati- 

[ April, 


bus prominulis, ad apices subconcentrico-undulatis; epidermide nigricante, 
eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibns parvis, erectis, subcompressis creaulatisque ; 
margarita purpurea et iridescente. 
JIab.— Flint River, Ga., J. C. Plant and Dr. Neisler ; Darien, J. H. Couper. 

Unio planior.— Testa subsulcata, subtriangulari, ad latere planulata, inie- 
quilaterali ; valvulis crassiusculis, antice crassioribus ; natibus subpromi- 
nentibus ; epidermide vel lutea vel ochracea, radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus 
parTis, compressis striatisque ; lateralibus longis, crassiusculis et obliquis ; 
margarita alba et iridescente. 

Hah. — Tennessee, Mr. H. Moores ; Headwaters Holston River, Washington 
Co., Virginia, Prof. Cope. 

Unio vallatds. — Testa nodulosa, rotundata, lenticular!, sabinflata, inaequi- 
laterali ; valvulis, crassis, antice crassioribus ; natibus subprominentibus ; 
epidermide luteo-fusca, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus pergrandibus, ele- 
vatis granulatisque ; lateralibus crassis, curtis obliquisque ; margarita ar- 
gentea et iridescente. 

Hub. — Alabama River, Dr. Showalter. 

Unio repulgens. — Testa nodulosa, rotundata, lenticular!, insequilaterali ; 
valvulis subcrassis, antice crassioribus; natibus prominulis; epidermide 
rufo-castanea, aliquanto polita : dentibus cardinalibus subgrar.dibus, ele- 
ganter corrugatis crenulatisque ; lateralibus longiusculis, obliquis, minute 
corrugatis ; margarita albida, ad marginem purpurescenle et elegantissime 

Ifab. — Oktibbeha River, Lauderdale Co., Miss., W. Spillman, M. D. 

Unio Uharebnsis. — Testa laevi, oblonga, ad latere planulata, insequilaterali, 
postice biangulata, antice rotundata; valvulis crassiusculis, antice crassiori- 
bus; natibus prominulis; epidermide rufo-fusca, subsquamea, eradiata; 
dentibus cardinalibus parvis, striatis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus ; laterali- 
bus longis, lamellatis subcurvisque ; margarita vel alba vel salraonis colore 

Hab. — Uharee River, Montgomery Co., N. C, F. A. Genth, M. D. 

Unio sph^ricus. — Testa nodulosa, valde inflata, subglobosa, fere aequila- 
terali ; valvulis crassis, antice crassioribus ; natibus elevatis ; epidermide 
rufo-castanea, eradiata; dentibus cardinalibus pergrandibus, corrugatis 
crenulatisque ; lateralibus curtis, crassis, corrugatis, obliquis subcurvisque ; 
margarita argentea et valde iridescente. 

Ifab. — Pearl River, at Jackson, Miss., C. M. Wheatley. 

Notes on some eingular forms of Chinese species of UNIO. 

In a paper on " Chinese Shells," by Dr. Baird and Mr. H. Adams, published 
in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, May 9, 1867, there 
are some remarks and claims which call upon me for correction. 

1st, " Unio Douglasiie.^^ It is stated that " in 183H Dr. Gray shortly de- 
scribed and accurately figured in the 12th volume of Griffith's edition of Cu- 
vier a species of Unio, which he called U. Doufflasice," &c. Further, that " Mr. 
Lea, some years afterwards, from not knowing the shell as figured in Griffith, 
described and figured a species from China, which ho named U. Mnrchisonia- 
nun, but which there is no doubt is the same as U. Douglasia of Gray." In 
the above statements there a?e several to which I beg leave to demur. It is 
suggested by these gentlemen that "perhaps from not knowing the shell 
[Douglasia;) hs figured in Griffith," I had *' described and figured Afurchisonia- 
nuti, which there is no doubt is the Douglasix of Gray." In answer to this I 



would ask how I could, when I read my paper on the 16th March, 1832, be- 
fore the American Philosophical Society, know of a description in Griffith's 
Cuvier dated 1834? (not in 1833, as incorrectly cited). Douglasise therefore 
cannot have precedeuce '' of some years," as claimed for it, but it must remain 
a sj'nonym to Murchisonianus^ where I placed it in my Synopsis^ first, second, 
and third editions, since 1836. 

As regards the claim in the same paragraph for U. Shanghaiensis^ Lea, being 
also a synonym to Donglasice^ I am constrained to differ in opinion. Shanghai- 
ensis is not the same with Douglasise^ as affirmed, but it is the same with U. 
Osbeckii, Philippi, the description of which I had not seen. "Conchylien, vol. 
3d." Some years since I placed it as a synonym to Osbeckii in the manuscript 
copy of my Synopsis, 4th ed., preparing for the press. 

2d. Anodonta tenuis, Gray, — also called Unio tenuis, Gray, in Griffith's Cu- 
vier, — is considered to be, by Messrs. Baird and Adams, an Anodonta, and it 
is said to be little known. This shell does not belong to either of these 
genera. It is a true Dipsas of Leach, and if Dr. Gray had had a perfect spe- 
cimen before him when describing Anodonta tenuis, he never would have 
placed it in that genus. The Dipsasian character was evidently obliterated 
by age in the specimen from which he made his diagnosis. The young spe- 
cimens, and the mature perfect ones, always have the tooth (so to call it) of 
the genus Dipsas. 1 described this species in the Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, March 15, 1833, under the name of Symphynota 
discoidea, with a figure perfectly representing the characteristic tooth, which 
consists of a single raised, sligbtly curved line under the dorsal margin. In 
my " Synopsis," in the first edition in 1836, as well as in the second and third 
editions, I gave Dr. Gray's tenuis as a synonym to this shell, which I there 
placed in the genus Dipsas, where it properly belongs. It must therefore 
stand as Dipsos discoidea, Lea, with the synonym of Anodonta tenuis, Gray ; my 
date being 1833, and Dr. Gray's 1834. 

In this paper of Messrs. Baird and Adams, they have described a supposed 
new species from Shanghai, under the name of l/nio (Lampsilis) subtortus. I 
previously published a description of a species which I believe will prove the 
same, under the name of tortuosus, in the Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. April 18, 1865. 
Since then I have found in the "Journal de Conchiliologie," July, 1863, — which 
work for that year was not accessible to me, — that Messrs. Crosse and De- 
beaux had given a description and an excellent figure of a Unio of the same 
twisted character, under the name of Tientsin en sis, which, if the figure be en- 
tirely correct, differs in the form of the posterior slope, and in the undulations 
of that part. 

I may be permitted to express my surprise that neither the French nor the 
English authors should have observed the very remarkable character of these 
Chinese species, which were before them, in being inequivalve! The figure in 
the Journal de Conchyliologie seems to be very correctly delineated by the art- 
ist, having represented the inequivalve condition of the right and left valves. 

Messrs. Baird and Adams refer to Tientsinensis , but consider it to differ in 
some respects from their subtortus, which I think very likely. If Tientsinensis 
prove to be the same as tortuosus and contortus, then the two last must be 
synonyms. If not, then there will be two species, viz. : Tientsinensis, Grosse 
and Debeaux, and tortuosus (nobis), — contortus, B. and A., being a synonym to 

May dth. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-nine members present. 

The following paper was presented for publication: "List of 



Birds collected at Laredo, Texas, in 1866 and 1867." By Dr. H. 
B. Butcher. 

May 12ih. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-six members present. 

The following were presented for publication : " Description of 
Four new species of Exotic Unionidse," and " Description of Twen- 
ty-six new species of Melanidae of the United States." By Isaac 
Lea, LL.D. 

" Moncecism in Luzula campestris," and " Variations in Epigea 
repens." By Thos. Meehan. 

Prof. Edw. D. Cope defined the characters of a new genus of Cheloniidae, 
which represented the modern marine turtles in the Cretaceous green sand of 
New Jersey. It differed in the considerably greater co-ossification of ihe 
disc and marginal bones posteriorly and anteriorly. The anterior rib is at- 
tached to one marginal in advance of that to which it is connected in Chelone. 
He called it Osteopygis, and exhibited a specimen of the type species — 0. 
emarginatus Cope — of which about half the carapace and plastron were 
preserved, and which indicated an animal of about the size of the green tur- 
tle. It was presented to theAcademy by Dr. Samuel Ashhurst. 

Prof. Cope stated that he was more or less acquainted with four species of 
the genus : 0. s o p i t u s (Chelone Leidy), 0. chelydrinus Cope, and 0. 
repandus Cope, all of the same or larger size than the type. 

May Idth. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Twenty-nine members present. 

Prof. Cope called attention of the Academy to the rarity of Ophidian re- 
mains, and to the fact that none had been discovered in North America up 
to the present time. He then exhibited two vertebrae of a serpent of or near 
the family of the Boas, from the green sand of Squankum, Monmouth Co., 
N. J., which had been discovered by Dr. Knieskern. 

Peculiar interest attached to these specimens, from the fact that they 
came from a bed which has recently been stated, by Conrad, to be an equiva- 
lent of the older Eocene or London clay of the Thames valley. They con- 
firm this identification exactly, since they belong to Owen's genus Palseophis, 
which is characteristic of those beds in England. They indicate a species 
intermediate between the two larger described by Prof. Owen, and of some 
fifteen feet in length. It was associated with remains of crocodiles, sting- 
rays and saw-fishes, and was named, from its geographical and geological 
location, Palakophis littoralis Cope. 

The type specimens belong to the Geological Survey of New Jersey, under 
Prof. George Cook, and were lent by him for description. 

Dr. Hayden read a letter from Prof. Leo Lesquereux, identifying 
the fossil plants of the coal formation of the south-west, as follows : 

" I was unwell when your boxes of fossil plants arrived, and was not able 
to examine the specimens before now. 



" Most of the leaves, which are well preserved indeed, belong to a new species 
of Ficus. It resembles Ficus lanceolaius, Heer., a miocene species, but differs 
by leaves being broader, mostly rounded at base, and not aZways alternated to 
the petiole. The medial nerves and shorter pedicel are thicker. Some of 
the leaves, which are narrower and narrowed to the petiole, present the form 
and appearance of Ficus lanceolatus, but the specific difference is marked by 
the thick nerves and shorter petiole. 

''Among these leaves there are two fragments of leaves of a Cinnamomum, 
referrable perhaps to C. offine, Lesqx. ; a large leaf of PZa<a/2i/s, probably P. 
aceroides? Aug., whose borders are destroyed, and a Populus with round 
leaves — Populus subrotundus, Lesqx. — found also by Dr. Hay den at Rock Creek. 

'' Besides these species, the specimens show a number of fragments of a 
Cypertis, apparently a new species. The nervation is that of Cyperus chara- 
nethsis, Heer., but the leaves, IJ inches broad, are twice as broad as in the 
European species." 

Dr. Hayden considered this as confirming his opinion that, the lignite beds 
of that region were of tertiary age. 

Dr. Le Lonte said that the question of the geological age of that section 
must be solved by a consideration of the relative positions of the strata, 
rather than by comparison of the fossil plants found therein. 

May 2m. 
Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-nine members present. 

The following gentlemen were elected members : Mr. Edward 
Lewis, Jas. Truman, M. D., Wm. Trueman, M. D., Mr. S. Fisher 
Corlies, Mr. T. W. Starr, Edw. Khoads, M.D., T. H. Andrews, M.D., 
Herbert Norris, M. D., Mr. Jas. S. Gilliams, Mr. Charles Bullock, 
Mr. Edw. L. Huitt, Mr. I. Zentmayer, Mr. Aug. F. Muller, F. F. 
Maury, M.D., Horace Williams, M.D., Mr. Wm. H. Walmsley, Mr. 
T. L. Buckingham. 

The following were elected correspondents : Mr. Augustus Fendler, 
of Allenton, Mo. ; Hon. J. S. Wilson, of Washington, D.C. ; Mr. A. R. 
Roesler, Washington, D. C. ; Prof. John Tomes, F.R.S., of London. 

On favorable reports of the committees, the following papers 
w^ere ordered to be published ; 

List of BIBDS collected at Laredo, Texas, in 1866 and 1867. 

The list of birds here given embraces the species collected by me at La- 
redo, Texas, on the Rio Grande river, Avhile engaged as Acting Assistant Sur- 
geon of the U. S. Array ; and is presented as a contribution to the subject of 
the geographical distribution of the birds of North America. No new species 
but many quite rare species were procured. The most interesting result of my 
examinations at Laredo was the discovery in abundance of Scardafella inea, a 
species not previously obtained north of the Rio Grande. 

The collections made were first sent to the Smithsonian Institution, and a 
series afterwards presented to this Academy. I am indebted to Prof. Baird for 
assistance in identifying the species. 

A comparison of this list with that of the birds collected in Texas by Mr. 
Dresser will be found of interest. 



Tinnunculus sparverius, Vieill. Nov., Jan. and Feb. 

Accipiter fuscus, Bonap. Jan. 

Buteo swainsoni, Bonap. July. 

Buteo borealis, Vieill. Jan. 

Polyborus Audubonii, Cassin. Jan. 

Athene hypugaea, Bonap. Oct., Jan. 

Bubo virginianus, Bonap. Oct. 

Geococcyx californianus, Baird. May to Sept. Abundant. 

Coccygus erythrophthalmus, Bp. June to Aug. 

Picus scalaris, Wagler. June to Nov. Abundant. 

Centurus flaviventris, Sw. June to Nov. Abundant. 

Antrostomus nuttalli, Cassin. Sept., Feb. 

Chordeiles texensis, Lawr. May to Sept. 

Ceryle alcyon, Boie. Oct. 

Tyrannus vertical is, Say. May. 

Myiarchus crinitus, Gab. Aug. and Sept. 

Myiarchus mexicanus, Baird. Aug. 

Sayornis fuscus, Baird. Nov. 

Sayornis sayus, Baird. Nov., Jan., Feb. 

Contopus virens, Cab. May. 

Empidonax pusillus. Cab. May. 

Empidonax flaviventris, Baird. Aug. 

Turdus migratorius, Lin. Jan. 

Sialia sialis, Baird. Nov. 

Sialia arctica, Swains. Feb. 

Anthus ludovicianus, Licht. Nov., Dec. 

Regulus calendula, Licht. Dec, Feb. 

Geothlypis Philadelphia, Baird. Sept. 

Helminthophaga celata, Baird. Nov., Jan., Feb. 

Dendroica aestiva, Baird. May, Aug., Sept. 

Dendroica coronata. Gray. l3ec., Jan. 

Myiodioctes pusillus, Bonap. Sept. 

Pyranga sestiva, Vieill. Aug. 

Cotyle serripennis, Boie. May, June, March. 

Ampelis cedrorum, Baird. March. 

Collyrio excubitoroides, Baird. April and Sept. to Nov., Jan., Feb. 

Vireo gilvus, Bonap. May. 

Vireo belli, Aud. May, June, Aug. 

Mimus polyglottus, Boie. April to Oct., Dec. to Feb. 

Oreoscoptes niontanus, Baird. April, May to Nov., Dec. to March. Abundant. 

Harporhynchus curviiostris, Cassin. April to Nov., Feb. Abundant. 

Harporhynchus longirostris, Cassin. May, Nov., Jan. 

Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Gray. May, June, Nov., Feb. 

Salpinctes obsoletus. Cab. May, Nov., Oct., Dec, Feb. 

Thryothorus bewickii, Bonap. Nov. to Feb. 

Polioptila cfprulca, Sclat. July, Aug., Oct. 

Lophophanes atricristatus, Cass. Aug., Nov. 

Paroides flaviccps, Baird. May to Sept., Jan., Feb, Abundant. 

Eremophila cornuta, Boie. Nov., Dec 

Chrysomitris tristis, Bonap. Dec. 

Plectrophanes rnaccownii, Lawr. Dec. 

Chondestes gratnmaca, Bonap. April, Sept. to Nov. Abundant. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys, Sw. April, Dec to Feb. 

Zonotrichia gambelii, Gambel. Jan. 

Poospiza bilineata, Sclat. June to Oct. Abundant. 

Melospiza heermanni, Baird. Jan. 

Peuca;a cassini, Baird. June. 

Melospiza lincoluii, Baird. Dec. 



Embernagra rufivirgata, Lawr. Nov. 

Galamospiza bicolor, Bonap. Nov. 

Euspiza americana, Bonap. Aug. 

Guiraca caerulea, Siv. May, June, Oct. 

Cyanospiza ciris. Baird. April to Aug. Abundant. 

Pyrrhuloxia sinuata, Bonap April to Sept., Dec. to Feb, Abundant, 

Cardinalis virginianus, Bonap. May to Aug., Nov., Dec. Abundant. 

Pipilo chlorura, Baird. Dec, Jan. 

Molothrus pecoris, Sw. April to July, Jan. Abundant. 

Xanthocephalus icterocephalus. April, May. 

Sturnella neglecta, Aud. Oct. and Nov. Abundant. 

Sturnella magna, Sw, Dec. 

Icterus cucuUatus, Sw. June. 

Icterus spurius, Bonap. June, Aug. 

Icterus bullockii, Bonap. May to Aug. Abundant. 

Scolecophagus cyanocephalus, Sw. Nov., Feb. 

Quiscalus macroura, Sw. June. 

Corvus cryptoleucus, Couch. Feb., March. 

Zenaidura carolinensis, Bonap. April to July. 

iSoardafella inca, Bonap. May, Sept. to Nov., Dec, Feb., March. Abundant. 

Ortyx texanus, Lawr. Oct., Nov., Dec 

Callipepla squamata, Gray. April to Nov., Feb. Abundant. 

Grus canadensis, Temm. Jan. 

Ardea herodias, Linn. Jan. 

Nyctherodius violaceus, Reich. Sept. 

Aegialitis vociferus, Cass. April, May, Aug., Sept. 

Tringa wilsonii, Nuttall. Oct., Dec. 

Ereunetes petrificatus. III. 

Actiturus bartramius, Bonap, Aug. 

Tringites ruiescens, Cab. 

Pelecanus fuscus, Litm. May. 

Descriptions of four new species of Exotic ITNIONID.ffi. 


Anodonta Strebelii. — Testa laevi, elliptica, inaequilaterali, postice obtuse an- 
gulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis pertenuibus ; natibusprominulis ; epidermide 
tenebroso-viridi, radiis capillaris indutis ; margarita caerulea et valde irides- 

Hah. — Vera Cruz, Mexico ; Dr. G. Strebel, per Smithsonian Institution. 

Unio Veracruzensis. — Testa laevi, elliptica, subcompressa, ingequilaterali, 
postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis tenuibus ; natibus promi- 
nulis ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, radiata politaque ; dentibus cardinaiibus 
parvis, compressis, crenulatis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus ; lateralibus longis, 
rectis lamellatisque ; margarita caerulea et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Vera Cruz, Mexico ; Dr. G. Strebel, per Smithsonian Institution. 

Unio prunoides. — Testa laevi, elliptica, valde ventricosa, inaequilaterali, an- 
tice et postice rotundata ; valvulis subcrassis, antice aliquanto crassioribus ; 
natibus prominulis ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, eradiata ; dentibus cardinali- 
bus compressis, obliquis et valde crenulatis ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis 
corrugatisque ; margarita argentea. 

Unio Chinensis. — Testa nodulosa, subelliptica, inflata, fere aequilaterali, 
postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis crassiusculis, antice 
crassioribus; natibus subprominentibus, ad apices corrugatis : epidermide vi- 
rido-lutea, radiis viridis undique indutis ; dentibus cardinalibus erectis, com- 
pressis, striatis, crenulatis et in utroque valvulo subduplicibus ; lateralibus 
sublongis subrectisque ; margarita argentea et valde iridescente. 




Descriptions of Twenty-six New Species of MELANID^ of the United States. 

GoNioBASis Wheatlbyi. — Testa striata, subfusiforrai, subinflata, subcrassa, 
ochracea, vel vittata vel evittata ; spira conoidea, ad apicein aliquanto plica- 
ta ; suturis irregulariter impressis ; anfractibus instar senis, fere plaoulatis ; 
aperiura subconstricta ; ovata, intus ochracea; labro acuto, parum sinuoso; 
columella iuflecta, reflexa et tortuosa. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Alabama, Dr. Showalter. 

GoNiOBASis siMiLis — Testa striata, subfusiformi, gubtenui, luteo-cornea ; 
spira brevi, ad apicem plicata ; suturis impressis ; anfractibus instar senis, 
vix convexis ; apertura subgrandi, ovata, intus luteo-alba ; labro acuto ; 
columella ihflecta et tortuosa. 

Hab. — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Major T. C. Downie. 

GoNiOBASis SULCATA. — Tcsta Striata, conica, subcrassa, mellea, evittata ; 
spira obtusa ; suturis irregulariter impressis; anfractibus instar septenis, 
planulatis, ad apicem plicatis ; apertura parviuscula, rhomboidea, intus alba, 
labro acuto, sinuoso ; columella inflecta, incrassato. 

Hab. — Cahawba River, Alabama, Dr. Showalter. 

GoNiOBASis ARATA, — Tcsta valdc striata, conoidea, subtenui, cornea, rel 
vittata vel evittata; spira elevata ; suturis impressis ; anfractibus septenis, 
planulatis, ad apicem carinatis et plicatis ; apertura parva, ovata, intus albi- 
da ; labro aliquanto crenulato ; columella inflecta, ad basim retrorsa. 

Hab, — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie. 

GoNiOBASis Gesnerii. — Tcsta striata, fusiformi, tenui, tenebroso-oliva; 
spira subbrfvi ; suturis impressis; anfractibus instar septenis, planulatis; 
apertura grandi, late ovata, intus lugubri ; labro acuto, parum sinuoso; 
columella purpurescente et valde contorta. 

Hab. — Uchee River, Alabama, Mr. W. Gesner. 

GONIOBASIS TKNEBROSA. — Tcsta valdc striata, subfusiformi, subcrassa, tene- 
brosa ; spira brevi ; suturis irregulariter impressis ; anfractibus instar quinis, 
vix convexis ; apertura grandi, ovata, intus tenebroso-purpurea; labro sub- 
crenulato ; columella inflecta et parum contorta. 

Hab. — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie. 

GoNiOBASis BiPASciATA.— Testa plicata, aliquanto striata, subcrassa, luteola, 
bifasciata ; spira obtusa, valde plicata ; suturis irregulariter impressis ; an- 
fractibus instar senis, planulatis; apertura parviuscula, subrotunda, intus 
albida ; labro acuto, parum sinuoso ; columella albida et contorta. 

Hab. — Jackson Co., Alabama, Dr. Spillman. 

GoNiOBASis CLATHRATA. — Tcsta plicata et striata, pyramidata, tenui, dilute 
cornea, efasciata; spira exerta, acuminata; suturis impressis; anfractibus 
octonis, convexiusculis ; apertura parviuscula, rhomboidea, intus vel albida 
vel purpurea ; labro crenulato, subsinuoso ; columella valde contorta, 

Hab. — Jackson Co., Alabama, Dr. Spillman. 

GoNioBASis PULCiiBLLA. — Tcsta plicata, subturrita, subtenui, rufo-cornea, 
vittata; spira elevata ; suturis irregulariter impressis ; anfractibus instar no- 
venis, convexiuscula ; apertura parviuscula, ovata, intus albida; labro acuto ; 
columella inflecta et tortuosa. 

Hab. — North Alabama, Dr. Spillman. 

GONIOBASIS LUTBOCBLLA.— Testa pHcata et striata, fusiformi, subcrassa,* 
ochracea, vittata vel evittata ; spira brevi ; suturis irregulariter impressis ; an- 
fractibus quinis, convexiusculis ; apertura grandi, ovata, intus luteo-alba ; 
labro acuto; columella superue incrassata et valde contorta. 

Hab. — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie. 



GoNiOBASis CoNNESAUGAENSis. — Testa plicata, in feme striata, subfusiformi, 
subtennijVel mellea vel ochracea vel tenebroso-fusca, nitida ; spira conoidea ; 
suturis impressis ; anfractibus septeais, planulatis ; apertura subconstricta, 
rhomboidea, intus luteola vel tenebroso-fusca ; labro acuto ; columella in- 
flecta et tortuosa. 

Hah, — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie. 

GoNioBASis coNTiGUA. — Testa laevi, subfusiformi, tenui, tenebroso-oliva, 
evittata ; spira subelevata ; suturis impressis ; anfractibus instar quinis. con- 
vexiusculis ; apertura grandi, subrhombica, intus albida; labro acuto, sinuo- 
so ; columella vix incrassata et valde contorta. 

Hah. — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie. 

GoNioBASis MuRRAYENSis. — Tcsta losvi, fusiformi, inflata, subtenui, tene- 
broso-cornea, evittata ; spira conoidea, ad apicem plicata ; suturis aliquanto 
impressis ; anfractibus instar senis, subplanulatis ; apertura magna, sub- 
rhomboidea, intus luteola; labro acuto, parum sinuoso ; columella inflecta 
et tortuosa. 

Hah. — Swamp Creek, Murray Co., Ga.. Maj. T. C. Downie. 

GoNiOBASis GRANATOiDES. — Tcsta grauulaia, inferne striata, subfusiformi, 
subtenui, cornea ; spira conoidea, ad apicem plicata; suturis impressis; an- 
fractibus instar senis, vix convexis ; apertura subgrandi, ovata, intus luteo- 
alba ; labro acuto; columella tortuosa. 

Hah. — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie. 

GoNioBASis CI.AVULA. — Tcsta carinata, aliquanto plicata, tenui, tenebroso- 
castanea, efasciata; spira exerta, acuminata; suturis regulariter impressis ; 
anfractibus instar octonis, planulatis ; apertura parvissima, ovata, intus cas- 
tanea; labro acuto ; columella alba et contorta. 

Hah. — Jackson Co., Alabama, Dr. Spiliman. 

GoNioBASis cocHLiARis. — Testa carinata et striata, cylindracea, tenui, tene- 
broso-fusca, evittata; spira attenuata ; suturis valde impressis ; anfractibus 
instar novenis, ad apicem valde carinatis, inferne striatis ; apertura parvis- 
sima, late elliptica, intus tenebroso ; labro subcrenato ; columella inflecta, 
ad basim incrassata. 

Hah. — Shelby Co., Alabama, Maj. T. C. Downie. 

GONIOBASIS VBNUSTA. — Testa subcarinata, conoidea, subtenui, mellea, evit- 
tata; spira elevata ; suturis regulariter impressis ; anfractibus planulatis, in- 
star septenis ; apertura parva, rhomboidea, intus albida; labro acuto; colu- 
mella inflecta et valde contorta. 

Hah, — Coosa River, Alabama, Dr. Showalter, 

GoNioBASis ORNATA. — Tcsta Carinata, subturrita, tenui, olivacea, valde 
vitatta ; spira elevata, superne plicata; suturis valde impressis; anfractibus 
septenis, planulatis; apertura parviuscula, subrhomboidea, intus vittata ; 
labro acuto, aliquanto sinuoso ; columella vix incrassata et valde contorta. 

Hah. — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie. 

Tbypanostoma nuciforme. — Testa laevi, obtuse conica, inflata, crassiuscula, 
castanea ; spira brevi, obtusa ; suturis regulariter impressis ; anfractibus instar 
quinis, convexiusculis ; apertura magna, rhomboidea; labro acuto ; expanso, 
sinuoso ; columella inflecta er, valde tortuosa. 

Hah. — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie. 

Trypanostoma castaneum. — Testa laevi, pyramidata, subtenui, castanea, 
obsolete fasciata ; spira exerta, acuminata; suturis impressis ; anfractibus 
instar novenis, planulatis ; apertura parviuscula, rhomboidea, intus dilute 
purpurea ; labro acuto, sigmoideo ; columella parum incrassata et valde 

Hah, — Coosa River, Alabama, Dr. Showalter. 



Trypanostoma Wheatleyi. — Testa laevi, pyramidata, tenui, dilute rubigi- 
nosa, vel fasciata vel efasciata ; spira exserta, acuminata; suturis regulariter 
impressis ; anfractibus instar denis; planulatis, ad apicem carinatis ; apertura 
parviuscula, rhomboidea, intus albida ; labro acuto, sigmoideo ; columella ad 
basim parum incrassata et valde contorta. 

Hub. — Coosa River, Alabama, Dr. Showalter. 

Trypanostoma terebralb. — Testa laevi, pyramidata, tenui, olivacea, vel 
vittata vel evittata ; spira valde exserta ; suturis valde impressis ; anfractibus 
instar duodenis, planulatis, ad apicem carinatis ; apertura parviuscula, rhom- 
boidea, intus albida vel vittata ; labro acuto, sinuoso ; columella impressa et 
valde contorta. 

Hab. — Jackson Co., Alabama, Dr. W. Spillman. 

LiTHASiA PURPUREA. — Testa laevi, curta, subcylindracea, subcrassa, tene- 
broso-purpurea ; spira brevissima ; suturis valde impressis ; anfractibus in- 
star quinis, convexiusculis ; apertura grandi, rhomboidea, intus saturale pur- 
purea; labro acuto, vixsinuoso ; columella impressa, superne incrassata. 

Hab. — Cahawba River, at Centreville, Bibb Co., Ala., Dr. Showalter. 

LiTHASiA CURTA. — Tcsta granulata, curta, solida, luteo-olivacea, plerumque 
bifasciata ; spira brevi ; suturis irregulariter impressis ; anfractibus instar 
quinis, planulatis ; apertura subgraudi, rhomboidea, intus albida ; labro 
acuto, subsinuoso ; columella infern© et superne incrassata. 

Hab. — North Alabama, Prof. Tuomey and Dr. Spillman ; Tuscumbia, B. 

ScHizosTOMA Wheatleyi. — Testa striata, subfusiformi, subtenui, luteola, 
imperforata, vittata; spira obtuso-conoidea; suturis irregulariter impressis ; 
anfractibus instar senis, vittatis, ultimo grandi ; fissura obliqua brevique ; 
apertura parviuscula, ovata, intus alba et vittata; labro subcrenulato ; colu- 
mella alba, incrassata et contorta. 

Hab. — Coosa River, Dr. Showalter. 

Anculosa Downiei. — Testa plicata et obsolete striata, subglobosa, crassa, 
tenebroso-oliva, maculata; spira vix prominulis, plicatis ; artituris impressis; 
anfractibus vix ternis, ultimo grandi et ventricoso ; apertura grandi, subro- 
tunda, intus fusco-maculata; labro acuto; columella impressa et incrassata. 

Hab. — Connesauga Creek, Georgia, Maj. T. C. Downie ; Coosa River, Ala- 
bama, Dr. Showalter. 

Variations in EPIG^A REPENS. 


There are yet many botanists who regard variations as accidents. They 
speak of a normal form as something essential ; and departures from their idea 
of a type, they refer to external causes, independent of any inherent power of 
change in the plant itself. Hence, when a change of form occurs to them, it 
is usually referred to shade, to sunlight, to an unusual season, situation, or 
some geological peculiarity of the soil. Cultivation is denounced as inter- 
fering with botanical science ; introducing and originating innumerable forms, 
defying the skill of the botanist to classify or arrange. My experience in 
plant culture, and as an observer of plants in a state of nature, leads to the 
conclusion that there is no greater power to vary in the one case than in the 
other; that there is as much variation in the perfectly wild plant, as in those 
under the best gardener's skill. To illustrate this I gathered a great number of 
specimens of Antennaria plantagimfolia, which, though I do not believe has a 
greater average power of variation than any other plant, affords a good example 
for the following reasons : The small seeds I believe require a clear surface of 

1868.] 11 


ground to vegetate, and young plants therefore never appear in a meadow or 
grassy place. In such positions plants only exist that had a footing in advance 
of the grass. They then propagate exclusively by runners. After being two 
or three years in this situation they form patches of one or several square feet 
each. Now it is not easy to appreciate a minute difference between one single 
specimen and another ; but when a score or more of specimens of one are 
matched against a similar number of the other, the minutiai make an aggre- 
gate which is readily estimated. So we shall find in the case of a two or three 
year old meadow, filled with this plant, that not only are no two patches alike, 
but that the eye convinces us of the fact on the first glance over the field. 
Plain as the differences thus presented were, I found, however, some difficulty 
in describing them in language ; and besides being a dioecious plant there 
might be brought in the objection of intercrossing between allied species of 
this or neighboring genera, if not of the individuals of the opposite sexes them- 
selves, to account for so many forms. I therefore chose JEJpigsea, as belonging 
to a natural order exclusively hermaphrodite ; containing only one natural 
species ; not very closely allied to any of the neighboring genera, Andromeda, 
Clethra, Gaultheria, &c. ; none of which, at any rate, flower at the same time 
with it. 

On the 19th of April I gathered specimens from sixteen different plants on 
the Wissahickon, without taking any pains to make any particular selection of 
varieties. The following descriptions show their variations : 

1. Tube of the corolla half inch long, contracted in the middle ; segments of 
the corolla broadly ovate, one-third the length of the tube, incurved, pure white. 
Scales of the calyx two-thirds the length of the tube, narrowly lanceolate, in- 
terior ones white and membranaceous with a crimson base. 

2. Tube half inch, regularly cylindrical ; segments half as long as the tube, 
triangularly ovate, light rose, incurved. Scales one-third the length of the 
tube, white, coriaceous. 

3. Tube quarter inch, thick (one-eighth wide), cylindrical ; segments rather 
longer than the tube, triangularly ovate, incurved, deep rosy pink. Scales 
three-fourths the length of the tube, rosy red, with white margins. 

4. Tube nearly half inch, contracted at the summit ; segments very short, 
scarcely one-sixteenth of an inch, forming nearly five ovate repand teeth, 
purplish white. Scales greenish white, simply acute. 

5. Tube quarter inch long, one-eighth wide ; segments lanceolate, erect, 
two-thirds as long as the tube, rosy purple. Scales brown, not margined, 
drawn out to a long fine point. 

6. Tube quarter inch, cylindrical ; segments oblong ovate, recurved, as long 
as the tube. One of the anthers slightly petaloid. Scales prolonged *into 
almost an awn. 

7. Tube much narrowed at the summit, quarter inch long; segments less 
than one-sixteenth of an inch long, pale purple. Scales greenish brown, very 

8. Tube near half inch, contracted in the middle; segments quarter inch, 
linear lanceolate, bright rose. Scales half the length of the tube, broadly 
ovate, membranaceous, simply sharp pointed. 

9. Tube half inch, cylindrical ; segments quarter inch, of which there are 
but three broadly ovate, white. 

10. Tube nearly three-quarters inch, cylindrical ; segments quarter inch, 
narrowly ovate. Scales as long as the tube, linear lanceolate, pale green. 

11. Tube less than quarter inch, and shorter than the luxuriant foliaceous, 
mucronate scales. Segments of the corolla two-thirds as long as the tube, 
broadly ovate, pure white. 

12. Tube quarter inch, increasing slightly in width upwardly (funnel- 
shaped), one-eighth thick at the top of the tube ; segments short, ovate, re- 
flexed, light pink. Scales longer than the tube, green, white margined. 

13. Tube quarter inch, much contracted in the middle ; segments quarter 



inch, broad ovate. Scales half the length of the tube, brown, with white 

14. Tube under half inch, thick, perfectly cylindrical ; segments quarter 
inch, broad linear, and rounded at the apex, waxy white. Scales quarter inch 
long, brown, with membranaceous margins. 

15. Tube full three-quarters inch, cylindrical ; segments quarter inch, tri- 
angularly ovate, pale rose. Scales half inch, narrow and drawn out to an 
awn-like point. 

16. Tube half inch, cylindrical. Scales less than one-sixteenth of an inch, 
broad ovate, green, and barely pointed. 

On again examining No. 12, after making these notes, I was surprised to 
find no trace of stamens, but with the pistil perfect ; and on examining the 
other specimens I found three out of the fifteen were pistillate also. Another 
remarkable fact was that all these pistils had the fine cleft stigmas strongly 
recurved, exposing a glutinous surface ; while the hermaphrodite ones kept the 
apex of the pistils closed. The ovaries of the pistillate forms were also evi^ 
dently better developed than those in the hermaphrodite condition, and the 
inference was that the plant was practically dioecious. 

On the third of May I returned to the locality and found this hypothesis in 
all probability correct. The pistillate plants were in proportion about one- 
third that of the hermaphrodite, and could be readily distinguished after the 
flower had faded by the recurved stigmas above noted. All the plants that 
had shed their corollas were pistillate ; the apparently hermaphrodite plants 
having their corollas dry on the receptacles from which it was not easy to 
separate them — the scales of the calyx and a part of the stem coming away 
with them. This is so well known a feature of impregnation in the develop- 
ment of a fruit, that I need not dwell much on the importance of this fact, as 
showing the fertility of the pistillate, and the sterility of the opposite form. 

I engaged friends to furnish me specimens from other places. Dr. James 
Darrach finds them, as I have above described, in another locality on the Wis- 
sahickon. Miss Anderson sends me ten specimens from Edge Hill, Mont- 
gomery County, Pa., amongst which two are purely pistillate, the rest varying 
much as in the Wissahickon specimens. Mr. Isaac Burk finds pistillate plants 
abound at Mount Ephraim, New Jersey, but there are abortive filaments with- 
out anthers, and he sends me one specimen of this character. Mr. Charles E. 
Smith sends me a dozen or so specimens from Haddonfield, hermaphrodite, 
and so exactly alike that they probably all come from one plant. Mr. E. Dif- 
fenbaugh sends ten specimens from another place in New Jersey, all with 
anthers, but varying from nearly no filaments to filaments three-eighths of an 
inch long ; varying also in the proportionate lengths of scales, tubes and seg- 
ments ; but not near as much as in the Wissahickon specimens. Prof. Cope 
sends samples from Delaware County, Pa. These are varied like the Wissa- 
hickon ones ; and Mr. Cope remarks to me that the pistillate forms are so dis- 
tinctly characterized, by the vasiform recurved corollas and other characters, 
that he can readily distinguish them as he walks along. 

Has this peculiarity of Epigcba repens been overlooked by the many botanists 
who must have critically examined it heretofore ? Or has the plant reached a 
stage of development when germs of new forms spring actively into life ? 

In a paper on Lopezia, published in the last volume of the Proceedings, I 
showed that the sexual organs of that geuus were admirably arranged to pre* 
vent the pollen of a flower falling on its own stigma. This behavior oi Epigtea 
adds another to the list of plants, now so extensive, known to have an ab- 
horrence of self-fertilization. It may not be out of place to hazard a reason 
for this course : 

There would seem to be two distinct principles in relation to form going 
along together with the life of a species. The tendency of the one force is to 
preserve the existing form ; the other to modify, and extend it to newer chan- 
nels. The first we represent by the term inheritance^ the other we understand 



as variation. Inheritance struggles to hare the plant fertilize itself with its 
own pollen ; whilst the efforts of variation are towards an intermixture of 
races or even neighboring individuals, rather than with members of the one 
brood or family. May it not be possible that at some time in their past his- 
tory all species of plants have been hermaphrodite ? that Dioecism is a later 
triumph of variation, its final victory in the struggle with inheritance ? There 
are some diflficulties in the way of such a theory, as there are with most of 
these theories ; but it seems clear from this case oi Epigsea that cultivation has 
not «o much to do with changes as it gets credit for, and we may readily be- 
lieve that, independently of external circumstances, there is a period of youth 
and a period of old age inform as well as in substance^ and that we may there- 
fore look for a continual creation of new forms by a process of vital develop- 
ment, just as rationally as for the continued succession of new individuals. 

The discovery of dioecism in Epigsea is interesting from the fact that it is 
probably the first instance known in true Ericacsea. In the Ericale suborder 
of Francoacoea, abortive stamens are characteristic of the family, and in the 
Pyrolacxa antherless filaments have been recorded. 


The recent discovery, that many plants structurally" hermaphrodite are 
practically monoecious or dioecious, in consequence of the flower being so 
arranged as to prevent self-impregnation, is so interesting that every additional 
fact bearing on the subject has a value. 

Luzula campestris, D. C, adds another to the list. The three stigmas are 
protruded through the apex of the flower bud some days before the sepals open 
and expose the anthers. In the specimens I marked for observations, six days 
elapsed before the flower opened, after the pistils had been protruded to be 
operated on by the pollen of other flowers. This was in a cloudy week, and 
probably the exact time might vary with the weather. In all cases the stigmas 
wither away before the flower opens. 

After fertilization the stigmas generally twist around one another, and after 
the anthers have shed their pollen they twist in the same way, withering up 
in a very short time. An interesting fact in Luzula is the slight adhesion at 
the articulation of the subpedicels with the main flower stalk, — the gentlest 
force being sufficient to draw them out of their sheaths. It is perhaps owing 
to this weakness that the pedicels are often drooping when in fruit. 

June 2d, 1868. 
Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Twenty-five members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

'' Description of §even new species of Unio from North Carolina." 
By Isaac Lea. 

" Descriptions of two new species of Unionidse from Equador." 
By Isaac Lea. 

" New Unionidse, Melanidse, &c., chiefly of the United States." 
By Isaac Lea. 

" On Agaphelus, a genus of toothless Cetacea." By Edw. D. Cope. 

Dr. Leidy called attention to some specimens of Sombrero Guano 
-containing about 90 per cent, of phosphate of lime. This substance 



was noticed some years ago by him under the name of Ossite. A 
similar material has been found near Charleston, S. C, in a post- 
pliocene formation. 

E. D. Cope gave an account of his discovery of the fresh-water origin of 
certain deposits of sand and clays in west New Jersey, which he found to con- 
tain leaves of dicotyledonous trees, ctenoid fish scales, and numerous Unionidae 
in a tolerably good state of preservation. The most important part of the 
deposit consisted of a heavy black clay, which is used for-making brick, which 
rests on a bed of hard laminated clay, with a thin layel- of iron-stone between. 
The clay bed, at one place examined, is 25 feet in tl)ickness, and at from one 
to three feet from its bottom occurs a bed of fresh water mussels. These are 
Unios and Anodontas of six species, all of them, as pointed out to him by Dr. 
Lea, hitherto undescribed, and having some analogy with those of the Wealden, 
procured by Dr. Mantell in England. The beds are from the top of the clay 
down, conformable, and have a dip of about 25° to the south-east. The upper 
surface of the clay is worn into holes, which are filled by the material of a bed 
of coarse gravel of little depth, which covers the whole. Above this is a bed 
of fine sand, varying from six to fifteen feet in thickness to the soil. The point 
at which the section is visible is in New Jersey, on the banks of the Delaware, 
about six miles above Camden, N. J. 

These deposits belong to Meek and Hayden's Earlier Cretaceous, No. 1, 
which contains abundant remains of leaves on the Raritan River, but no 
animal fossils. Their age has been heretofore quite uncertain ; they have been 
stated by Meek and Hayden to be the earlier division of the later Cretaceous of 
the general geologic series: They extend across the States of Delaware, Mary- 
land and Virginia. In Maryland they are stated by Ducatel to contain the 
important deposits of carbonate of iron ; and Philip Tyson, State Geologist, 
informs me that these beds lie upon the red and blue clays, forming hills, 
which have been produced by erosion of the valleys to the beds below. These 
iron clays contain several species of Cycadaceous plants, whence Tyson infers 
the age of the clays to be Jurassic, and not Cretaceous, 

There are in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, "Washington, several 
specimens of fossil Unios, from a ferruginous clay which crops out at some 
elevation on the banks of the Potomac. These species are identical with those 
which have been found in the New Jersey clays, and the deposit is doubtless 
the same as that which traverses the State of Maryland. 

Indurated grey clays on the Rappahannock River have been examined by my 
friend Philip R. Uhler, of Baltimore, who has obtained from them leaves and 
stems of some six species of plants, in beautiful preservation, of the orders 
Cycadaceae, ? Gnetaceaj and Filices. The position and character of this bed 
renders it exceedingly probable that it is a continuation of those of Maryland 
and Alexandria. 

The whole formation indicates the existence of an extended body of fresh 
water, having a direction and outline similar to that in which were deposited 
the red sandstones and shales of the Triassic belt, which extends parallel to its 
north-west margin throughout the States in which it occurs, separated, except 
in New Jersey, by a broad band of Gneiss, and Potsdam rocks. The carbonate 
of iron was no doubt deposited in a bog or bogs along its margin or in its 
shallows, as the bottom became elevated, as suggested by Tyson, — though not 
in a salt-water swamp, as supposed by him. The cycads and dicotyledonous 
trees grew in the swamps and on the shores, while terrestrial reptiles of large 
size no doubt haunted their shades. 

These beds appear to dip conformably beneath the lower Cretaceous marine 
beds in New Jersey, in which, at a distance of a few miles from their border, 
occurred the remains of the Hadrosaurus ; and it is therefore not pj-obable that 
they were cotemporary with these, as is the case with the Wealden of Kent 



and the Cretaceous at Maidstone, England. The Hadrosaurus clays, belonging 
to the upper Cretaceous, as indicated by the presence of many molluscs of the 
Ripley Group of Mississippi, appear indeed to be separated from the clays in 
question by a great lapse of time. The age is therefore probably truly Wealden 
or Neocomian. 

These facts indicate the existence of a barrier to the eastward of their present 
position, which for a long period prevented the access of salt water. This 
barrier was no doubt an anticlinal of the Appallachian series, outside of that 
which walled in the Triassic fresh-water area, and, like it, parallel with the 
general series of anticlinals of the present Allegheny range. That it was, like 
the latter, at one time submarine, and, gradually rising, finally enclosed the 
area in question, the waters of which soon became fresh, from the numerous 
rivers which flowed into it. 

On the gradual elevation of this fresh-water valley, with its included beds 
of clays, etc., the Delaware river cut its way through the latter nearly to the 
fouth-eastern rise, and was then deflected along the base of these first eleva- 
tions of the bounding anticlinal, in a south-west direction. Thus is accounted 
for the apparently singular phenomenon of the great bend of the Delaware 
River, near Bordentown. For after penetrating the high ranges of the Blue 
Mountains, it remains to be turned, apparently, in a level country of sands 
and clays. 

We must suppose the coast line to have been not far from the south-eastern 
base of this anticlinal, and that a subsequent submergence brought the marine 
deposits near to the margin of the fresh, and gave the latter the south-east dip 
visible at the section at the Pea Shore. I have not yet been able to ascertain 
the relative position of the margins of these beds, nor the natu'-e of those that 
conceal the supposed anticlinal. A system of borings at a distance of two or 
three miles from and parallel to the Delaware, would do much towards ex- 
plaining this point. It is to be hoped that this may be undertaken by the 
present State Survey, under Prof. Cook. 

At the present time, the cities of Alexandria, Washington, and Baltimore 
stand upon its deposits, and Philadelphia is probably underlaid by its margin, 
as well as the adjoining margin of the Gneiss. Indeed, the location of the 
prominent cities of the Atlantic States appears to have been determined by the 
fine sites and water-powers off"ered by the junction of the high rolling country 
of the Gneiss formation, and the lower and more level regions of the supposed 
Neocomian, Cretaceous and Tertiary. Where the Gneiss strikes the ocean, is 
situated our greatest seaport. New York. Trenton, Philadelphia, Wilming- 
ton, Baltimore, Washington, Alexandria, Richmond, Raleigh, Columbia, and 
Milledgeville, Georgia, are all on this line of junction. The elevated Gneiss 
hills furnish healthy and beautiful residences, the fall furnishes water-power, 
and the lower level, water communication, and a light soil most suitable for 
gardening and the production of provisions for these centres of population. 

The succession of strata is rather more complete in New Jersey than has 
been generally supposed. At the basis of the series occurs the present fresh- 
water period. Then the marine Hadrosaurus or Ripley clays, and lower Green- 
sand bed. This deposit my friend John Smock, first assistant of the State 
Survey of New Jersey, informed me had not found to contain Chelonians. On 
examination of my own collections and explorations, and those of the Academy, 
I find this to be true up to the present time. The Chelonians, then, have so 
far been found in the middle bed of green sand only. Third, the sands, green 
sand, and limestone pertaining to the middle bed. Lastly, the upper green 
sand bed, which appeared to approximate closely the London clay, or lower 
Eocene, in the character of its fauna, in its molluscs, according to Conrad, and 
especially in the genus of serpents, Palseophis of Owen. 



June 9th, 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Thirty-seven members present. 

The following paper was presented for publication : 

" Descriptions of Unionidse from the Lower Cretaceous formation 
of New Jersey." By Isaac Lea. 

The death of Mr. Matthew Newkirk, member of the Academy, 
was announced. 

June IQth, 

The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Twenty-one members present. 

The following paper was presented for publication : 
"A sketch of the Natural Order Liliacese, as represented in the 
flora of the States of Oregon and Calfornia, with special reference to 
the plants collected in an excursion along our Pacific Coast, A. D., 
1866, now in the herbarium of the writer." By Alphonso Wood. 

June 2Zd. 

The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Thirty members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 
" Notice of some vertebrate remains from Harden Co., Texas ;'* 
" Indication of an Elotherium in Texas ;" 
" Notice of some reptile remains from Nevada ;" 
" Notice of some vertebrate remains from the AVest India Islands." 
By Joseph Leidy, M.D. 

Prof. Cope presented to the Academy some remains of extinct Cetacea from 
the Miocene bed of Maryland. Of these, some vertebrae, belonging to adult 
and young individuals, were stated to belong to a species "and genus which 
had not been characterized. He stated that the form was allied to Priscodel- 
phinus in its slender and pointed diapophyses of the lumbar and caudal verte- 
brae, but differed in the concave centrum, with four processes clasping the 
epiphysis. It was named Ixacanthus ccelospondylus. 

The portion of the mandibular ramus of the smallest known finner whale 
was presented to the Academy and named BALiENOPTBRA pusilla. The length 
of the species was stated to have been about eighteen feet, or equal the new born 
young of the modern fin-backs. Some vertebrae in the collection were also 
supposed to belong to the same. 

He mentioned that he had opportunity of examining a portion of a specimen 
of the Scrag Whale of Dudley, Balaena g i b b o s a of Erxleben, and ascertained 
that it represented a genus not previously known. It was a fin-back whale, 
but without dorsal fin or throat folds, resembling superficially the genus 
Balaena. The baleen short and curved. The genus was called Agaphklus. 

A second species of the genus was to be found in the " gray whale " of the 
coasts qf California. The baleen of this species, compared with that of the A. 
g i b b 8 u s, was longer and had narrower basis. The plates moderately and 
simply concave, while those of the latter are sigmoidal, most curved near the 



outer margin in cross section. The bristles of the California species w ere 
very coarse, varying from one to three series between the enamel plates. The 
bristles of the A. gibbosus much finer, three series together. Length of 
the latter 8-5 inches, width at base 4-4 inches. In the gray whale or Agaphelus 
gl a u cus Cope, 22 inches in length, width at base 6 inches. In the former 
nearly 6 in an inch, in the latter 2 J. The baleen of the A. gibbosus be- 
longed to an immature specimen of 35 feet in length. 

June SOth. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Thirty-nine members present. 

The amendment to Art. XXI, Chap^ XIII, was adopted, as fol- 
lows : 

"The Department A shall be denominated the Biological and Mi- 
croscopical Department of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Articles VI, VII and VIII, Chap. XIII, were amended to read 
according to the original tenor, as follows : 

"ART. VI. — Each department formed as herein provided, shall 
elect its own officers and members. 

"ART. VII. — Every candidate for admission into a Department 
shall be proposed in writing by two of its members at one meeting, 
and be ballotted for at the meeting next succeeding. 

" The affirmative vote of three-fourths shall be necessary to elect a 
candidate, but no election of members or of officers of a Department 
shall be valid unless there be present at the meeting six legal voters. 

"ART. VIII. — Every member elect shall pay to the Treasurer of 
the Department an initiation fee and a semi-annual contribution, the 
amount of which shall be determined by the members of the Depart- 
ment, provided that a Department shall not assess its members at a 
rate exceeding two dollars for initiation and two dollars serai-annual 
contribution. In other respects the By-Laws, Chap. II, which gov- 
ern the election of members and correspondents of the Academy, 
shall apply also to the election of members of any of its^^- Depart- 

The following gentlemen were elected members : 

Roger Sherman, John E. Carter, Francis P. Steel, Wm. Thomp- 
son, M.D., Wharton Barker, Isaac Comly, M.D., Silbert Combs, L. 
S. Bolles, M.p., J. F. Holt, M.D. 

The following were elected correspondents : 

Prof Jas. Orton, Dr. Boynton. 

On favorable report of the Committees, the following papers were 
ordered to be printed : 

Descriptions of seven new species of IJNIO from North Carolina. 


Unio dorsatus. — Testa laevi, triangulari, ad latere planulata, inaequilaterali, 
postice subbiangulari, antice rotundata ; valvulis subtenuibus, antice crassi- 



uscuHs ; natibus prorainentibus ; epidermide rufo-fusca, subsquamosa, obsolete 
radiata, dentibus cardinalibus parvis corrugatisque, lateralihus longis, lamel- 
latis subcurvisque ; margarita vel alba vel purpurea vel salmonea et valde 

Jya6.— Catawba River, N. C, C. M. Wheatley. 

Unio datus. — Testa laevi, lato-elliptica, valde compressa, inaequilaterali, 
postice obtuse angulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis subcrassis, antice parum 
crassioribus ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide rufo-fusca, micanti, obsolete 
radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus parviusculis, sulcatis erectisque ; lateralibus 
prelongis, subcurvis, lamellatis corrugatisque ; margarita nubila, salmonea et 
purpurea et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Paw Creek, Beaver Creek and Long Creek, N. C, C. M. Wheatley. 

Unio Beaverensis. — Testa laevi, oblonga, compressa, ad latere planulata, 
inaequilaterali, postice obtuse angulata, antice rotunda; valvulis subcrassis, 
antice parum crassioribus ; natibus subprominentibus ; epidermide rubiginosa, 
micanti, obsolete radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus longis, crassis, lamellatis 
subrectisque ; margarita vel alba vel purpurea et valde iridescente. 

Hab. — Beaver and Long Creeks, N. C, C. M. Wheatley ; Carter's Creek, Ga., 
J. Postell. 

Unio nubilus. — Testa laevi, oblonga, subcompressa, inaequilaterali, postice 
subbiangulari, antice rotundata; valvulis crassis, antice crassioribus; natibus 
prominulis ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus cras- 
sis, sulcatis corrugatisque ; lateralibus crassis, longis, corrugatis lamellatisque ; 
margarita nubila, salmonea et purpurea et iridescente. 

Bab.—F&w Creek, Mecklenberg Co., N. C, C. M. Wheatley. 

Unio Pawensis. — Testa laevi, suboblonga, inflata, valde inaequilaterali, postice 
subbiangulari, antice rotundata ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus subprominenti- 
bus, subtumidis ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, squamosa, eradiata ; dentibus 
cardinalibus parvis, corrugatis, subconicis ; lateralibus longis, lamellatis sub- 
curvisque ; margarita vel alba vel purpurescente et iridescente. 

Bab. — Paw Creek, Beaver Creek, and Catawba River, N. C, 0. M. Wheatley. 

Unio humerosus. — Testa laevi, elliptico-oblonga, compressa, ad latere planu- 
lata, inaequilaterali, postice obtuse biangulari, antice rotunda ; valvulis sub- 
crassis, antice crassioribus ; natibus prominulis ; epidermide rufo-fusca, obso- 
lete radiata ; dentibus cardinalibus grandibus, sulcatis, partitis ; lateralibus 
prelongis, lamellatis corrugatisque ; margarita salmonis colore tincta et valde 

ifa6.— Charlotte, Mecklenberg Co., N. C, C. M. Wheatley. 

Unio genuinus. — Testa laevi, elliptica, subinflata, inaequilaterali, postice sub- 
biangulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis subtenuibus, antice crassioribus ; nati- 
bus subprominentibus; epidermide luteola, valde radiata; dentibus cardinali- 
nalibus erectis, pyramidatis, in utroque valvulo duplicibus ; lateralibus longis 
subcurvis lamellatisque : margarita alba et iridescente. 

//a6.— Bissel's Pond, Charlotte, N. C, C. M. Wheatley. 

Description of two new species of UNIONIDJE from Eqnador. 

Unio Ortonii. — Testa plicata, lato-elliptica, compressa, valde inaequilaterali, 
postice angulata, antice rotundata ; valvulis crassis, antice crassioribus ; nati- 
bus prominulis ; epidermide rufo-fusca, eradiata ; dentibus cardinalibus multi- 
partitis, tlexuosis curtisque ; lateralibus prelongis, curvatis corrugatisque; 
margarita albida et valde iridescente. 

JJub. — River Napo, Equador, S. Am., Prof. Orton. 



Anodonta Napoensis. — Testa laevi, oblongo-elliptica, subcompressa, valde 
inaequilaterali, antice et postice rotundata ; valvulis subcrassis ; natibus pro- 
minulis ; epidermide tenebroso-fusca, encarpiforini, flexuosa, obsolete radiata ; 
margarita pallido-viridi, non iridescente. 

Hah. — River Napo, Equador, S. Am., Prof. Orton. 

Descriptions of XJNIONID.^ from the Lower Cretaceous Formation of New 



Prof. Cope very kindly placed in my hands the specimens of C//womcfe vs^hich 
he collected in a bed of bluish clay^ now first observed to contain them, about 
six miles north-east of Camden, N. J. This bed is subordinate to the Green 
Sand, so long known to our geologists as belonging to that portion of the Cre- 
taceous group which furnished so many interesting organic remains within the 
last forty years, particularly the Iladrosaurus Foulkii, Leidy, and the Lielaps 
aquilunguis, found by Prof. Cope. The same member of the Green Sand For- 
mation has been very productive also of marine mollusca, some of which I de- 
scribed in our Proceedings from the beds near Haddonfield, N. J. But, ^s ob- 
served above, no fresh water remains had been found in these cretaceous beds 
there, and the unexpected development of these Unionidse by Prof. Cope, it is 
hoped, may lead to other and more extensive results. 

These interesting beds in New Jersey have only yet had a very slight de- 
velopment. They will, no doubt, continue to yield their natural treasures to 
the industrious investigator for many years. The late Prof. Vanuxem, as early 
as 1818, while examining the Paris basin, was convinced that i-hese New Jersey 
beds had their equivalent in the Green Sand of Europe ; and subsequently, in 
1828, his notes were published in the Journal of the Academy, where he gave 
a table of their " relative geological position." 

Prof. Cope procured nearly forty specimens of Unionidse, and these are com- 
posed of ten species, viz. : eight Vniones and two Anadontse. These consist 
almost altogether of casts, but the forms are well preserved, and in some spe- 
cimens the inner layers of the nacre are remaining in fragments. These frag- 
ments, submitted to the microscope, exhibit the imbricated structure as de- 
veloped by Prof. Carpenter in the Unionidse, but I could not detect any of that 
portion of the outer structure of the nacre where the base membrane is de- 
posited in the peculiar cellular structure described and figured in his work. 
The impress of the muscular cicatrices is visible in many of the specimens. 
These cicatrices being placed in their usual positions, shewing even the dorsal 
and palleal scars. While all the massive structure of the cardinal and lateral 
teeth have been decomposed and carried off, their impress in the clay remains 
perfect, showing the same forms and striae which are found in the massive 
cardinal and lamellar teeth of our western species. 

As there are no characters of the shell itself left in anyone of the specimens, 
to designate specific differences, either by form of teeth, color of nacre, or epi- 
dermal rays, it remains only to take the outline, transverse diameters, and 
general curves, to group these specimens. In so doing, I have made these 
groups conform to the most known species, and named them accordingly. 
Among these specimens I have noticed none which have nodules or folds, 
while there is a general resemblance in size and form to those now inhabiting 
the rivers of the Ohio basin. 

As the bed in which these fresh-water shells are found lies below the well- 
known deposits of " green sand or marl beds," it becomes a very interesting 
question as to its relations to these superimposed beds. Further investigation 
can alone give us the data to settle this ipoint. In finding these fresh-water 
molluscs here, we are naturally brought to consider how far they may have 
relation to the products of those deposits in Europe, where the same genera of 



fresh-water shells have been found abundant ; I mean of course the Wealden 
of England, in which the distinguished geologist Dr. Mantell had worked so 
successfully, and in which he found the Iguanodon Manielli, a gigantic terres- 
trial reptile, and other animals, together with many fresh-water molluscs, par- 
ticularly a large number of Unionidse, analogous in form to these now so 
happily found by Prof. Cope in this bed below the Green Sand* 

1 ought to state, in connection with this subject, that Dr. Hayden published 
with Mr. Meek, some ten years since, observations made by the former regard- 
ing the estuary and fresh-water deposits near the mouth of the Judith River, 
where Dr. Hayden found Uniones, Paludinse, &c. These geologists, considering 
it the lowest, have called this number one. They say in their paper, published 
in our Proceedings May, 1857, that "the estuary and fresh-water deposits at 
the mouth of the Judith River are probably in a parallel with the lowest bed 
of the great Lignite basin, though some portions of them may be somewhat 

Unio NASUToiDES.f — Shell smooth, very wide, compressed, very inequilateral, 
biangular behind, rounded before ; beaks slightly raised, nearly terminal ; 
cardinal teeth short and striate ; lateral teeth long, and nearly straight. 

Length 1-5 inches, breadth 4-6 inches. 

Remarks. — This species is very nearly the same in outline with the well- 
known nasufus, Say, but it is more acute at the posterior margin, in which 
character it is more nearly allied to' Fish erianus (nobis). 

Unio radiatoides. — Shell smooth, regularly elliptical, compressed, inequi- 
lateral, subangular behind and rounded before ; beaks slightly raised, subme- 
dial; cardinal teeth large; lateral teeth large, rather long and lamellar. 

Length 2-4 inches, breadth 4-3 inches. 

Remarks. — Some of the large and compressed varieties of radiatiis, Lara., are 
nearly of the same outline Math this species, and the beaks are nearly in the 
same position. It is evidently a species of thickness and weight. 

Unio subrotundoides. — Shell smooth, subrotund, very much compressed, 
very inequilateral, rounded behind and before ; beaks slightly raised, nearly 
terminal ; cardinal teeth apparently small ; lateral teeth long, lamellar and 

Length 2-6, breadth 3-4 inches. 

Remarks. — Very nearly of the same outline with subrotundus nobis, but not so 
high in the beaks. The lateral teeth seem to be unusually long and curved. 

Unio carriosoides, — Shell smooth, broadly elliptical, somewhat inflated, ob- 
tusely angular behind, rounded before ; beaks somewhat raised, removed from 
medial ; cardinal teeth ; lateral teeth long and slightly curved. 

Length 2-5, breadth 4-8 inches. 

Remarks. — This is evidently a very regularly formed species, the curves be- 
ing gentle and pleasing. It resembles in outline some of the more transverse 
large males of carriosus, Say. 

Unio humerosoidbs. — Shell smooth, ovately oblong, very much compressed, 
rounded behind and before ; beaks slightly raised, removed from medial ; car- 
dinal teeth large and compressed ; lateral teeth rather long and slightly curved. 

Length 26, breadth 4-2 inches. 

* While in London in 1852, my friend Dr. Mantell consulted me in relation to these 
Unionidie from the Wealden, of which he had sovural hundred specimens, witli the inten- 
tion of publishing them. For this purpose I grouped the whole of this fine collection, 
and assimilated tliern to those of our existing western species. Owing to severe illness, 
from which he never recovered, Dr Mantell did not {)ublish these shells, and his collection 
was dispersed by a public sale. On my return from the continent to London, fllteen 
months afterward, I round in the cabinet of the late distinguish(«d geologist, Mr. Sharp, a 
portion of them, which he had purchased, and which still hnd the la\)el8 which I nad 
written for Dr. Mantell. I am not aware of any ol these having been published. 

t These descriptions are of course imperfect, being little more than from casts. Speci- 
mens of all the species are deposited in the cabinet of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 



Remarks. — A rather unusual outline, and more like some South American 
species than our own, except humerosus (nobis), which it is closely allied to. 
The exterior is very much and coarsely striate. 

Unio Roanokoidbs. — Shell smooth, very wide and slightly curved at basal 
margin, compressed towards the beaks, rounded before and behind ; beaks 
slightly raised, well advanced towards the anterior margin ; cardinal teeth 
rather large, very much striate ; lateral teeth very long, lamellar and slightly 

Length 2-6, breadth 4-8 inches. 

Remarks. — The form of this species is very unusual, and it is nearest in out- 
line to Roanokensis and macer (nobis). A portion of the nacre remains on the 
specimen, but there is no appearance of rays on this or any other of these spe- 
cimens. The anterior portion is remarkably compressed for a Unio ; this 
character somewhat applies to others which accompanied it. 

Unio LiaAMENTixoiDES. — Shell smooth, elliptical, very much compressed, 
very inequilateral, angular behind and rounded before ; beaks slightly raised ; 
cardinal teeth compressed : lateral long, lamellar and curved. 

Length 2-3, breadth 3-5 inches. 

Remarks — The outline and general appearance of this shell is nearly that of 
a compressed male ligamentinus, Lam., but rather more arched above. The 
curves are regular, and no doubt that in a perfect state it must have been 
attractive as its prototype now existing is. 

Unio alatoides. — Shell alate, smooth, subelliptical, very much compressed, 
inequilateral, rounded before and behind ; beaks raised ; cardinal teeth 
oblique and compressed ; lateral teeth long, large, lamellar and very slightly 

Length 2-9, breadth 4-2 inches. 

Remarks. — A single specimen only is before me, and this by no means per- 
fect. It is very closely allied to ala,tus, Say. The anterior dorsal portion of 
one valve is gone, and that of the other valve is crushed, but the posterior por- 
tion is in a very good state, showing a perfect and deep mould of the large, 
regular, lamellar lateral tooth, over which the posterior dorsal portion of the 
disk extends into a well-defined wing, which was connate above, but not ex- 
tending so high as in alatus. 

Anodonta granbioides. — Shell smooth, elliptical, very much inflated, ventri- 
cose, obtusely angular behind, obliquely rounded before ; beaks submedial, 
flattened at the tips, but very much inflated on the umbos. 

Length 3-3, breadth 4-9 inches. 

Remarks. — This species is more like grandis^ Say, than any other of our 
western Anodontse. It is about the same size, and of very nearly the same out- 
line. Both the valves are present, and in their natural relevant positions. The 
umbos are much inflated, but not so much as the other species [corpulentoides) 
herein described. 

Anodonta corpulentoides. — Shell smooth, rotundo-elliptical, exceedingly 
inflated, very ventricose, obtusely angular behind, rounded before ; beaks sub- 
medial, flattened at the tips, but excessively inflated on the umbos. 

Length 3-6, breadth 6 5 inches. 

Remarks. — This species is so nearly like corpulenta, Cooper, that I have no 
hesitation to consider it nearest in outline and form to that remarkable species, 
described by the late Judge William Cooper, and which inhabits the Lake of the 
Woods, and other north-western waters. There is no mistaking the peculiar 
great enlargement of the umbos of this species being analogous to corpulenta. 
Theretare two imperfect specimens before me, but the larger one has the ante- 
rior half of the right valve and posterior half of the left valve, which enables 
me to make a nearly correct description and measurement. 



A sketch of tli9 Natural Order LILIACE^, as represented in the Flora of the 
States of Oregon and California, with special reference to the Plants col- 
lected in au Excursion along our Pacific Coasts, A. D. 1866. 


(Commencing at San Diego, Jan. 28, 1 made wide excursions in that vicinity until Feb. 
l9. Here the hills are covered with four species of the Cacti, with other plants. Thence 
journeying north, I visited the splendid plains of San Louis Rey, and of Anaheim, <fec. 
Arrived at Los Angeles on the 23d. Here flourish almost all the tropical, together with 
the temperate fruits, in great abundance. My daily excursions here extended to San 
Gabriel, to the Granite Mountains north and east, to Cocomungo and San Bernardino east, 
and to San Pedro west. Next journeyed to San Buenaventura,— a most delightful trip, 
much of it on the beach. Hence diverged to Ojai Ranch and the Sulphur Mountains. 
Thence to Santa Barbara, known for its grand Mission church, still in good repair. On 
the 28th of March I left for San Louis Obispo, where I spent three days on those magnifi- 
cent plains and lofty buttes. Next on the Salinas Plains, the Gavilan Mountains, and the 
vicinity of Monterey four days, and April 4th to 7th in the rich Pajaro Valley and adjoin- 
ing Redwood Hills. April 7th to 17th botanized in the remarkable region of Santa Cruz, 
and the following week on the splendid plains and hills of Santa Clara and San Jose, 
south and east of the Bay. April 23d to May 6th, in the vicinity of San Francisco, San 
Mateo, Oakland, tec. 

Our next journey was to the Giant-wood of Calaveras, with side excursions to Sacra- 
mento, Lincoln, Folsom, Murphy's and Vallecito, returning on May 31st. The plainj 
were now dressed in their most brilliant robes, in which the golden and purple Mariposaa 
shone conspicuous. 

A trip to the Geysers commenced June 1st, when the Geyser Mountains were red with 
Clarkias. In this journey we visited Petaluma, Sevastopol, Santa Rosa and Healdsburg, 
which latter place yields a rich harvest to the botanist. Returned June 7th. 

Next day commenced our long tour northward, again visiting Sacramento, Marysville, 
and exploi'ing the Yuba River to near Downieville. Thence Oroville, Chico, are visited ; 
Red Bluff and Shasta, where I explored the head-waters of the Sacramento. Thence over 
the Trinity Mountains, where Brevoortia had long bloomed unknown, and over Scott's 
Mountain, reaching Yreka June 17th From this place enjoyed a grand excursion over the 
volcanic plains, thirty miles, to Mt. Shasta. 

June 21st crossed the State line, on the Siskiyou Mountains, into Oregon, and for three 
days explored the splendid valley of Rogue River, in the vicinity of Jacksonville. Next 
three days were spent in pleasant excursions up and down the Umpqua Valley, from the 
bright little town of VVilbur. At Eugene, 100 miles to the north, entered the vast plains 
of the Wahlamette River. Reached Albany July 1st, and Salem, the capital of Oregon, 
July 4th. Here spent three days in botanic trips, in company with Dr. Wythe of the 
Wahlamette University. Hence thirty miles to Oregon City, a place of infinite water- 
power, and one hundred miles from Eugene,— the entire length of this great valley. Hence 
to Portland twenty miles, and to the ocean one hundred miles navigation for the largest 

From the city of Portland, June 9th to 17th, my long excursions radiated, usually in 
excellent company. By the waters of the Great Columbia I reached the Dalles on the 
I8th, laboring diligently one week, with Judge Wilson often as guide. Returning, spept 
one day at the famous Cascades, wh«re the river has torn asunder the mountains, which 
are supported on columns of basalt. Next I am perambulating the rich woods and 
meadows of Forest Grove, twenty-five miles west of Portland. A day at Milwaukie, Oswe- 
go and Oregon City, where friends and botanists had already collected herbaria for my 
use. August 7th to 11th at Astoria, and Clatsop Plains, at the mouth of the Columbia. 
Once more reach, and leave Portland, accompanied by friends brave and true (Dr. Atkin- 
son, J. Deerdorf, <fec.), for the Cascade Range and Mt. Hood, in full view sixty miles east- 
ward. On that awful summit we stood Aug. 20th, and estimated its height at 17,(X)0 feet, 
—water boiling at 180° Fahr. 

On the 25th, started from Monticello, Washington Territory, in a canoe rowed by Indi- 
ans, on a two days' excursion up the Cowlitz River. Everywhere in dark, gloomy forests 
of the Douglas Fir (Abies Douglasii),— would supply the world with lumber for a 
thousand years. Finally, on the Slst, leave Portland by steamer Montana for the Pacific, 
and for San Francisco, 000 miles distant. 

Our final excursion was to the Yosemite,— last, not least. A day or two at Benicia and 
around Mt. Diablo (whose flowers had already been gathered for me by Rev. J. P. Moore), 
once more at Stockton, and across the vast plain to Bear Valley, Mt. Bullion, and Mari- 

f>osa, and I surveyed alone the Giant-wood or Mariposa. Four tfays 1 went up and down 
n Yosemite, plucking flowers from tlie bases of cloud-capped rocks, and on the 22d of 
September am again In San Francisco, whence, on the morning of the 20th, with many a 
trophy, I embarked for home.) 

Tribe l.—TULIPE.E. 

Ebythronium orandiflorum, Pursh. Scape tall (1 — 2 f.), 1 — 3-flowered ; 
perianth segments yellow, acuminate, retiexed from near the base ; stigmas 3, 
distinct, revolute j leaves spotless. — Woods, from the Sacrameuto to the Co- 



lumbia River, and northward. Bulb oblong-ovoid. Flowers (when more than 
one) racemed, as if by the splitting of the scape. 
/?. multiflorum (Torr.) Flowers 5 — 8 in the raceme. — Sierras. 
y. mulfiscapidea (Kellogg). Scapes several, all radical, each 1-flowered. — 
Sacramento Valley (Dr. Stillman. V. s. in herb. Torrey). A remarkable 
plant ; but the scape is often one only, and then undistinguishable from 
var. ct. 

E. GiGANTEUM Lindl. Scapes 5 or 6-flowered ; segments acuminate ; stigmas 
united and club-shaped, somewhat 3-lobed. — Oregon to Idaho (Mr. E. Walker), 
and northward. My specimens are all 1-flowered, and too small to justify 
Lindley's name. Flowers straw-yellow. 

LiLiUM CANADENSE, /?. puberulum {ToTT.l) Tall, strict (3 — 4 f.) ; stem and 
peduncles minutely puberulent ; leaves some opposite, some verticillate, often 
some scattered ; flowers few (often but one) ; segments orange-yellow, with 
brown dots, oblong, reflexed from below the middle ; anthers oblong ; stigma 
entire, 3-lobed. — Yuba Co. to the Columbia. Flowers large, showy, 1 — 7. 
June, July. 

y. minus. — Glaberrimum ; foliis plerumque sparsis ; flore ssepius unica /? di- 
midio minore ; antheris ovalibus, basi affixis. — Meadows near Mt. Shasta, 
and in Oregon. June. (Y&r. parviflora Hook, is undescribed.) 
S. Walkeri. Floribus multis (12 — 15) minimisque (policaribus) ; racemo 
elongato ; foliis verticillatis — Idaho (Mr. Elkanor Walker). 

L. Washingtonianum (n. sp.) Glaberrimum ; foliis plerumque verticillatis, 
oblanceolatis vel obovatis, breviter acuminatis : floribus permagnis, infundi- 
buliformibus, basi attenuatis, umbellatis vel Sfepe solitariis, subnutantibus ; 
segmentis spatulatis, apice cuspidatis, basi longe angustatis, supra recurvatis, 
3-policaribus ; intus fusco-maculatis, odoratissimis ; anth. oblongis ; stig. in- 
tegro. — In woods here and there, from Yosemite to the Columbia. 3 — 5 f. 
Flowers purple, varying to white. 

This splendid lily seems to have been overlooked by the botanists, or con- 
founded with the preceding. It is well known to the miners, who recognize 
its superior qualities, and call it the " Washington Lily." 

* Flowers tessellated, purple and yellow. Caps. 6-winged. 

F. MUTiCA Lindl. Stems many (3 — 9)-flowered, naked below ; leaves verti- 
cillate, linear-lanceolate, obtusely pointed; flowers racemed, nodding, bell- 
form, as long as the pedicles (1^) ; segments oblong, acutish, tessellated with 
dull purple and greenish-yellow ; style trifid ; capsule 6-winged. — California ; 
common in the interior. 2 — 3 f. Lvs. 2 — 3''. The one radical leaf is ample, 
elliptical. Bulb of white, thick scales. April, May. 

/?. foliosa. — Procera ; foliis majoribus (5 — 6^) ; floribus parvulis, segm. 
linearibus,* 9^^. — In deep shades. Redwood hills. 3 — 5 f. 

F. LANCEOLATA Ph. Stem strict, 1 — 2-fiowered ; leaves lanceolate and linear- 
lanceolate, verticillate or opposite ; flowers nodding, obconic, obtuse at base, 
longer than their pedicels ; segments oblanceolate, rather obtuse, tessellated 
with purple and yellow; caspule broadly 6-winged.— Monterey to Portland, 
north and east. 1 — 2 f. Lvs, 2 — V. Stem naked below, as in F. mutica. The 
capsule is broader than long. It is more than probable that F. mutica runs 
into this. 

F. PARViFLORA Torr. (P. R. R. Rep. IV.) Leaves narrowly lance-linear, 
whorled or scattered; flowers small, few or many, in a long raceme, on short 
pedicels, nodding ; perianth narrow at base ; style trifid to near the middle; 
capsule 6-winged. — Santa Cruz, Gavilan Mts. ! Murphy's (Calaveras Co.) 
Radical leaf broad. Stem lvs. about 2^ by 2^^. Flowers 1 — 20, greenish and 




** Flowers brownish-purple, not tessellated. Fr. wingless. 
F. Kamtschatcbnsis Gawl. Bulbs granulated ; leaves lanceolate, irregularly 
verticillate ; flowers 1 — 3, pendulous, brown-purple, spotless, bell-form, much 
longer than their pedicels ; segments lance-elliptical, acute, veins inside more 
or less lamellated ; nectaries oblong ; capsule obtusely 6-angled. — Coast, San 
Diego to Sitka (and Kamtschatka). The bulb consists of thick farinaceous 
scales, loosely conjoined. Stem 8— 12^ February — April. {F. bifiora Lindl.) 

F. RECDRVA Benth. Stem tall, naked at base ; leaves linear or oblong-linear, 
some whorled near the middle of the stem ; flowers several, subcylindrical, 
suberect ; segments oblong, reflexed at the end, longer than their pedicels ; stig- 
mas subconnate ; ovary oblong, fr. wingless. — California (Hooker), Umpqua 
Valley, Oregon (Mrs. Royal). 2 f. Flowers 1^ inches long, light purple. 

*** Flowers yellow. Capsule wingless. 
F. LiLiACEA Lindl. Stem leafy at base ; leaves oblong-lanceolate and 
linear, the lower whorled or opposite ; flowers 1 — 5, racemed, nodding, bell- 
form, with a narrow base, yellow ; pedicels erect, longer than the bracts; cap- 
sule oblong, blunt at both ends ; style 3-cleft. — San Francisco (Dr. Slillman), 
Benicia (Rev. J. P. Moore), to Nevada. 8 — 14^. Nectary a groove. Very 
pretty. March. 

F. PUDioA Spreng. Low ; leaves lance-linear and linear, opposite or scat- 
tered ; flower solitary, nodding, bell-form, yellow ; peduncle as long as the 
bract, recurved at top ; segments oblong-obovate, obtuse ; style and stigma 
undivided ; ovary wingless. — Dalles of the Columbia (Mrs. Wilson), and east. 
6 — 9''. Leaves few, 3''. Nectaries nearly obsolete, hence first named by Pursh 
a Lilium [L. pudicum). 

Yucca aloifolia L. ? — Hills, near the Hot Springs, San Bernardino (March 
10th), only the leaves and the dead scapes of the preceding year. Leaves 
densely capitate near the ground, 12 — 15^ by 1'', very rigid, sharply serrulate, 
glaucous, ending in a strong spine. Scapes very stout, 10 — 15 f. high. 

Y. GRAMiNiFOLiA (u. sp. ?) — Mouutaius twclvc miles east of Los Angeles 
(March 3d). Saw only leaves, and dead scapes with the fruit. Leaves very 
numerous, in a dense radical crown, linear, 2 f. by 3 — 4^'', glaucous, not very 
rigid, rough-serrulate, round -carinate, involute above, and ending in a sharp 
spine. Scape 10 — 15 f. high, paniculately branched, bearing hundreds of 
" white, bell-form, pendulous " (Mr. Hoover) flowers. Capsule K thick, 1^'' long, 
6-lobed, 6-celled, packed full of disc-form, thin, black seeds. The leaves are 
not at all filamentous. 

Y. FiLAMENTOSA L. ? — Mountains east of Los Angeles, with the last. Only 
the leaves seen (March 3d), which are densely clustered, yellowish-green, with 
brown spots and transverse lines at intervals, with no midvein, thick, lance- 
linear, rolled above and sharp-pointed, margin splitting into strong, recurved 

CALOCHORTUS, Pursh. (Kaxof, beautiful, x^rot, grass.) 
[Cyclobothra and Calochortus of authors.) 
Perianth 6-parted, regular, deciduous ; segments distinct, contorted in Aesti- 
vation ; sepals oblong or lance-linear, spreading, much smaller than the petals ; 
petals connivent or spreading, broadly obovate, cuneate-unguiculate, bearded 
within, with a glabrous spot above the base ; stamens tJ, perigynous ; fil. 
subulate ; anthers linear- oblong, deeply perforated at base where the filament 
is inserted ; ovary free, 3-angled ; style very short or none ; stigmas recurved, 
persistent on the 3-celled, 3-valved, chartaceous capsule ; seeds angular, one 
row in each cell. — Bulbous erect herbs of the North American Pacific States. 
Leaves narrow, acuminate. Flowers few, terminal, solitary, nodding or erect, 



The acknowledged error of Litidley, Kunth, &c., of referring the origin&l species of 
Pursh (C. ekgans, A.D. 1816) to a genus invented ten years later {Cyclobothra, Sweet, 1826), is 
aroided by including both genera in one, under Pursh's name. Moreover, Sweet's genus 
cannot possibly be distinguished by " fovea nectarifera alte impressa " (the only distinc- 
tion relied upon), for in C. elegans and its congeners " the pit" fades away by degrees, be- 
coming imperceptible. If, however, the two genera be insisted on. Sweet's name must 
give place to the prior one of Pursh, and a new name (none more appropriate than Mari- 
posa) conferred in place of the Calochortus of Lindley, «fec. No one acquainted with these 
oeautiful flowers will regret the disuse of so distasteful a name as Cydobothra, 

^Calochortidea, Petals impressed inside with a nectariferous pit, which is 
gibbous outside, beard scattered, soft, margin ciliate-fringed. 

* Perianth ventricous, pendulous. 
C. P0LCHELLUS. Erect, branched above ; flowers globous, yellow ; the upper 
in pairs and threes, lower often solitary, all with long bracts ; sepals lance- 
ovate, acuminate^ petals concave, connivent, fringed, twice broader than the 
sepals, the pits large and deep ; anthers mucronate ; ovary ovoid, — Mt. Diablo 
(Rev. J. P. Moore), and the interior of California generally, less common than 
the next. 1 f. Its pendulous golden globes make a fine appearance. May. 
{Cyclobothra pulchella Benth., in Hort. Trans., n. ser., i, p. 413.) 

C. ALBUS DougL Erect or inclined, branching ; flowers oblong, inflated, 
white, the upper in pairs, with lanceolate acuminate bracts ; sepals oval, much 
shorter than the concave, scarcely fringed petals ; anthers obtuse ; ovary obo- 
void. — California, common in all the foot hills. 1 — 2 f. Leaves and bracts 
lance-linear and long pointed. Flowers V or more long, of a delicate pearly 
whiteness. May, June. (Cyclobothra alba Benth., 1. c. C. alba And paniculata 

** Perianth expanding, nodding (not pendulous). 

0. ELEGANS Pursh. Stem slender, with one radical, linear leaf; flowers in 
pairs or threes, open, nodding or suberect, white or purplish ; sepals oblong, 
cuspidate, greenish-purple, the petals much larger, roundish-obovate, soft- 
bearded within except its purplish pit, ciliate-fringed, and a short cusp at apex ; 
anthers acuminate, white j stigmas recurved ; capsule 3-winged, finally oval 
and reflexed on the elongated pedicels. — In cool mountain shades, Mt. Shasta 
to the Columbia. 10 — 16^. Petals near 1'' long, the pit strongly impressed. 
June. (C Tolmxi Hook., Cyclobothra elegans Lindl., Bot. Reg. t. 1662.) 

/S. nanus. Folio august^ lineari v. filiformi, florem unicum longe excedente ; 

ped. filiformi bracteis subulatis duabus instructo ; perianthii capillis fuscis. 

— High hills, Yreka. Also on Mt. Hood. 5 — 8''. June — August. 

^^Mariposa. Perianth erect, open. Sepals convolute-acuminate. Petals 

plane, erect-spreading, often spotted, but with no nectariferous pit. Seeds oval, 

compressed. (Vide C. venustus, below.) 

* One radical leaf exceeding the slender stem. Petals straight, spotless? Pods 
oval, obtuse, nodding 
C. UMBELLATUS (u. sp.) Folio radicali unico, lineari, caulem et bracteas 
foliosas longe excedente ; floribus 5 — 9, fere umbellatis, erectis ; pediculis 
subradicalibus, longissimis, ebracteatis, fructiferis recurvatis ; petalis flabelli- 
formibus, apice rotundatis, erosis, glaberrimis, basi squama ciliata instructis, 
albis, concoloribusj antheris oblongis, obtusis ; capsula 3-alata — In collibus 
altis prope Oakland, California (legimus Sanborn et nos). Caulis 6 — 8 poll. 
Folium pedale. Petala 10 lin, Maia. {Cyclobothra elegans, r&r. Tow. 7 R. R. 
Rep. iv ) Distinguished from C. elegans by its many flowers, beardless petals, 
entire absence of nectary, &c. 

c^C. UNiFLORUS Hook. One radical lance-linear leaf larger than the several 
cauline ones ; flower single, lilac, on a long, nearly radical peduncle ; sepals 
linear, acuminate; petals triangular-fan-shaped, bearded just at base, with a 



small purple spot; anthers linear-oblong, obtuse, blue; style short, distinct. 
—High plains, Santa Cruz, &c. Scape 6\ Flower V long. April. Clearly 

C. NiTiDUS Dougl. Radical leaf lance-linear, much larger than the few cau- 
line, all long-pointed ; flowers 3 — 4, orange-yellow, pedicels elongated ; sepals 
elliptic, acute ; petals same length, roundish, bearded all over inside with cla- 
vate hairs ; anthers short, acuminate ; capsule oval, wingless, drooping. — Yuba 
and Tuolumne Counties. 6—8^. Leaf 1 f. Flowers brilliant, 15'^ broad. 

/?. cornutus. Sepalis longe acuminatis, corollam excedentibus. Flore unica ; 
fol. anguste lineari.— Dutch Flat. 4—6^. Fl. 1^ lato. 

** Stem leafy, erect, branched, rigid. Perianth large, broad-campanu- 
late, the petals recurved- spreading above the middle, spotted (except 
a Weedii). 

C. VENUSTUS Benth. Branches few, 1-flowered ; leaves few, narrowly linear; 
sepals lanceolate, acuminate, greenish outside, a purple eye bordered with 
yellow inside ; petals many times larger, flabelliform, straw-white, variegated, 
a tuft of hairs below, a purple crescent bordered with yellow near the middle; 
stamens one-third as long as petals, anthers longer than filament ; pod lance- 
oblong. — Plains and foot hills, California. 1^ — 2 f. Flowers 2^ inches broad. 
This splendid flower (with the next two) has long been known to the native 
Californians by the name of Mariposa (iSpanish for butterfly). 

C. SPLENDBNS Bcuth. ? Stem stout, 3 — 5-flowered ; leaves narrowly linear ; 
sepals lanceolate, acuminate, revolute, green, longer than the petals, a small 
brown spot in the middle ; petals broad-obovate, rounded at apex, lilac, 
sparsely bearded below, a brown-yellow eye in the middle ; anthers large, 
longer than filament (6^''), blue (Bentham). — Santa Clara, &c., not rare. 1 — 
2 f. Flowers as large as in No. 7. Perhaps it runs into that species. May. 

C. MACROCARPUS Dougl. Bulb oblong ; stem 5-leaved, 2-flowered glaucous ; 
leaves convolute, sheathing at base ; pedicels enlarged upwards ; sepals lance- 
linear, longer than the petals, lilac, -with a green line outside ; petals obovate, 
short acuminate, tapering to base, lilac or bluish-purple, greenish at base in- 
side, and with a tuft of beard ; anthers acuminate, as long as filament ; cap- 
sule lance-oblong, very long (3 — 4^). — Dalles of the Columbia, &c., common. 

C. LUTEUS Dougl. Stem about 3-flowered ; leaves convolute-acuminate, 
shorter than the slender peduncles ; sepals oblong, pointed and recurved at 
apex, scarcely shorter than the petals, yellow; petals yellow, broad-cuneate, 
rounded at apex, bearded across the base, a roundish red spot near the middle ; 
anthers as long as filament; capsule elliptical. — Plains of Sacramento and 
San Joachin. 1 — 2 f. Flowers smaller than in the foregoing, very brilliant. 

C. Weedii (n. sp.) Caule subtrifloro ; foliis convolutis-filiformibus, pedun- 
culo divaricato multo brevioribus; floribus aurantiacis-Iuteis, coucoloribus ; 
Sep. oblongis, acuminatis, petala excedentibus, basi barbatis ; pet. cuneato- 
obovatis, intus omnino barbatis, ciliatis, basi barbis fasciculatis ; stam. fere 
longitudine petalorum, anth. filamentis brevioribas; ovario lineari. — San Diego 
(ligit Weed). Caulis gracilis, rigidus, 1 — 2 ped. Flores magnitudine Glutei; 
pet. 15 lin. Stam. et pistilla, 1 pol. April. Very distinct. 

0. NuTTALLii Terr. "Stem 2-flowered; leaves very narrowly linear; petals 
obovate cuneate, rounded at summit, white except the yellow base, with an 
oblong dense tuft of hairs on the claw, a jjurple spot just above, and a few 
scattered hairs. (C. luteua Nutt ) Noble's Pass, Sierra Nevada, July 3." (P. 
R. R. Rep. ii, 124.) V. s. in herb Torr* 

* The frequent references like the above, In these paKes, Indicate the extent of my ob* 
ligations to tliat eminent botanist, Dr. John Torroy, of Cohimbiu Coll., Now Yorit. 

1868.] , 12 



Camassia esculenta Lindl. — Fine specimens from Marin Co. (Dr. Stillman) 
to Portland (Mr. Walker, Mrs. Shepley). Bulb white, furnishing to the Indi- 
ans a rich diet. Leaves broadly linear, nearly the length of the scape (12 — 
18''); raceme 6 — 10-flowered. Flowers I'' long, blue, alternate. Sepals lance- 
oblong, 5 — 7-veined. Cells of the capsule about 12-seeded. 

ALLIUM, Linn. 
I Bracts of the spathe 2, rarely 1 or 3. 

* Sepals acuminate, longer than the stamens. 

A. PALCiFOLiuM Hook. Bulb globular, white ; leaves 2 or 3, linear, recurved, 
shorter than the scape ; spathe colored, of 1 or 2 bracts, shorter than the pedi- 
cels ; flowers 10 — 30, rose-purple, two or three times shorter than their stalks ; 
sepals lance-ovate, carinate-acuminate, more or less glandular-serrulate, 
recurved, more than twice longer than the unequal stamens. — San Diego to 
Salem (Oregon). 10 — 20''. Pedicels V — 18''^. March — May. Hooker's plant 
had " lanceolate " leaves. None wider than lance-linear appear among my 

A. DouGLASSii Hook. Bulb ovoid, white ; leaves linear, erect, mostly two, 
shorter than the scape ; spathe 2 bracted, about as long as the pedicels ; 
flowers about 20, rose-purple, two or three times shorter than their stalks ; 
sepals ovate, gibbous at base, rather acuminate, straight, a third longer than 
the subequal stamens. — Throughout Oregon, California and Nevada. 10 — 
20''. Pedicels V. San Diego specimens have sepals brop-dly ovate, merely 
acute. Nearly allied to A. falcifolium, but readily distinguished by the sepals 
(sepals and petals). 

A. ACUMINATUM Hook. ? Bulb ovoid, often purplish ; leaves 2 — 3, narrowly 
linear, shorter than scape ; umbel densely 00 -flowered, globular, V or more in 
diameter; spathe 2 — 3-bracted; pedicels not longer than the purple flowers 
(3 — 5^^) ; sepals ovate or oval, acuminate, gibbous at base, near twice longer 
than the stamens ; capsule ripening 1 — 3 black seeds. — Hills, Santa Clara Co. 
to the Wahlamette. Scape 1 f. or more. Umbel small and compact, 20 — 40- 
flowered, very pretty. April, May. 

/?. gracile. Scapo gracillimo ; umbella 20-flora, f pol. diam. ; segmentis 
(siccis, post anthesin) inflectis, albis ; semine unico. — On Feather River, 

** Sepals acute, equalling the stamens. 

A. TRiBRACTEATUM Torr. Bulb ovate ; scape low (3 — 4'') ; leaves 2, linear, 
much longer than scape ; umbel 15 — 20-flowered; spathe of 3 ovate bracts ; 
sepals lanceolate, acute ; about equalling the stamens ; capsule broadly 
obovate, 3-lobed, cells 2-seeded. — Hill sides, Dufifield's, Sierra Nevada (P. R. 
R. Rep. iv, 92). V. s. in herb. Torr. 

A. AMPLECTENS Torr. Bulb large ; scape low, flexuous ; leaves 2, longer than 
scape, filiform; umbel 3 — 6-flowered ; spathe of two round concave bracts 
embracing the flowers ; sepals oblong, obtuse ; capsule 3-lobed, depressed, 6- 
seeded. — Hill sides, Sonoma, Cal. (Torrey, 1. c, V. s. in herb. Torr. 

■5^** Sepals acute, stamens exserted. 

A. CERNUUM Roth.? Bulb ovoid-oblong, tapering upwards; leaves 5 — 8, 
narrow-linear, erect, shorter than the scape ; umbel fastigiate, nodding, finally 
erect, with a short 2-leaved spathe, and about 20 small roseate flowers; sepals 
oblong-ovate, acute, shorter than the stamens and slender style; ovary 
3-lobed, crowned with a 6-lobed crest !— Dalles of the Columbia and east. 1^ 
feet. Bulb 1^ in. long, eatable. Flowers 2^^ long. Umbel 1^ broad. August. 



This plant combines the exserted stamens of ^. cernuum with the 6-lobed creat 
of A. stellatum Nutt. 

§§ Bracts of the spathe 4—6. 

A. Sanbornii (n. sp.) Bulbo ovato, albo ; foliis ante anthesin evanescenti- 
bus (ignotis) ; scape gracilente, procero (2 — 3 ped.), basi longe vaginatis ; 
umb. globosa, confertim 40 — 100 flora; spatha e bracteis 4 lanceolatis 
acuminatis ; ped. filiformibus, floribus purpureis longioribus ; segm. erectis, 
oblongis, basi gibbosis ; interioribus longioribus ; stam. et stylo gracillimo 
exsertis ; fil. capillaribus, basi dilatatis ; stigm. trifida ; caps, trilobata, tri- 
sperma, glandibus 3 coronata; spermatibus angulatis, albo-luteis (immaturis). 
— In collibus umbrosis, Yuba Co. prope Foster's Bar (S. S. Sanborn, Esq.) Aug. 
Flores 3 lin. longi. 

A. MARiTiMUM Torr. Bulb globular, corm-like ; leaves 3 — 6, linear, longer 
(often shorter) than scape; umbel about 10-flowered, fastigiate ; spathe of 3 — 
6 narrow bracts, sepals distinct almost to base, oval, with a wide midvein and 
callous tip, some longer than the stamens; fil. dilated at base ; capsule globu- 
lar, size of a peppercorn, 30-ovuled, perfecting about nine black seeds. — Hills 
near the sea and bay, Santa Cruz to Benicia and Marin Co. 6 — 12^. Flowers 
small, white. April. 

A. CROCEUM Torr. Leaves several, linear, as long as the slender scape (1 f.) ; 
umbel 9 — 12-flowered, pedicels spreading, 8 — 10'''; spathe of 4 — 5 lanceolate, 
acuminate bracts ; sepals oblong, acutish, orange-yellow, 4 — b^^ ; stamens 
shorter, fil. 2-toothed at base ; capsule obovate. — Mountains east of San Diego 
(Mex. Bound. Rep. ii, 218). V. s. in herb. Torrey. 

HESPEROSCORDIUM, Lindl. ("Ecr;r«/)of, evening, <r*i/i/oy, garlick.) 

Perianth acute at base, articulated to the pedicel ; segments 6, distinct, 
spreading above ; stamens six, short, equal, fil. dilated, coherent andperigynous 
at base; ovary stipitate, many-ovuled ; style slender ; capsule ovoid, 3-celled, 
3-valved : seeds CO , black. — Corm coated, scape umbelliferous. Involucre of 4 
or more bracts. Flowers erect, white. 

H. LACTEUM Lindl. Corm globular, fibrous-coated, brown ; leaves 2, linear, 
shorter than the tall scape ; flowers 10 — 25, shorter than their pedicels ; seg- 
ments cream-white, 1-veined, oblong, obtuse, 6 — *l'^ long; fil. at base broad 
and connate, forming a corona half the length of the perianth ; stipe nearly 
the length of the capsule. — San Mateo Co. (Mr. Easton), to the Sacramento 
and Wahlamette. 2 f. {^H. hyacinthinmn Lindl. is the same plant.) 

TRITELEIA, Dougl. (T/)i'f, thrice, tjawo?, complete.) 

Perianth 6-parted, funnel-form, persistent, segments spreading, 1-veined ; 
stamens 6, the 3 inner higher and longer ; fil. adherent to the tube, anthers 
linear-oblong, fixed by the middle ; stigmas 3-lobed, style distinct ; capsule 
ghort-stipitate (in our species), cells 3, about 10-seeded. — Bulbous. Scape 
umbellate or 1-flowered. Spathe of 2 bracts. 

T. GRANDiFLORA Lindl., Hook. Leaves linear, glaucous, shorter than the tall 
(2 f.) scape ; spathe equalling the pedicels, which are scarcely as long as the 
perianth; stipe shorter than the ovary or the style ; stigmas 3-lobed; umbel 
few-flowered. — Plains of the Columbia and Wahlamette. The specimen in. 
Dr. Torrey's her 
Flowers white ? 

SUBERTIA, Kunth. (In honor of Dr. Subert, a German botanist.) 

Perianth funnel-form, attenuate at base, half-6-cleft ; segments erect, 3- 
veined in the middle ; stamens 6, inuluded, fil. inserted at top of tube ; antherg* 



versatile, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, the 3 inner higher than the 3 outer; ovary 
oval, longer than its style, 3 to 5 times shorter than its stipe ; capsule ovoid, 
ripening few black seeds from many (15 — 45) ovules. — Bulbous. Leaves lance- 
linear. Scape umbellate. Spathe of 3 — 6 narrow bracts. 

S. LAXA Kunth. Bulb globular, iibrous-coated ; leaves as long as the scape 
(12—18^), broadly linear (5—8^^) ; pedicels 10—20, suberect, 2—3^ ; flowers 
violet-purple, segments with a triple midvein ; stipe 5 or 6 times as long as the 
ovary (near 1^). — California, middle and northern counties. Bulb as large as 
a musket ball. Flowers 16^^ long. April, May. Very handsome. 

S. CROCEA (n. sp.) Foliis 1 — 2 (v. pluribus ?), linearibus, conduplicato- 
falcatis, erectis, scapo gracilente brevioribus, obtusis ; spatha e bracteis 4 
subulatis acuminatis, pediculis breviora ; floribus 5 v. 6, basi acutis, supra 
sensim dilatatis (9 lin. longis), segm. aeque obtusis, medio vena forti instructis ; 
anth. oblongis, interioribus duplo altioribus ; ovario quam stipes crassus 
triplo breviori ; loculis 5-spermi3. — Yreka, California. Caulis pedalis. Flores 
crocei. June. 

OALLIPRORA, Lindl. (KaKxos, beauty, ^r/xj^/ja, front.) 

Perianth of 6 segments united at base into a turbinate tube, spreading above, 
oblong, 1-veined; stamens 6, perigynous, 3 of them longer, fil. dilated, all 
tricuspidate, the middle cusp shortest, bearing the anthers ; ovary short -stiped ; 
style and stigma undivided ; capsule 3-celled, co -seeded, seeds black. — Bulbous. 
Leaves linear-ensiform. Scape umbellate. Spathe of 3 or 4 bracts. Flowers 
5 — 20, yellow. [Calliproa Kunth.) 

C. LUTBA Lindl. — Hills, Santa Cruz, to Healdsburg and the Sierra Nevada. 
A handsome plant, 1 f. Bulb globular. Leaves 1 — 3, as long as the scape, 
channeled. Segments 6 — 10^^ long, the vein greenish outside. Pedicels 1 — 
2''. Specimens from the Coast Range have a much smaller flower than those 
from the interior. April, May. Differs from Subertia chiefly in its stamens. 

BRODIiEA, Smith. (Named for James Brodie, Esq., of Scotland.) 

Perianth funnel- bellform, outer segments narrower ; stamens 6, inserted into 
the throat of tube, exserted, outer anthers sterile, petaloid, the inner fertile, 
erect, fixed by the cleft base (shorter than the segments); ovary fusiform, 
narrowed to the subsessile base ; cells 3, 5 — 7-ovuled, style equalling the 
stamens, stigmas 3-fid ; capsule substipitate. — Bulbous. Leaves 5, linear, 
exceeding the scape. Umbel few-flowered. Spathe 2bracted. Flowers 
large, violet blue. 

B. GRANDiFLORA Sm., it. macrantka, Tbrr. Bulb depressed-globous, fibrous- 
icoated ; pedicels stout, divaricate, then erect; flowers 4 — 8, rarely but 1, the 
inner segments nearly twice broader than the outer, all spreading above. Ste- 
rile stamens usually longer than the fertile, emarginate, yellowish, — Plains 
and hills, California. 8 — 18^. Flowers large, varying from I'' to 2^ in length, 
on unequal stalks. 

B. ToRREYi (n. sp.) Bulbo magno, depress©, tunica reticulata instructo ; 
foliis multo elongatis ; umb. 5 — 10- flora, subradicali v. scapo brevissimo, pedi- 
culis valde inequalibus ; perianthii segm. suberectis, omnibus obtusis; anth. 
• oblongis, castratis elongatis, bifidis. — Swampy places about Oakland, Napa, to 
Marysville, «fec. Leaves 6—10''. Pedicels 3 — 6^. Flowers f inch long. I often 
saw the live plant, always with the same habits and characters. (B. grandifiora^ 
/?. macropoda Torrey, Bot. Whipp. Rep. 93.) 

B. PARviFLORA Torr. Scape roughish ; umbel 15 — 20-flowered ; pedicels 
shorter than the flower ; sterile stamens ovate lanceolate, rather acute, entire ; 
cells of the ovary 6 — 8-ovuled.— Sierra Nevada. (Torrey, in P. R. R. Rep., ii, 



DICHELOSTEMMA, Kunth. {^ix>i>^o(, bifid, a-ri/u/x*, crown.) 

Perianth 6-parted, limb erect or spreading ; fil. 6, dilated, perigynous, the 3 
outer exserted, petaloid, 2-parted either with or without an anther between 
the lobes, the 3 inner wholly adnate, antheriferous, rarely appendaged ; anthers 
bifid at each end ; ovary 3-celled, cells 3— 5-ovuled ; seeds few or many, 
black. — Bulb or corm globous. Leaves linear, flat. Scape tall, wiry, bearing 
a dense umbel of flowers. Spathe of 3 or 4 broad bracts. 

§ Only the three outer filaments appendaged. Flowers violet-blue. 

D. coNGESTA Kunth. Leaves 1 — 2, narrowly linear ; scape flexuous, erect 
(2 f.) ; flowers subsessile, in a globular umbel, tube tumid at base, contracted 
above the globular ovary; anthers 3 ; pedicels roundish ; seeds angular, 5 in 
each cell. — Oregon and N. California, common. Flowers 9^^ long, about a 
dozen in each umbel. March — May. {Brodixa congesta, Smith.) 

D. CAPiTATA Benth.? Leaves broad-linear, glaucous ; scape straight, erect 
(2 f.) • flowers subsessile, few (5 — 9), compact, broad at base, not contracted 
above ; anthers 6 ; pod ovoid, with 9 elliptical seeds. — San Diego to Yreka ; 
often seen with the other, readily distinguished at sight. The seeds are thrice 
larger than in the preceding. The bulbs of both are largely eaten by the 
Digger Indians. February — April. 

^ StrophoUrion, Torr. Filaments all appendaged ; the lobes of the antherife- 
rous much shorter than those of the sterile. 

D. Calipornica. Leaves long, linear ; scape terete, twining on anything in 
reach, 5 — 10 f. ! Umbels capitate, with 4 or 5 bracts; flowers tubular-bell- 
form, rose-purple, somewhat constricted above the ovary, articulated to the 
pedicels ; cells 4-ovuled, 1-seeded ; seed oblong, black. Common in the foot 
hills, Marin, Yuba and Placer counties. May. {^Stropholirion californicum, 
Torrey, in P. R. R. Rep. iv. 149.) 

BREVOORTIA, Wood. Proc. Phila. Ac. N. Sci., June, 1867. 
(Dedicated to J. Carson Brevoort, Esq.. Reg. N. Y. Univ.) 

Perianth tubular-pyriform (scarlet red), persistent, limb 6-toothed, reflexed, 
crown erect, of 3 broad truncate scales ; stamens 3, fil. adnate, anthers free, 
exserted, opposite the inner segments (teeth), alternate with the scales of the 
crown, deeply bifid at base ; ovary ovoid, 3-celled ; cells 4-ovuled, style slender ; 
capsule? — Bulbous? Leaves long, linear. Scape tall, erect, umbellate. 
Spathe of 4 bracts. Flowers 8 — 12, pedicellate, nodding. 

B. Ida-Maia Wood. High hills of the Trinity Mountain Range, Shasta Co., 
Cal. Glabrous, 2 — 4 f., leaves nearly as long, channeled. Flowers K long, 
pedicels 1 — 2\ Singularly beautiful, the tube scarlet, lobes chrome-green, 
crown yellow, and umbel subtended with 4 purple bracts. May, June. 

CHLOROGALUM, Kunth. (Xxa./>of, green, ydx*, milk.) 

Perianth of recurved-spreading segments ; stamens 6, equal, scarcely 
perigynous, as long as the segments; anthers 2celled, fixed by the back; 
ovary free, sessile, cells 3, 2 — 3-ovuled; style filiform, stigma tricuspidate. — 
Bulb tunicated. Leaves radical, linear, carinate. Scape branching, with 
panicled racemes. Soap Plant. 

C. POMERiDiANUM Kunth. — California, throughout the open country. The 
bulb is invested with a dense mass of black, hair-like fibres. Leaves broad- 
linear, recurved, the margins undulate. Scape 2 — 3 f. high, bracted, with a 
few spreading branches. Flowers erect, broad, white, in long loose racemes, 
open only at mid-day in May. The bulb is alkaline and mucilaginous, answer- 
ing well for soap. 



ODONTOSTOxMUM, Torr. {'O^o6s, tooth, ctto^si, mouth.) 

Perianth salver-form, tube cylindric, limb of 6 equal spreading segments as 
long as tube ; stamens 6, perigynous to top of tube, alternating with as many 
sterile filaments ; style filiform ; ovary globous, nearly free, 3-celled, 6-ovuled, 
capsule 6- seeded. — Bulbous, with broad linear leaves sheathing the divaricately 
branched stem. Flowers small, racemed, white. 

0. Hartwegii Torr. — Foot hills, Yuba, Placer and Sacramento counties. 1 
— 2 f. Radical leaves flat, 3 — 6^^ wide, 5 — 7-veined. Segments 5-veined, 
reflexed after flowering. Stamens and sterile fil. barely exserted. May. 


Smilacina racemosa Desf. — Common in the Redwood hills, Pejaro to the 
Russian R., Cal. In no wise different from the eastern plant. 

S. STELLATA Dcsf. — Santa Cruz, with the last, north to the Columbia River 
from Astoria to the Dalles. 1 f. Raceme loose, few-flowered. Berries red. 

Clintonia Andrewsii Torr. Root fibrous ; leaves few, lance-oval, abruptly 
pointed, sheathing at base, veins running from base to apex ; scape taller than 
the leaves, bracted, bearing 2 — 4 umbels, the terminal 10 — 20-flowered, the 
lateral 2 — 4-flowered ; flowers bell-shaped, yellowish, ^^^ long; segments 
obtuse; berries 3-celled; cells 8 — 10-seeded. — Mountain woods near Santa 
Cruz to the Russian R. A handsome plant, 1 — 2 f. May. 

C. UNiFLORA Kunth. Root tuberous ; leaves 2 or 3, lance- oblong, abruptly 
pointed, margins ciliate ; scape not longer than the leaves, bearing one large 
white flower ; segments same shape as the leaves, 10^'' long, stamens shorter; 
berry obovoid, as large as a pea, 9-seeded, blue. — Northern declivities of Mt. 
Hood (Mr. Brazee), Cascades to Vancouver ! June, July. 

Majanthemum bifolium DC. /?. dilatatum. — From Astoria to the Dalles, north 
and east. Leaves generally 3, broad-cordate, 3 — 5^ diameter! Stem 6 — 10^. 
Exactly like the eastern plant, except its gigantic size. June. [Smilacina 
dilatata, Nutt.) 

Tribe lY.— UVULARIE^. 

Prosartes Hookeri Torr. Stout, leafy, scabrous- pubernlent ; leaves broad- 
ly ovate, acuminate, deeply cordate-amplexicaul ; umbels 3 — 4-flowered, seg- 
ments spatulate, obtusish ; anthers oblong, glabrous; stigma entire.— Santa 
Cruz to Oakland hills, &c. 2 f. Leaves 2^ iDroad, strongly veined. Stem and 
branches reddish, pubescent. Flowers greenish-yellow, 9^^ long. April. 
( Uvularia lanuginosa^ /?. major Hook.) 

P. Menziesii Don. Nearly glabrous ; leaves lance-oblong or ovate acumi- 
nate, sessile, or subcordate-clasping ; umbels terminal, 1 — 3-flowered ; flowers 
bell-shaped, pendulous, as long as their stalks ; segments linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate (6^^), the stamens often longer, and the slender style still longer; 
berry lemon-shaped, orange- colored, with 6 rounded seeds. — Santa Cruz to the 
Columbia. Stem 2 f., erect to first branch, then secund. Flowers greenish. 
May. ( Uvularia Hook.) 

Streptopus amplexifolius DC. — Washington Co., Oregon (Mr. E.Walker). 
Glabrous. Leaves glaucous beneath. Berries red, oblong, 15 — 21-seeded. 

Notice of some VERTEBRATE REMAINS from Harden Co., Texas. 

The following described fossils were submitted to my examination by Messrs. 
Geo. N. Lawrence and D. G. Elliot, of New York. They are reported to have 
been obtained from blue clay and sand, beneath a bed of bitumen, in Harden 



Co., Texas, and were donated to the New York Lyceum of Natural H' story by 
Mr. Robertson. The fossils are mostly thoroughly permeated with bitumen ; 
others slightly. 

Equus complicatus. 

1. A first superior molar. Length along the inner median column 2J inches ; 
antero-posterior diameter of the triturating surface 20 lines ; transverse diame- 
ter, independent of the cementum, 13J^ lines. It nearly resembles the specimen 
represented in fig. 9, pi. xv, of Holmes' Post Pliocene Fossils of South 

2. A last superior molar, curved to a remarkable degree. Length along the 
inner median column, less the fang, 2 inches 1 line ; antero-posterior diameter 
of triturating surface independent of cementum 18 lines ; transverse diameter 
do. 10^ lines; length of curve antero-externally 35 lines, postero-externally 16 

3. An upper temporary molar. Length internally 10^ lines ; antero-posterior 
diameter 17 lines; transverse diameter 9^ lines. 

4. A fragment of a fourth upper molar. 

5. The upper part of the crown of a last lower molar. Antero-posterior 
diameter 15^ lines ; transverse diameter, independent of the cementum, 5J 

6. A fifth inferior molar. Length antero-internally to division of fangs 33 
lines ; antero-posterior diameter 13 lines ; transverse diameter, independent of 
cementum, 6 lines. 

All the above are completely imbued with bitumen, which has penetrated 
the cementum and dentine throughout. 

7. Fragments of a lower jaw, with the first molar tooth. This specimen is 
only partially impregnated with bitumen. The length of the tooth is 33 lines; 
the antero-posterior diameter 17 lines ; the transverse 7 lines. 

Mastodon americanus. M. ohioticus or M. giganteus of authors. 
A small fragment of a molar. 

Megalonyx validus, n. s. 

A portion of a tooth resembling most in its form the second upper tooth of 
t]\Q Megalonyx Jeffersnni^ but much larger than in the mature individuals of that 
species. The transverse diameter is 15^^ lines; the antero-posterior 11^ lines. 
The transverse section is quadrate. The anterior surface is nearly a transverse 
plane ; the posterior surface forms a plane inclining outward ; the inner surface 
is nearly a plane inclining forward ; the outer surface forms with those in front 
and behind a semi-circle. The triturating surface is comparatively slightly 
concave, and inclines postero-internally. Its anterior border is the most pro- 
minent; the posterior being comparatively so little prominent as not strikingly 
to interfere with the slope of the surface. The specimen is thoroughly impreg- 
nated with bitumen. 

Felis (Trucipelis) fatalis, n. s. 

An upper sectorial molar, contained in a small fragment of the jaw, which 
also includes the socket for a single fanged tubercular tooth. The specimen 
is thoroughly saturated with bitumen. 

The sectorial tooth indicates a feline animal, approaching in size the lion or 
Bengal tiger. The form of the tooth is nearly like the corresponding one of 
the latter animals, but the crown is of less width and proportionately longer. 
The anterior lobe differs from that in the true cats not only in a greater propor- 
tionate development, but in its distinct separation in two sub-lobes, of which the 
anterior is rather more than half the depth of the succeeding one. The 
measurements of the tooth, in comparison with those in a similar one of a largo 
skull of the Bengal tiger, are as follows : 



Fossil. Ti^er- 

Breadth of crown 15f lines. 18 lines. 

Depth at anterior lobe 7 " 7^ " 

" at principal cusp 9 " 9 " 

" of posterior lobe 6^ " 7 " 

Width at antero-internal abutment 7| " 8^ " 


An upper lateral incisor, impregnated with bitumen. The tooth is unworn, 
and is intermediate in size with those of Canis occidentalis and (7. latrans. The 
unworn crown is Q\ lines long , its antero-posterior diameter 3| lines ; its 
transverse diameter 3 lines. The compressed fang, broken at the end, has 
been about 13 lines long ; its width is 4J lines ; its thickness 2f lines. 

An ungual phalanx, apparently of an edentate animal. The end is broken 
oflP, and the specimen is thoroughly imbued with bitumen. The length is 
uncertain, for we cannot determine whether it was blunt or pointed at the end. 
Supposing it to have been in the former condition, it has been about 28 lines 
long. The breadth is more than half the length, and is much greater than the 
depth or thickness. The bone is without sheath, transversely oval in section, 
13^ lines wide by 10 lines in depth. The articular facet forms a trochlear 
concavity, with vertical median elevation, and is directed backward and down- 
ward. About one-fourth of the length from the base it expands, and then 
gradually narrows forward to the apex. The upper surface forms an inclined 
plane forward, and is convex transversely, and smooth. Its greatest width 
just back of the middle is 16 lines. The under surface is convex transversely, 
and slightly so in the length. On each side of this surface, just in advance of 
base, there is a large vasculo-neural foramen, penetrating to the interior of the 
bone. A wide but shallow groove curves forward between the foramina, and 
a deeper one diverges from each laterally and backward. The lateral borders 
of the ungual expansion are obtuse. 

A bone of uncertain character, but resembling a phalanx. Slightly impreg- 
nated with bitumen. It is a curved, four- sided pyramid, with a square plane 
base, truncated deeply at one angle. A strong boss occupies the incurvature 
of the bone at the base, and at the side of the truncated angle. The border of 
the pyramid along the convexity opposite the latter is likewise truncated. The 
bone in the structure of its surface looks as if it might be of reptilian charac- 
ter, exhibiting everywhere . a rather conspicuous vascular porosity. The 
length of the specimen in the axis is 16 lines, the diameter of the base 11 by 
lOj lines. 

Small fragments of the carapace and sternum of several species of emydes, 
thoroughly imbued with bitumen. Most of the fragments are too imperfect to 
characterize the species, but some of them indicate an animal about the size of 
the living Emi/s scabra of the southern States, but evidently a different species, 
as the bones are proportionately much more robust. The fore part of the ster- 
num diflFers from that of E. scabra in the abrupt projection forward of the inner 
divi'sion of the episternals. A pair of these together at the articulation of the 
hyposternals give a breadth of 43 lines ; depth of the episternals to the ento- 
sternal 13 lines; projection forward of the part covered by the gular plates 4 
lines ; greatest tliickness 5| lines. A hyposternal about its middle is 28 lines 
frem before backward ; 26 lines in width behind the inguinal notch; and 6 
lines where thickest internally. The fore part of a nuchal plate resembles the 
corresponding portion in E. scabra. but is more deeple indented. Its width 
anteriorly is an inch ; the length of its median column lOj lines ; its thickness 
where greatest 6 lines. The species may be distinguished by the name of 
Emys petrolei, 

Probably belonging to the subgenus Trachemys of Agassiz, like Emys scabra. 



Indication of an EIOTHERITJM in California. 

Elotherium superbus, n. s. 

Prof. Whitney recently placed in my hands for examination a tooth of a 
supposed carnivorous animal, from Douglas Flat. Calaveras Co., California. It 
was derived from a stratum of the same age as that from which a lower jaw 
of Rhinoceros hesperius was taken. The tooth appears to me to be the right upper 
lateral incisor of a species of Elotherium, perhaps the same as E. ingens of the 
Mauvaises Terres of White River, Dakota, though it would appear to belong to 
a larger individual than the remains referred to the latter, if not to a yet larger 
species. The crown of the tooth is conical, compressed from within outwardly, 
and subacute laterally. The apex is rounded ; the base somewhat expanded, 
and at its fore part produced in a short embracing ridge. The fang is conical 
and curved. Tlie measurements of the specimen are as follows : 

Length of tooth in straight line 29J lines ; length of crown 13 lin. ; breadth 
9 lin. ; thickness 6^ lin. 

Notice of some REPTILIAN REMAINS from Nevada. 

Prof. J, D. Whitney has submitted to my inspection some fossils derived from 
the Triassic rocks, of Star Canon, Humboldt Co., and from the Toiyabe Range, 
north-east of Austin, Nevada. The specimens are very imperfect, but neverthe- 
less interesting, and sufficiently characteristic to indicate apparently three 
distinct reptiles having ai# affinity to Ichthyosaurus and Uosaurus, nor am I 
prepared to prove that they do not belong to one of these. 

The fossils have been and are yet partially imbedded in a dark bluish silice- 
ous limestone, and the same material has so completely infiltrated the bones 
that they almost appear like modified portions of the same rock. 

One of the specimens consists of a mass of rock containing two vertebrae and 
parts of two others in series. The same rock includes two shells, which appear 
to be Ammonites Blakei. Gabb, and Posodonomya stella, Gabb. The specimen is 
from New Pass, in the Toiyabe Range, north-east of Austin. The body of 
the vertebra; is deeply biconcave, as in Ichthyosaurus. The length is considera- 
bly less than the breadth. The under side is plane fore and aft, but the mar- 
gins are slightly prominent and bevelled. The sides are slightly concave, 
and provided with a short and robust process for the head of a rib. The neural 
arch with its spine, visible in ofie vertebra along the broken margin of the 
specimen, rises above the body about one and a half times its depth, and its 
abutment exhil)its the remains of another articular process for the rib. The 
neural canal is triangular. The measurements of the vertebrae, partially esti- 
mated, are as follows : 

Length of body inferiorly 11 lines. 

Depth of body 16 " 

Width 16 " 

" including costal processes 21 '" 

Height of neural arch, including spine from upper part of body, ob- 
liquely 28 " 

Height of neural canal 8 " 

A second specimen from Star Caflon, Humboldt Co., consists of .a series of 
eight vertobrye, partially included and held together in the nuvtrix, and much 
weather-worn where they have been exposed. The vertebra) may bo part of 
the caudal series of the same animal as the above, but the matter is uncertain. 
The eight vertebra; together have a length of 58 lines, making about 7^ lines 
for each'. 



A third specimen from the Toiyabe Range, on the Reese River, north-east of 
Austin, consists of the isolated body of a vertebra, somewhat distorted, ground 
off at one of the articular faces, and less infiltrated with the rocky matrix than 
the others. It appears to have corresponded in proportions with those of the 
series last noticed. It is biconcave, moderately concave at the sides, nearly 
plane below, presents the remains of two short oblong articular processes for 
ribs near the position of the neural arch, the sutural impressions of which are 
visible above. The length has been about 8 lines, the breadth about 16 lines. 
The neural canal about 2 lines wide. 

The very imperfect condition of the specimens renders me unable to say 
more about them, nor is it certain that they all belong to the same animal, but 
for the present I propose to consider them so, under the name of Cymbospon- 


Of the remaining specimens, three consist of the greater portion of three 
vertebral bodies, which belonged in series and have been broken apart. These 
are labelled Humboldt, Nevada. They apparently indicate a much larger spe- 
cies of the same genus as the former, the vertebral body having the same form. 
The sides of the articular funnels are convex outwardly from the centre, which 
deepen more rapidly at the inner third of the surface. One specimen retains 
the neural arch without its spine, and a short, robust, costal process, extending 
from near the bottom of the arch almost half the depth of the body. A second 
vertebra is singularly distorted, apparently as if the bone had been in a plastic 
condition. The measurements of these vertebrse, partially estimated, are as 
follows : 

Length inferiorly 17 to 18 lines. 

Depth of body 44 " 

Breadth <' ^ 44 " 

Depth of costal process 21 " 

Projection of costal process 4 " 

For this species I propose the name of Cymbospondylus petrinus. 

Another specimen, consisting of a mutilated vertebral body from Star Canon, 
Humboldt Countj-, indicates an Enaliosaurian, apparently not only differ- 
ing from either of the former, but probably belonging to a different genus. The 
specimen is broken away at the top and at one side, is also somewhat mutilated 
on the opposite side, and appears considerably eroded on one articular face. 
The body is deeply biconcave, as in Ichthyosaurus^ but proportionately much 
longer in relation with the breadth. The funnel-like surfaces are convex out- 
wardly from the centre, and deepen more rapidly at the inner third. The sides 
and under part of the body are slightly concave fore and aft, and defined by 
acute borders. The under part exhibits a square depressed appearance from 
the presence of four angular chevron processes, associated fore and aft by sub- 
angular ridges. The estimated size of this specimen is as follows : Length of 
the body inferiorly 2-^ inches; depth 4J inches; breadth about 3 inches. 

For this animal I propose the name of Chonespondylus grandis. 

Notice of some VEETEBBATE REMAINS from the West Indian Islands. 

Sometime since Prof Felipe Poey, of Havana, sent to me several fossils, to- 
gether with a copy of a pamphlet entitled " De la Existencia de grandes Mami- 
feros Fosiles en la Isla de Cuba. Par D. M. F. de Castro. Habana, 1865." 

The fossils consist of the vertebra of a crocodile and part of a costal plate of 
a turtle, which were found with other bones, together with the lower jaw of a 
giant sloth, at Ciego-Montero, Cienfuegos, Cuba. 

The reptilian fossils are as follows : 




A posterior dorsal vertebra of mature age, but without its neural arch, ex- 
cept the greater portion of one abutment. The body is slightly shorter, and 
absolutely very much broader and moderately deeper than in the corresponding 
vertebra of the Mississippi alligator. It also more rapidly narrows posteriorly, 
but proportionately presents about the same degree of concavity from before 
backward at the sides and beneath, where it is also in like manner smooth. 
The anterior articular surface is of considerably greater breadth than height, 
so as to present a transverse ovoidal outline. The measurements of the speci- 
men are as follows : Length in the axis 23 lines ; inferiorly 19 lines. Height 
anteriorly 19 lines ; breadth 24 lines. Estimated height posteriorly 17 lines; 
breadth 21 lines. Thickness of neural abutment anteriorly 12 lines. I have 
not the means of comparing the fossil with vertebrae of either species of the 
living crocodiles of Cuba, so that I cannot say whether it belongs to one of 
them or not. It is too large to belong to G. rhomhifer, according to the dimen- 
sions given by Dumeril, but would perhaps accord with C. acutus. As an 
associate with a Megalonyx^ it is not unlikely that it belongs to an extinct spe- 
cies, for which the name leading this article is proposed. 

Testudo Cubensis, n. s. 

Indicated by a portion of what I suppose to be the first coslal plate of the 
right side. It is marked by the lateral borders of the first and second vertebral 
scutes and their transverse separation. Along the former borders the plate is 
51 lines, and along the latter separation 16 lines. The articular border with 
the first vertebral plate is 30 lines ; that with the second vertebral plate 14 
lines. The articular border from the first vertebral plate to the lateral groove 
defining the first vertebral scute is convex forward and inward, and 14 lines in 
a direct line. A strong cost^ process projects from the under part of the plate 
near]}' parallel with its length. The surfaces corresponding with the vertebral 
scutes are somewhat depressed, and generally everywhere are nearly smooth, 
or without markings so conspicuous as to affect the investing scutes. The 
greatest thickness of the bone is where it articulated with the first and second 
marginal plates, measuring from 3^ to 4^ lines ; and where thinnest it meas- 
ures only one line. 

No living Testudo^ I believe, at present inhabits Cuba, and the fossil probably 
indicates a species cotemporary with the Megalonyx. 

The pamphlet above mentioned contains a notice of remains of the horse, 
hippopotamus, and of a giant sloth, found in Cuba. 

The remains of the horse appear not to differ from the corresponding parts 
of the recent animal, and it is even doubtful if they are to be considered in- 
digenous fossils. 

The remains of hippopotamus, consisting of isolated canines, probably also 
belong to the recent animal. An inferior canine, described and figured by De 
Castro, certainly presents nothing peculiar. Formerly dentists employed the 
canines of the hippopotamus for the construction of artificial teeth, but since 
the introduction of porcelain teeth they have been thrown aside. Occasionally 
such specimens have been brought to me as supposed fossils, and perhaps the 
Cuba specimens are of the same character. 

The most interesting fossil described by De Castro consists of the greater 
part of a lower jaw of a giant sloth, which was found in association with a 
number of reptilian bones, of which those above described are specimens, at 
Ciego Montero, Cienfuegos. The figures accompanying the description, though 
drawn in unfavorable positions for satisfactory comparison, nevertheless clearly 
indicate a lower jaw of nearly the same form, and teeth holding the same rela- 
tive position as in Megalonyx. As in this genus the anterior large caniniform 
molar is widely separated from the posterior three small molars, which differ 
from those of Megalonyx Jefferaonii only specifically. From the dimensions 
given, the jaw belonged to a smaller animal than the latter. The caniniform 



molar differs remarkably from that of M. Jeffersonii and M. dissimilis, as is also 
the case compared with that of Lesiodon armatus a,nd L. myloides of Buenos 
Ayres. In transverse section it is reniform or crescentic with blunt poles, and 
the biting extremity appears to have been worn off in the same manner as the 
incisors of a Rodent, to which, indeed, the jaw appears first to have been sup- 
posed to belong. The species may be named Megalonyx rodens, or, if the 
peculiarities of the caniniform molar be regarded generically distinct from 
those of Megalonyx and Lestodon, it may be named Megalocnus rodens. 

Emys Sombrerensis, n. s. 

The bones of extinct species of turtle are not unfrequently found in the so- 
called Sombrero guano, Sombrerite or Ossite, a material rich in phosphate of 
lime, largely mined in the island of Sombrero, W. I., and used in the prepara- 
tion of a fertilizer for agricultural purposes. In a mass of this material pre- 
sented to the museum of the Academy (see Proc. 1859, 111), the posterior part 
of the plastron of a species of Emys ^ or perhaps Testudo^ is perceived, for which 
the above name is proposed. The specimen consists of both xiphisternals and 
the greater portion of both hyposternals, articulated in natural juxtaposition. 
Other fragments of the plastron and carapace, together with a portion of a 
thigh bone, are also contained in the mass. The specimen indicates the ster- 
num to have approximated a foot in length ; and the breadth at the lateral 
sutures of the hyposternals has been about i^ inches. The under surface of 
the sternum is flat and smooth ; and laterally it curves but slightly upward. 
The posterior sternal notch is two-thirds as deep as the width, and almost 
forms an equilateral triangle. The postero-lateral border from the inguinal 
notch to the rounded triangular ends of the xiphisternals, is bow-like, or pre- 
sents two concavities with an intervening convexity. The caudal scutes are 
small, reaching slightly beyond the bottom of th^sternal notch. The femoral 
scutes are on a level with the inguinal notches. Estimated length of hypo- 
sternals in the median suture 35 lines ; breadth 45 lines. Length of xiphi- 
sternals in median suture 17 lines; greatest length about middle 25 lines; 
breadth along anterior suture 28 lines. Length of caudal scutes internally 13 
lines ; externally 10 lines. Length of femoral scute internally 25 lines. The 
bones present about the ordinary proportion of thickness observed in eniydes. 

July 1th, 1868. 

Dr. Bridges in the Chair. 

Twenty-one members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 
" Notice of some remains of Horses." By Joseph Leidy, M.D. 
" Notice of some extinct Cetaceans." By Joseph Leidy, M.D. 
*' Mitchella repens ; a Dioecious plant." By Thomas Meehan. 

July lAth. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Nineteen members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 
*' Second contribution to the history of the Vertebrata of the Mi- 
ocene period of the United States." By Edw. D. Cope. 
" Remarks on Conosaurus." By Joseph Leidy, M.D. 
" Remarks on a jaw fragment of Megalosaurus." Jos. Leidy, M.D. 



E. D. Cope exhibited the vertebra of an extinct reptile, from the middle green 
sand bed of New Jersey ; which possessed the peculiar articular structure known 
as the zygantrum and zygosphen. He said the form' was in some degree like that 
of certain modern terrestrial genera of Iguanidse, as the genus Euphryne, 
Baird, but it appeared to have some affinity to Macrosaurus, Owen, in form. 
The animals, if similar in proportions to the Iguanae, would have been some 
twelve feet in length. It was called Clidastes iguanavus. 

A Mosasauroid reptile was indicated also by a single vertebra from Medford, 
N. J., also from the middle bed. It was distinguished from other forms gf the 
family by its compressed elevated form. It was assigned to a species named 
Nectoportheus validus. 

The structure of the vertebral column in Elasmosaurus was pointed out. It 
was stated to possess apparently no zygapophyses throughout its whole length, 
but in place of these, the zygosphen and zygantrum articulation. The articu- 
lations of the vertebrae were therefore the reverse in respect to direction of 
their surfaces from the usual form among vertebrata. In fact the structure of 
the genus was shown to be entirely new and peculiar among vertebrated 
animals. The genus Cimoliasaurus, Leidy, was stated to exhibit the same 
structure, and required that the vertebrae should be reversed in order to read 
their connections correctly. 

Thomas Meehan said he had proposed to himself to contribute a paper to 
the American Academy of Science which meets next month in Chicago, on the 
leaves of Coniferas ; but some friends here acquainted with his intention, and 
interested in the facts, were desirous he should explain to them some of the 
leading points, which he would with pleasure do. 

His chief position was that what are usually considered the leaves of Coni- 
ferae are but a part, and frequently the least important part of the true leaves, 
which are either mostly adherent or mostly free according to the vigor of the 
branch or individual plant, and not according to any specifically constitutional 
character ; and that a recognition of this fact is of great importance in deter- 
mining the limits of genera, species and varieties of the Order. He exhibited 
specimens of the Larix Europ<za, pointing out that it had two classes of leaves, 
the one entirely free, the other mostly adnate to the stems. The adnate leaves 
were on the elongated shoots, the free leaves on the arrested shoots or verti- 
cills ; on the elongated shoots the leaves also had a power of elongation, 
and produced the green awl-shaped points we commonly called leaves. On 
the arrested shoots or spurs, the leaves had no power of elongation. They 
were obtuse, rather spatulate, just the same as the adnate portion — the true 
leaves — on the stem. The theory he deduced from this was that adnation was a 
characteristic of vigor ; free leaves a condition of weakness or arrested growth. This 
explained the polymorphous character of many Coniferae. The rule operated 
through many genera. He exhibited strong branches of Cryptomeria Japonicay 
on which the leaves were united for four-fifths their length, and weaker ones 
on which four-fifths were free, &c. The same occurs on Juniperus virginiana, 
Juniperus communis.. Thuja orienialisj T. occidentalism and other species. Wher- 
ever the shoots were delicate, either constitutionally or by growing in ihe 
interior of the plant and deprived of their due share of light, the leaves were 
free ; wherever the contrary existed, and the shoots were vigorous, adnation in 
a greater or less degree prevailed. In many species this polymorphous condi- 
tion could be produced at will, by weakening the plant. Cuttings of Thu/opsis 
borealis made from branches with adnate leaves, would throw out shoots with 
free leaves until they were very well rooted and able to throw out vigorous 

A test of vigor was the power to branch. Only on vigorous maturity did the 
branching age of trees commence. Arbor vittes, when mature, pushed out 
branches from the axils of every other pair of leaves. This gave them their fan- 
like appearance. When young they branched little, and this stage was always 



marked by more or less free leaves. Thuja ericoides of gardens, with its heath- 
like foliage, was a weakly constituted form, which retained its childhood foliage, 
and had little disposition to branch. Thuja meldensis of Lindley, which from 
its peculiar appearance that learned author supposed to be a hybrid between 
the red cedar and Chinese arbor vitae, was a form of intermediate vigor, 
branching moderately, and leaves intermediately adnate. Retinispora ericoides 
of Zuccarini, was also a weak form with free leaves, the well developed form 
of which he had had no opportunity to trace with certainty. Taxodium dis- 
tichum Richard, and Glyptostrobus sinensis Endl., were no doubt the same thing. 
He showed, by the vigorous branching character of the latter, the necessity 
for the arrested foliation it presented, and exhibited specimens of vigorous 
(more branching) Taxodium distichum in which the leaves were abbreviated 
and twisted around the stem, exactly as in Glyptostrobus, except that the free 
parts were rather longer. This form did not branch quite as much as the typical 
Glyptostrobus, but more so than in the typical Taxodium. 

He remarked that the two genera Pinus and Sciodopitys had their true leaves 
adpressed almost entirely to their branches, and illustrated this by specimens 
of Finns austriaca. Instead, however, of these genera developing green free 
points on the apices, they pushed out rather abortive branches from the axils 
of the true leaves. The fasicles of leaves on these plants were not true leaves, 
but were intimately connected with the axial system of the plants. The 
adpressed true leaves on the pine were annual, although as dead epidermis 
they remained often on the bark until the regular excorticating period arrived ; 
but these so-called leaves, or rather metamorphosed branchlets, remained often 
several years. He had known some remain eight years. Their connection 
with the axial system could be seen by raising the bark of a three or four 
year old branch on the Austrian pine. 

Mr. Gabb made some remarks about Kitchen Middens, in the vicinity of San 
Francisco and on the shores of San Francisco Bay, his attention having been 
called to the similarity between them and those observed by Dr. Leidy, near 
Cape Henlopen. He also mentioned a curious circumstance for which he had 
been unable to account. In various places on the coast of both Upper and 
Lower California, he had observed shells, often of the heavier species, scattered 
over the surface in great profusion, and occasionally to a distance of several 
miles from the beach. They were evidently of very modern origin, being 
strewn on the surface of the soil, but whether they had been carried there by 
man or birds, he had never been able to discover. 

Dr. Wm. L. Wells made some observations on the mode of scattering the 
spores of the Polypodium vulgare. Under the microscope the sporangium could 
be seen to open at a point near its stem ; and the opening grew very slowly 
larger, until the continuation of the stem which previously encircled the 
sporangium was nearly straight. It then suddenly sprang shut with a jerk, 
which scattered the spores in every direction, and which usually sent the 
sporangium itself out of focus. In the cases in which it was not thrown 
entirely out of focus, the same operation could be seen to be repeated two or 
three times. In no case were any spores scattered during the opening, which 
always took place very slowly. 

July 21st. 

The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Fourteen members present. 

The following paper was presented for publication : 

" On the Crocodilian genus Perosuchus." By Edw. D. Cope. 



Mr. Gabb made some remarks on a small lot of fossils submitted to him by 
Prof. Orton. The fossils are small, and all belong to undescribed species. 
They are of unusual interest, being the first fossils, so far as he was aware, 
ever found in the immense clay deposits of the Amazon Valley — the Tabatingu 
Clay. The fossils indicate a marine origin for this clay, all of the genera being 
essentially salt-water forms. They were found by Prof. Orton in a bluff show- 
ing a fine section of about fifty feet in height, at the town of Pebas, on the 
Amazon River, two miles above where it joins the Maranon. 

July 2Sth. 

Dr. J. Gibbons Hunt in the Chair. 
Fifteen members present. 

The following gentlemen were elected members : Geo. Roberts, 
M.D., Mr. Levi Taylor. 

The following were elected correspondents : S. Spencer Cobbold, 
M.D., of London, W. Kitchen Parber, of London, Rev. Samuel 
Haughton, of Dublin, Alphonse Milne Edwards, of Paris, Wm. T. 
Brigham, of Boston. 

On favorable reports of the committees, the following papers 
were ordered to be printed : 

MITCHELLA BEPENS, L., a dicecious plant. 

A few weeks ago I had the honor of pointing out to the members of the 
Academy that Epigxa repens was a dicecious plant. I have now to report a 
like discovery in Mitchella repens. 

In the case of Epigcza I had to indicate the polymorphism accompanying 
the divisions of the sexes, as part of the discovery ; in the present instance 
Dr. Asa Gray is before me in noting the distinct appearances ; the originality 
of ray own observation lies merely in giving the meaning of the facts already 
recorded. In the last (5th) edition of Gray's Manual, speaking oi Mitchella, 
the author says, "Flowers occasionally 3 — 6, merous, always dimorphous, all 
those of some individuals having exserted stamens and included stigmas, — of 
others included stamens and exserted style." Although this statement ex- 
presses the appe>irance, it is not strictly accurate ; for the pistil in the one 
case is not perfect, and in the other the anthers are mere rudiments, without 
a trace of pollen in any that I have examined. The two forms are truly male 
and female plants. 

In the female plant the pistil, with its well-developed stigma, projects 
one-eighth of an inch beyond the throat of the corolla. The small rudiment- 
ary anthers are sessile, and hidden among the coarse down of the corolla 
tube, so as not to be seen without dissection. 

In the male plant it is the rudimentary pistil which is confined in the 
villous tube, far out of reach of pollen influence, if even it were perfectly de- 
veloped. On the other hand, the anthers are borne on filaments which are 
free from the corolla for one-eighth of an inch, and projecting that much 
beyond the corolla throat. 

In the case of Epiyiea I had to record many variations in the form and pro- 
portions of the floral parts. MUchclla is as remarkable for uniformity ; except 
that the calyx teeth in the male are coarser than in the female, there is little 
variation from one type. Dr. Gray observes that the lobes of the corolla 



vary from three to four, five, and six. I may add that five-lobed corollas are 
common, and these are usually accompanied by five anthers. 

The number of male plants is about equal to the female ; occasionally 
plants of the separate sexes intermix. I, and probably others, have often 
noticed in the fall some patches bearing abundantly, other patches without 
a berry. The facts I now offer afford the solution. 

In reference to llitcheUa, it may not be out of place to correct an error in 
Lindley's " Vegetable Kingdom." The learned author includes in his natural 
order Cinchonaceae Mitchella^ Cephalanthus, Diodia, OLdenlandia and Spermacoce, 
— all high northern plants ; and yet, when speaking of the geography of the 
order, writes that " the most northern species in America is Pinckneya pubenSy 
inhabiting the Southern States of North America." 

Second the History of the Vertebrata of the Miocene period 
of the United States. 


A visit to the Miocene region of the western shore of Maryland, has ex- 
plained to the writer more clearly the stratigraphical position of the verte- 
brate fossils described in this and preceding essays on the subject. 

The miocene deposit which contains the fossils, consists of a dark sandy 
clay, varying from a leaden to a blackish color, through which water does not 
penetrate. Its upper horizon may be traced along the high shores and cliff's 
of the Chesapeake by the line of trickling springs which follow its upper sur- 
face. The bottom I have not seen, and cannot give its depth, but a great bed 
of shells occurs at from fourteen to twenty-two feet below its upper horizon. 
This consists of, first, two separate shallow strata of shells, and about four 
feet below the upper, a heavy bed at the depth mentioned. The lesser beds 
vary in amount, being sometimes wanting. 

The streams of the country either flow on or cut the shell beds, and display 
their wa;shings, as teeth of sharks, cetaceans, etc. The bones generally occur 
at or near the level of the upper line of shells. The remains of the large 
whale, the Eschrichtius cephalus mihi, lay across th-e bed of a small run 
and penetrate the bank, where I saw the remainder of its vomer, of which I 
have the half; with numerous other parts of the cranium added since the de- 
scription of the species, it was dug out by my energetic friend Jas T. Thomas, 
whose evidence as to the pertinence of the various pieces described to the 
same animal is conclusive. It is, if need be, confirmed by the white color and 
porous texture of them all, a character not noticeable in other large whale 
remains procured by him. Apparently pertaining to a genus known as fossil 
only from the European drift, it becomes important to be sure of its Miocene 
origin. This must be admitted ; it lay together as originally deposited, just 
below the upper shell line, and did not extend so far down as the great bed, 
from 10 to 18 feet below the top of the blue loam. The upper line of the latter 
has been varied, inland, by the various operations of erosion, etc. In some 
places it forms the bottom of vallies, which are excavated almost to the shell 
line. In such a situation, about 3 J feet above the great shell bed, and a few 
inches below the surface on the side of a creek, the bones of Galera and Dico- 
tyles occurred. 



This genus rests upon the evidence furnished by caudal vertebrae in the col- 
lection. They present an approximation to Basilosaurus in the great thick- 
ness of their epiphyses. In the more elongate vertebra each epiphysis will 
measure the third the length of the centrum deprived of them ; in the less 
elongate, they measure oue-half the same ; in the shortest, more than half the 



remaining centrum. One extremity of the vertebra is flat, the other strongly 
convex, and none have any trace of diapophyses. The neural arches have been 
partly broken away, but have been similar to those of other genera, while the 
groove that marks the inferior aspect of caudal vertebrae is normal. In two 
vertebrae, the longest and shortest, the foramina which usually pierce the sides of 
the centra vertically, issue below, within the basal groove and above, below and 
outside the basis of the neurapophysis. In another specimen the foramen 
opens outside the inferior sulcus, and in one there is no foramen at all. These 
structural features indicate a genus of general peculiarity, and perhaps allied 
to Basilosaurus. There may be some question as to whether two species are 
not represented among the vertebrae. 

Cbtophis heteroclitus Cope. 

The four specimens may represent a proximal, a median, and a distal caudal 
of one individual, and a median caudal of another. They were not adult, as 
the epiphyses are entirely separable. The longer or proximal caudal is sub- 
hexagonal in section, the median depressed, and the smallest round in section. 
The larger median is nearly round in section. The epiphysis instead of re- 
treating before a process of the centrum opposite the four apophyses, as in 
Ixacanthus, advances on the centrum at these points. The inferior groove of the 
centrum is deep on the first and shallower on the succeeding ; obsolete on the 
last. The neural canal about as large on the proximal as in anterior caudals 

In. Lin. 

Length longest 3 3-8 

Height flat articular face 2 1 

Width do. do 1 11- 

Length median (smaller) 2 6.3 

" without epiphyses 1 1-5 

Height flat face 1 9 

Width " 1 9-2 

Length median (larger) 3 1-2 

Width flat face 2 5 

Length smallest , 2 1 

" without epiphyses 11- 

Height flat extremity , 1 10-5 

Width do. do 1 11- 

From Charles county, Maryland. From Jas. T. Thomas, Mus. Academy. 

The convex articulation of the vertebrae would suggest a greater flexibility 
of the column in this part than is usual among Cetacea, but more as in cervi- 
cal vertebrae of long-necked mammals, and in reptiles. The absence of dia- 
pophyses would confirm such an indication. Were it not for the inferior groove 
the longer vertebrae above described might be taken for a lumbar, and it may be 
guch, as in the Zarhachis flagellator a similar form coexists with the 
usual form of diapophysis of that part of the column. There is probably some 
distant affinity between the two genera. 

With respect to the genus Basilosaurus, it may be noted that the Polypty- 
chodon inter r up lus of Emmons, must be regarded as established on one of its 
canines. Whether the species be the D. c e t o i d e s must be left for their 
examination. A fine specimen is in the Museum of the Mount Holly Lyceum 
of Natural History. 

In the description of the Cynorca proterva (in Proceed. Acad. 1867,) mis- 
led by the extraordinary resemblance to Giebel's plate quoted, I unfortu- 
nately mingled with its molar and premolar teeth, the canine of small Dico- 
tyles. This point, suggested to me by Lcidy, I have no doubt is the case. U 
will be necessary therefore to add the following details of character of the 
characteristic molar and premolar, which I described too briefly (p. 151) : " Mo- 
lar with two roots. Premolars with short conic crowns. Premolars compressed, 

1868.] 13 


cutting. Roots of premolars compressed." (P. 152): "Two teeth having 
crowns similarly though rather more symmetrically formed, I suspect to have 
occupied that position," i. e. " between molars and premolars." 

The premolar first mentioned is about -8 in length, the crown slightly striate. 
The anterior molar has two roots, which are united some distance below the 
crown. The crown exhibits no denticles, and is not more elevated than the 
antero-posterior diameter of its base. This tooth, as well as the other, is of 
small size, and indicates the smallest species of the family. 

The Pontogeneus prise us Leidy, which I referred, in accordance with a 
printed suggestion of Leidy's, to the Zeuglodon pygmoeus Miiller, on examination 
proves to be a Delphinoid. The species of Miiller is not only generically dis- 
tinct from Basilosaurus, but from Doryodon also, to which I referred it,* if it 
be regarded as established on the cranium figured by Gibbes in the Journal of 
the Academy. 


Among the vertebrae of the species of this family collected by Jas. H. 
Thomas in the Miocene marls of Charles county, Maryland, may be recognized 
those of five genera, as follows : 

The caudal vertebrfe broader than long ; lumbars, sacrals and caudals nearly 
similar ; diapophyses of lumbars and caudals flat dilated, the latter with 

vertical foramen Delphinus. 

The caudals longer than broad, slender ; diapophyses broad, of caudals per- 
forate , Delphinapterus. 

The caudal vertebrae longer than broad, lumbars and caudals with flat diapo- 
physes which are not perforate Zarhachis. 

The lumbars, dorsals, and caudals elongate, narrower than long ; the diapo- 
physes of some of the lumbars and of the caudals narrow and spinous, and 

not perforate; epiphysial face plane Priscodelphinus. 

The lumbars and dorsals shorter, the diapophyses of both posterior lumbars and 
caudals narrow and subcylindric, not perforate ; epiphysial face grasping 
the epiphysis by four processes, one opposite each neur- and one opposite 

each diapophysis Ixacanthus. 

We find a serial relation among the Dolphins of this period, and exemplified 
in the characters of the above genera. In Tretosphys the diapophyses are all 
flat as in Dolphins, generally many of the caudals perforate, with a vertical 
foramen at the base as in them. This is succeeded by a genus in which the 
blood vessel which in the former passes through this foramen runs round the 
front of the base of the diapophysis. In the next form some of those of the 
caudal vertebrae are narrower, and the posterior subcylindric and spine-like ; 
in the last genus of the series the diapophyses of all the caudals and many of 
the lumbars have the same spinous form. There is also a relation of a similar 
kind in the forms of the beak of Miocene Dolphins. All are elongate, some 
very narrow and prolonged, and some acylindric beak only toothed at the base, 
(Rhabdosteus Cope). It is an interesting object of inquiry to determine 
whether the relation of structure of the processes in any way coincides with 
that seen in the muzzle. 

A point to be noticed in our Miocene Dolphins, as compared with the Inia, Be- 
luga, Delphinus and Phocaena of the present period, is the universally increased 
length of the vertebras of the posterior part of the vertebral column. Those 
species named here Delphinapterus resemble in their dorsal vertebrae the Belu- 
gas, but the caudals of some, instead of being shortened, as in the latter, do 
not diminish in length. This points to a more slender form, and with the 
narrowed diapophyses and increasing thickness of the epiphyses constitutes an 
i approach to the Basilosaurus type. 

* Proc. Acad. 1867, 156. 




This genus is similar to the next in the cylindric spinous character of the 
diapophyses af the caudal and lumbosacral vertebra?, but differs from it and 
all other Delphinidae with which I am acquainted in the manner of attachment 
of the epiphyses of the vertebrae. Instead of being nearly plane and thin 
discs, they are furnished with two oblique faces above, which are capped by a 
projecting roof formed by the floor of the neural canal, while their central 
portion forms a knob which fits a corresponding shallow pit of the centrum. 


Extremities of centra deeply concave when epiphyses are removed ; length 
of vertebras less than breadth. 

In. Lin. 

Length centrum lumbar 2 4-5 

Width " " 2 6-5 

Elevation " " 2 4 

Width neural canal on dorsal 1 

" " '' on lumbar 4J 

Length of caudal vert 2 6 

Transverse diameter 2 3 

Width diapophysis at base 6 

Lumbar, — elevation of body and spine to anterior zygapophysis 4 9^ 

We have of this species three dorsals, nine lumbo-sacrals and one caudal, 
one only of the lumbo-sacrals exhibits the spine-like diapophysis character- 
istic of the genus. One of the caudals belongs to an entirely adult animal. 
The dorsals are rather constricted, and rounded below ; the lumbo-sacrals 
have a strong median keel, except in one near the canal series, when it again 
becomes rounded below. 

I first received this species from my kind friend Oliver Norris Bryan, of 
Charles county, Md. Jas. T. Thoms has also discovered various portions of it. 


Posterior lumbars and caudals spinous, dorsals with flat diapophyses. 

The prominent character of the genus is seen in the lumbo-sacral and 
caudal vertebrae, whose diapophyses are very narrow at the base, and soon 
become cylindrical and slender, terminating in an obtuse point. The general 
form of the vertebrae is like those of Delphinus, but with the exception above 
noted, that the caudal vertebrae, instead of being shorter than the dorsals, are 
really longer, till we approach the posterior portions of the series. The largest 
of the typical species will not exceed seven feet in length, while the aberrant 
P. flagellator has been perhaps twelve. 

In the P. spinosus Cope, the spinous form of the diapophyses is exhibi- 
ted among the longer ones of the lumbar series considerably in advance of the 
caudals. In P. a t r o p i u s Cope, and P. c o n r a d i Leidy, I have seen it on 
the most posterior lumbars only, though it may occur further anteriorly, and 
several such have the diapophyses much narrowed. I have not seen it in 
the P. harlani Leidy, but it probably exists there, as the species is very 
near the P. c o n r a d i. 

Priscodblphinus spinosus Cope. 

This species is represented by two cervical, three dorsal and eight lumbo- 
sacral vertebrae ; they are about as broad as long, with articular faces trans- 
versely oval. As they belong to more than one individual they vary a little 
more than is to be expected in a single series. Thoy differ of course greatly 
in the size of the neural canal, with the position in the column. That with 
tlfe smallest, (the posterior) exhibits no zygapophyses or their rudiments. 
General form depressed ; sides of centrum nearly plane to a well-marked 
obtuse median keel. 



In, Lia. 

Length centrum lumbar 1 9 

"Width articular face 1 T-5 

Height.... 1 6 

Length diapophysis , 2 

Width neural canal 'i ^ ■ f 3 

Whole height of I posterior I 3 g 

Length diapophysis of j lumbar. ^ ^ g.,. 

This is the type of genus, for in it the peculiar form of the diapophyses ex- 
tends much further forward on the series of vertebrae than in any other. 

Pbiscodblphinus atropius Cope. 

This species is based upon three cervicals, and three dorsals of one, two 
lumbars and one caudal of a second individual, one lumbar and one caudal of 
another, and three lumbars of a fourth. The diapophysis of the caudal is 
short and spine-like, as in the last genus, and the last lumbar has had a nearly 
similar process. The centra of all are yerj slightly depressed and constricted 
medially. The dorsals are broadly rounded in section without inferior carina ; 
on the last lumbar the lateral face below becomes, as in other species, slightly 

This species differs from the P. harlani in that the dorsal vertebrae are 
not so depressed, are stouter, and have not the median inferior keel seen in it. 

Id. Lin. 

Length of a dorsal (No. 1) 2 2 

Width articular face 1 11-5 

Depth " " , 1 7 

Height neural canal (No. 2^ 9-7 

Length diapophysis (No. 1) 1 4 

Priscodelphinus harlani Leidy. 
Proceed. Acad. 1851, 327. 

A few vertebrae of this species occur in the collection. 

Priscodelphinus conradi Cope. 

Delphinus conradi Leidy, Proc. Academy, 1853, 35, Cope, 1. c. 1867, 144. 

This appears to be an abundant species of our Miocene beds. We have ten 
lumbars and one caudal vertebrae. Its affinities are apparently nearer the last- 
mentioned species than any other. 

Priscodelphinus stenus Cope. 

This species is represented by two vertebrae, but quite characteristic ones 
of the lumbar series. They indicate both the smallest and the most slender 
species of the genus. A section of the vertebra would have an almost exact 
pentagonal form, though the articular surfaces are subround, and, what occurs 
in no other species, a little deeper than wide. The neural arch preserved is 
elevated and possesses a weak pair of zygapophyses. The bases of the broken 
diapophyses indicate that they are very wide. The lower face of the centrum 
has a strong median longitudinal angle, stronger than in any species, and not 
prolonged into a thin keel as in D. ha w k i n s i i. The planes of the centrum 
are mostly straight. 

In. Lin. 

Length centrum 1 7-2 

Height > 1 0-5 

Width..... 1 0-5 

" neural canal 5-8 

" basis diapophysis 10 

Height neural canal 6 

" zygapophysis 8-2 




This genus is established on vertebrae which bear a general resemblance to 
those of Priscodelphinus, but differ in the essential point of having flat and 
broad diapophyses of the caudals. It is therefore intermediate between that 
genus and Delphinapterus. The posterior of the caudals in our museum ex- 
hibits a narrowing of the diapophyses, as certain of the lumbars do in Prisco- 

Zarhachis flagellator Cope. 

This species is represented by only two lumbar and two caudal vertebrae, 
which belonged to at least three different individuals, none of them adult. 
Neither is any one entirely perfect, but they indicate a very distinct species, 
by clear characteristics. All these vertebrae are of greater length as compared 
to the diameter than in any other cetacean known by me except the great 
Basilosaurus. The lumbars, when compared with those of T. lacertosus, 
differ in their broadly obtuse median line, which offers distinct trace of the 
two keels. An anterior caudal either exhibits unusually broad diapophyses, 
which are directed downwards, or else is a lumbar with two keels, and 
a median groove below, which is not seen in any other species. The caudals 
exceed in length those of any other species. One of these, from a large indi- 
vidual, resembles that of P. a t r o p i u s in the narrow basis of the diapophysis, 
which is probably narrow, and not perforate. The length of the vertebrae is 
nearly double the vertical depth of the articular faces. The diapophysis is 
nearly median ; the basis of each neurapophysis is one-half the length of the 
centrum, and median. 

In. Lin. 

Length lumbar (epiphyses hypothetical) 3 6 5 

Depth 2 2 

Width 2 3 

" neural canal 2 8 

Length caudal (one epiphysis supplied) 3 10-5 

Depth '' 2 4 

Distance between inferior keels 10-5 

Width basis diapophysis 10-5 


Delphinapterus rusohbnbergeri Cope. 

This species is represented by two vertebrae, a lumbar and a caudal, which 
indicate an animal of about the same or a little larger size than the Prisco- 
delphinus ste nu s. They are also of a slender form, more so than in any 
species of the last genus. What distinguishes it generically, is that instead of 
the slender diapophyses of the caudal it has the broad ones of the true Dol- 
phins, though broader even than is usual in these, and it is perforated a little 
on one side of the middle by the foramen seen among Whales and Dolphins 

Articular faces transverse oval ; centrum slightly constricted with an 
obtuse keel along the median line. The two inferior keels of the caudal vanish 
on part of the middle of the centrum. 

In. Lin. 

Length centrum 1 9 

Height " 10-3 

Width " 12 5 

" neural canal 5*2 

" basis diapophysis lumbar. 10-5 

« <' <« caudal 10- 

A dorsal vertebra which relates in age and size with the preceding, is 
more than usually constricted lateromedially, the inferior line concave, and 
slightly keeled; length 10^ 1., width 12-6 I. 



This species is dedicated to W. S. "W. Ruschenberger, M. D., of this city, 
an active member of the Academy, and author of introductory works on 
Natural History. 

Delphinapterus lacertosus Cope. 

This is much the largest species of the genus. It is based on two lumbar 
vertebrae which have been united by an exostosis and then separated. They 
are quite elongate and have broad diapophyses so far- as their bases indicate. 
The articular surfaces are about as broad as deep, and slightly pentagonal in 
outline, not ovoid or discoid as in other species. The lower surface presents 
an obtuse median angle, with slightly concave sides. The general proportions 
can be derived from the measurements. 

In. Lin. 

Length centrum 3 5-5 

Heighth articular surface 2 2-5 

Width '' " 2 4-5 

" neural canal 7-5 

" base diapophysis 1 9 

In addition to the above, there are in the Museum of the Academy speci- 
mens of dorsal lumbar and caudal vertebrae of this species from the Miocene 
of Cumberland county. New Jersey. They all belong to one individual and 
represent the characters of the species well. The lumbars are all strongly 
keeled below, and the dorsals narrowly rounded, and slightly concave on each 
side. One posterior caudal, with rudimental anterior zygapophyses exhibits 
rather short diapophyses pierced by the vertical foramen. I therefore refer 
this species to Tretosphys with the remark, that it is not so typical as the first 
mentioned species, where the perforation is at the middle of a broad, well 
developed transverse process. 

The two species which follow are assigned to this genus, only on account of 
their resemblance to the present one, as I have not seen the caudal vertebrae of 
either. They may be thought to rest on but a slight basis — but as they are 
extremely easily distinguished among several bushels of bones of other species, 
I feel entire confidence in their reliability. 

Delphinapterus tyrannus Cope. 

This is a large species, doubtfully of the genus, not uncommon in the 
Miocene formations of Maryland. It is represented in the collection by one 
dorsal and three lumbars. Three of these serve as the type of our diagnosis. 
They are much shorter in relation to their other dimensions than those of any 
other fossil dolphin herein described, except the Ixacanthi,and they have the broad 
diapophyses of the genus Delphinus. The epiphyses are unfortunately lost, 
and but three of the specimens belong to the same individual. Articular sur- 
faces broader than high, lateral faces concave everywhere and in every direc- 
tion ; below they meet in an obtuse concave ridge. 

In. Lin. 

Length centrum lumbar (epiphyses supplied) 3 

Depth " 2 10-5 

Width " 2 3-2 

" neural canal 6*7 

" basis diapophyses 2 0-5 

Length lumbar of larger individual 

The rugosity of the epiphysial surfaces is less marked and more intrerupted, 
i. e. without radiating ridges, than in any other species. 

Delphinapterus hawkinsii Cope. 

This species is based on two lumbar veterbrae, which resemble those of J*. 
conradi, (Delphinus conradi Leidy), but are of much larger size and are 
furnished with a strong and acute keel below on the median line, as is seen in 
no other species. The diapophyses are very wide at the base; centrum much 



depressed. Both these specimens are young and have lost their epiphyses ; 
with the latter, they would be relatively as slender as those of D. lacertosus; 
they differ from the latter in their deep keel, like that of a boat. 

A dorsal vertebra is with much probability referred to the same species. It 
is therefore a little shorter than the lumbars and has not so strong a keel ; yet 
the latter is more marked than in any other species, contrasting much with the 
round face of the D. 1 a c e r t o s u s. It is adult with fixed epiphyses ; the articu- 
lar fiices are subround. The upper part of the diapophyses come from the base 
of the neural arch, and the neural canal is wide, with median ridge as usual. 

In. Lin. 

Length, dorsal, centrum 2 11-5 

Depth articular face 2 0-5 

Width of " " 2 2-5 

" " centrum at base transverse margin of diapophysis 2 10-3 

Length centrum lumbar " 3 6 

Width in front diapophysis 2 5-2 

" of " 1 10-5 

Depth centrum from canal to edge of keel 1 10-5 

This species is named for my friend B. Waterhouse Hawkins, the restorer of 
the extinct mammals and reptiles at Sydenham Palace, England, who is now 
engaged in the Museum of the Academy on a similar work for the Central Park, 
New York. 

Delphinapterus gabbii Cope. 

This species is indicated by a well preserved caudal vertebra of an adult, 
which is so different from anything else in our Museum as to require notice. 
It has pertained to a species of not more than half the length of the T. 
gran d a e V u s, and is less strongly constricted everywhere and especially 
below. In a caudal of near the same position, the ridges and chevron artic- 
ular surfaces are much more elevated, especially those on the anterior part of 
the centrum. They embrace a very deep groove in this, a shallow one in the 
T. g a b b i i. An additional longitudinal ridge on each side the inferiors in 
front is wanting in T. g ab b i i. Both have a delicate one above the dia- 
pophyses in front, the T. gra ndaevus behind also. There is no posterior 
zygapophysis in the T. gabbii; the caudal of the latter is also relatively 

In. Lin. 

Length centrum , 2 

Depth articular face anterior 1 5-7 

Width " " « 1 7 

This species is dedicated to my friend Wm. M. Gabb, Palaeontologist of the 
State Geological Survey of California. 

To this genus belongs also the Priscodelphinus gra ndaevus of Leidy. 
This species is not rare in our collections. 

I may add that there still remain species of Delphinidaj in the collection 
which are as yet undescribed. 


The vertebrae of several rather small species of this family were procured 
by J. T. Thomas, of which a few are sufficiently characteristic for descrip- 
tion. They are accompanied by the other bones of the body, but as these 
must be allocated with much care and labor, and as the vertebne are most 
abundant and therefore characteristic of the beds, I think best to describe 
them from these. 

EacHRioHTius PU8ILLU8 Cope. 

This species is indicated by many vertebrae, of which one dorsal, six of the 



lumbars, and one caudal may serve as types. They indicate a species of less 
size than any heretofore described, except perhaps the B. rostrata now 
living. They are about half the size of the vertebrae of Balsenoptera 
prisca and B. p a Ire atlan tica, and 3-5ths those of Eschriehtius 
cephalu s. 

The dorsal is a little longer than transverse width of centrum, and 2-5ths 
longer than vertical width of the same ; the latter is therefore a depressed oval. 
Inferior surface a regular arch from side to side. The lumbars have the 
usual median keel, and the articular faces are not quite so transverse ; the 
external planes are generally concave. The venous foramina in these are 
so small as not to be noticeable. 

The articular faces of the caudal are a little more compressed and nearly 
as deep as wide. The two inferior keels are very slight, the diapophysis are 
not perforate, and the neural arch standi on 3-5ths length of the centrum. 

In. Lin. 

Length dorsal 4 11 

Height articular face 3 6-2 

Width " " 4 3 

Width neural canal 1 4 

Lumbar length 4 11 

Height articular surface 3 11 

Width " " 4 2 

i' neural canal 10 

Caudal, length , 4 

Height articular surface 3 9 5 

" to zygapophyses 5 2 

Width articular sui'faces 4 

Several cervical vertebrae show the characters of the genus and species. 
They are all distinct, and their parapophyses and diapophyses have not prob- 
ably been united, as the portions of them remaining are quite slender. 

The superficial dense bony layer of the ramus of the mandible, of which we 
have specimens, is well developed, and nowhere fissured, and the nutritious 
foramina small. The ramus moderately convex on both faces, much as in 
the Balaenoptera prisca , [Balsena Leidy), and like it, the nutritious fora- 
mina were arranged in a series on each side of and close to the median 
superior ridge. What distinguishes it from the latter is the presence of a 
distinct median ridge, which separated from the inner face of the ramus by 
a strong longitudinal groove. The nutritious foramina of the inner side 
penetrate along the line of this groove. The size is about one-third the 
same portion of the jaw of the B. p r i s c a. Like the latter its inferior 
margin is greatly decurved, and the outer side more convex than the inner. 

In. Lin. 

Length of fragment 15 

Depth inner face ^ 2 

Circumference 5 2-5 

Remains of the mandibles of this species are not uncommon in the Miocene 
region in the beds of streams. I have in similar situations dug out the 
vomers of two whales whose size would correspond with the present. Bullae 
of the periotic bones of small Balaenidae are not uncommon in the same 
beds, and I suspect are mostly to be referred to this and the succeediag 

The species appears to occur in the phosphatic deposit of the neighborhood 
of Charleston, South Carolina, as I have a specimen of a lumbosacral ver- 
tebrae from that locality. It was among the toothless whales what the small, 
elephant of Malta was to the giant elephants. Our specimens have belonged 
to individuals of not more than fifteen feet in length, and probably adult. 



Megaptera expansa Cope. 

This species is based on numerous vertebrae from the Thomas collection, 
several from the Nomini Cliffs, Westmoreland county, Virginia, presented to 
the Academy by my friend Oliver N. Bryan, of Charles county, Md., and by 
some in the Academy's Museum from Virginia. 

The cervicals have -a greater antero-posterior diameter than those of the 
Eschrichtius species, but show quite similar di- and parapophyses. They 
are, however, not atpresent in my possession, and their full description must 
be postponed for a time. 

There are also ten dorsals and several lumbars and probably some cervi- 
cals ftom the same collection. The former have a broad and capacious 
neural canal, and the diapophysis is given off in all from the neural arch. 
In the lumbars this process is of course given off lower down, but in them it 
is flatter than usual. The centrum has somewhat the form of some of those 
of Doryodon, being broad and of little antero-posterior diameter. The 
articular faces have a transverse subcordate outline, being flat above. The 
basal face without keel. The form of the epiphyses indeed approaches sub- 

In. Lin. 

Length anterior dorsal 2 9 

Height articular face 2 8 

Width " " 4 

" neural canal 1 9-7 

Length median dorsal 3 2-5 

Height articular face 3 0-5 

Width " " 3 7 

" neural canal 14-5 

The size of this species is quite comparable to that of the Eschrichtius 
p u s i 1 1 u s, being one of the smaller species. The elevated position of its 
diapophyses disiinguishes it from all the Squalodons. 
The extinct species of Balaenidai of the United States are the following: 
Megaptera expansa Cope. 
Eschrichtius cephalus Cope. 
Eschrichtius leptocentrus Cope. 
Eschrichtius pusillus Cope. 
Bal^enoptera prisca Leidy. 
Bal^noptera pal^atlantica Leidy. 
There is no evidence that either of the two last named species are true 
Balaenopteri. They may be Eschrichtii, but cannot at present be referred to 
those known as above. 

It is to be observed that none of the Miocene species exhibit the dimen- 
sions possessed by the largest existing species, while several of them are 
smaller than the least of those of modern seas. The present period would 
appear, with present information, to be that in which these monsters have 
attained their greatest bulk. 

The recent Baltenidaj of our coasts are the followiug : 
Balvena mysticetus Linn., Polar Sea. 
Balaina cisarctica Cope, Temperate Sea. 
BAiiiiiiNA cuLLAMACH Cham., North Pacific. 
Agaphblus olaucus Cope, Temper. Pacific. 
Agaphblus gibbosus Erxl., Temp. Atlantic. 
Megaptera osphyia Cope, " " 

Megaptera longimana Gray, Polar Seas. 
Eschrichtius ? robustus Lillj., Temp. Atlantic. 
Bal^noptera rostrata Fab,, North Atlantic. 
SiBBALUius laticeph Gray, North Alluulic. 



The following notes on these species may be in place here. 

OftheBalfena cisarctica there is a skeleton in the Museum of the 
Academy of an individual of thirty-seven feet, and a ramus mandibuli of 
sixteen feet in length, indicating a total of sixty-eight feet adult size. A 
scapula in the Museum Rutger's College, New Brunswick, N. J , measures 36 
inches in height, and 485 in. in width, indicating an adult of 57 feet in 
length, A young individual of 45 feet line measurement, awaits mounting 
in the Museum Compar. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. Of this individual I will 
shortly give a detailed description in an essay on the species. Like the other 
specimens, it presents a strong acromion. The phalanges of the manus ex- 
hibited an important difference from those of B. a u s t r a 1 is. In it they 
number respectively 2 — 5 — 6 — 3 — 3, while Cuvier gives (Oss. Foss. 227, 23) 

The species of Agaphelus are briefly noticed in the present number of the 
Academy's proceedings. They will be more fully described shortly from 
material at present in hand. 

A second and more full examination of the skeleton of the Megaptera 
o s p h yi a Cope, furnishes the following additional points and characters. 
The specimen is young, and measures in its present condition, 34 feet. It 
has, however, lost a considerable number of caudal vertebrae, and from the 
posterior part of the column, of intervertebral cartilages also ; add to this 
the shrinking of the cartilages preserved, and the increase of length would 
perhaps amount to eight feet, giving 42 in all. The asserted length of fifty 
feet line measurement, which I quoted in my original description, is no 
doubt an exaggeration. 

The glenoid process is margined by an angular prominence, the rudiment 
of the coracoid, precisely as in the M. brasiliensis. The diapophysis 
of the atlas is a flat vertical plate, extending from opposite the base of the 
foramen dentati to opposite the widest point of the spinal canal ; inferior poste- 
rior outline of the atlas broad, slightly concave medially. The mandible is 
peculiar in the strong angular process, which extends from behind round the 
side, projecting as far as the condyle, and separated from it by a deep groove. 
The third and fourth cervicals are united by the neural arch. The first rib 
is very broad at the extremity ; length 37 inches, width at end, 8-22 in. The 
orbital processes of the frontal bone are not contracted at the extremities as 
in M. lo n g i m a n a, but are more as in Bala^nopterae ; entire width over and 
within edge of orbit, 15^ in. ; length to vertical plate of maxillary 31 in. The 
baleen measures two feet in length, is black, with three rows of coarse bristles. 
Its base is one curve ; its length is spirally twisted. 

The species is probably one of the largest of the Balaenidae. 

The Eschrichtius r ob u s t u s is admitted on the evidence of a ramus of 
the under jaw in the Museum Rutger's College, which is of peculiar form, 
and closely resembles the figure given by Lilljeborg of that portion of this 
rare species. 

August 4ih. 
The President, Dk. Hays, in the Chair. 
Eighteen members present. 

August Wth. 

Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty members present. 




On favorable report of the committees, the following papers were 
ordered to be published : 

Notice of some remains of HOUSES 

Mr. W. Lorenz loaned me for examination -a horse tooth, black in color, and 
devoid of its outer cementum,from diluvium, occupying a depression about six 
feet in depth and about twenty feet in breadth, in the Silurian slate, between 
Rutherford's Station and Highspire, Lebanon Co., Pa. It is stained in texture 
with iron, mutilated at its lower part, and not petrified. It is a fifth upper 
molar of an individual which had just attained maturity, and does not differ 
characteristically from the corresponding tooth of the recent horse at the same 
age. The inflection of enamel at the bottom of the principal internal valley of 
the triturating surface is minute, but this is the case occasionally in the cor- 
responding tooth in the living horse. The size of the tooth also is about that 
of the ordinary full-sized horse. The measurements, in comparison with a 
fifth molar contained in a recent horse skull, are as follows : 

Fossil. Recent. 

Length .. 40 lines. 34 lines. 

Breadth fore and aft ' 15^ " 15 " 

Width, transversely 12 " 12 " 

The tooth may be viewed as having belonged to an indigenous horse, a co- 
temporary of the Mastodon, but it is equally improbable. 

Prof. Whitney has recently submitted to my inspection a fossil horse tooth 
from Martinez, Contra Costa Co., California, the largest I have ever seen or 
can recollect of being on record. The formation from which it was derived 
Prof. Whitney considers to be of pliocene age. The tooth is well preserved, 
retaining its outer cementum, and is but slightly, if at all, changed in texture. 
The tooth is a second upper molar, nearly half-worn. The triturating surface 
in its arrangement of the enamel presents nothing strikingly different from that 
of the corresponding tooth of the recent horse. As in this there is an inflection 
of the enamel at the bottom of the principal internal valley, and in this respect 
and the less simplicity of folding of the enamel islets of the triturating surface, 
differs from Equus excelsus of the Niobrara and of California. The tooth pro- 
bably represents an extinct species, upwards of eighteen hands high. Its 
measurements are as follows : 
Length along the outer median column to the origin of the fangs.... 26J lines. 

Breadth of triturating surface fore and aft. 16^ " 

Thickness independent of cementum 15 " 

*' with cementum 16 " 

The species represented by the tooth may be distinguished by the name of 
Equus pacipicus. I had previously seen fragments of aa upper molar and two 
lower molars, apparently of the same species, from the same locality, submit- 
ted to my inspection by Prof. Whitney several years ago. 

Coincidentally, Dr. Le Conte has just handed to me a bone indicating the 
smallest species of horse of which I have any knowledge. The bone, a second 
ungual phalanx or coronary bone, together with the proximal end of a meta- 
carpal of a ruminant, were obtained by John 0. Browne from a well 60 feet 
deep, at Antelope, Nebraska, 450 miles west of Omaha. The coronary bone 
in its axis is 9 lines long; the same width at the proximal end, and rather 
more than a line less at the distal end. From its relation of size with that 
of the recent horse, the animal to which it belonged was about eight hands 
high. It is uncertain to what solipedal genus the bono actually belongs, but 
in the absence of more characteristic materials, it may be viewed as repre- 
senting a species of Equus. 



Notice of some extinct CETACEANS. 



Prof. F, S. Holmes, of Charleston, S. C, has recently submitted to my in- 
spection a remarkable tooth and the fragment of another, which I recognize 
as having belonged to an extinct genus of Cetaceans, characterized under the 
name of Hoplocetus by Gervais, from similar teeth derived from the miocene 
and pliocene formations of France. The tooth, indeed, bears a near resem- 
blance to that of II. crassidens, represented in figure 10, plate xx, of Gervais' 
Paleontologie Francaise, both in form and size, but is more curved, in this 
respect resembling more the tooth of that represented in fig. 11 of the same 
plate. Prof. Holmes' specimens were obtained from the post pliocene forma- 
tion of Ashley River, in the vicinity of Charleston, S. C. 

The more complete tooth has the end of the fang and a good portion of the 
crown broken away. The latter was worn away, leaving on the summit a 
broad, flat, discnidal surface. The enamel, where it remains, forms a band 
encircling about one-third of the crown, about three lines in depth, and one- 
fourth of a line thick. It appears to have been rugose longitudinally. The 
fang, a striking character in •the teeth referred to Hoplocetus, is fusiform, re- 
markably robust, and large in proportion to the crown. It is straight at the 
bottom two-thirds, but curved towards the crown, so that this appears to be 
obliquely implanted upon it. The interior of the fang is pervaded by a 
narrow pulp cavity of irregular diameter, from the existence at its sides of 
nodosities. The part constituting the technical neck of the tooth is feebly 
constricted. The measurements of the specimen are as follows : 

Length in present condition in a straight line 44 lines. 

Estimated length of fang restored 52 " 

Greater diameter of fang ,.... 19 " 

Lesser " " 16^ " 

Estimated diameter of crown at base..'. 8 " 

The fang of this tooth appears to consist of an axis of dentine about equal 
in diameter to the crown, and its great accession of bulk appears to be due to 
the cemental layer. 

The second specimen consists of the fragment of a tooth devoid of crown. 
The tooth has been of little greater bulk than the preceding, as the diameter 
of the remaining portion of the fang is 20J lines. 

Almost immediately after the reception of the above specimens, quite un- 
expectedly and purely coincidentally, I received, among some other, cetaceous 
remains, another tooth, referable to Hoplocetus, from my friend, Prof. Wyman 
of Cambridge. This specimen was derived from the miocene formation in 
the vicinity of Richmond, Va. The tooth is much larger and straighter 
throughout than the better preserved of the two preceding specimens, and 
may perhaps belong to a different species, — a conjecture which is favored in 
the fact that the tooth was also derived from a different geological for- 

The crown is worn off in a blunt manner or somewhat convex disk, about 
9 lines in diameter, and is encircled by a more or less worn and broken band 
of longitudinally rugose enamel, varying in depth from three to five lines, 
and one-third of a line in thickness. The fang is broken at its end, and ex- 
hibits a long conical pulp cavity, large enough to introduce the end of the 
middle finger for an inch or more. The fang in shape is fusiform, exceed- 
ingly robust, straight, and somewhat quadrate. As in the other specimens, 
it is composed of a dentinal axis near the diameter of the crown, enveloped 
in a huge accumulation of cementum. The length of the specimen in a 
Straight line, in its present condition, is 55 lines. The fang in a restored 



condition is estimated to have been 5 inches long. The diameter of the fang 
is 20 and 21^ lines. 

In the large proportion of cementum to the dentinal axis of the teeth of 
Iloplocetus they bear such a resemblance to the fragments found in the Red 
Crag of England, and referred by Prof. Owen to a genus under the name of 
Balxnodon, as to render it probable the former is the same as the latter. 

The relations of Hoplocetus or Balsenodon, other than that th-ey were toothed 
cetaceans, are unknown. 

Dklphinus occiduus. 

An extinct species is indicated by a fossil derived from the upper miocene 
formation of Half-moon Bay, California, submitted to my examination by 
Prof. J. D. Whitney. The specimen consists of an intermediate portion of 
the upper jaw, devoid of teeth, and encrusted with seleniie. It measures 
along the more perfect lateral border 5 inches, and in this extent is occupied 
with 19 closely set, circular alveoli, rather over 2 lines in diameter. At the 
back of the fragment the jaw has measured a little more than 2 inches wide. 
From this position it gradually tapers for half its length, and then proceeds 
with parallel sides to the fore end, where it is lOJ lines wide. The palate 
behind is nearly plane or slightly convex; at its fore part it presents a deep 
median groove, closed by the apposition of the maxillaries, and this groove 
is separated only by a narrow ridge from the alveoli. The sides of the max- 
illaries are slightly concave longitudinally, convex transversely. The inter- 
raaxillaries are broken away, leaving a wide, angular gutter between the 
remains of the maxillaries. 

Bemarks on a jaw fragment of MEGALOSAIJRTTS. 

A fossil worthy of notice in the Museum of the Academy consists of the 
fragment of a jaw, apparently of the Megalosaurus, which, if it does not be- 
long to a different species from M. Bucklandi, indicates an individual larger 
than any one of those referred to by Buckland, Cuvier, Owen, etc. The fossil 
was purchased in England, and was presented to the Academy by Dr. Thomas 
B. Wilson. It is labelled, " Fragment d'une machoire de Megalosaurus trouv6 
dans le lias a Boue (or Boues). L'animal est extremement rare ici. II avait 
45 pied de loiigeur." In another hand it is marked " Jura Mts." 

The fragment contains two mutilated tefth, visible throughout their length 
from the inner part of the jaw being broken away. The matrix adhering to 
the fossil consists of an oolite composed of a homogeneous clay-colored basis, 
with imbedded granules, of a rounded form, brown and shining. 

The teeth are inserted into the jaw about two-thirds their length, and more 
than three-fourths the depth of the bone. They have measured 5^ and 6 
inches in length. The breadth at the base of the enamelled crown of the 
best preserved tooth is 14| lines, which is nearly the fourth of an inch 
greater than in the largest tooth represented in any of Prof. Owen's figures 
in his Monograph of the Fossil Reptiles of the Wealden Formation. A tooth 
apparently nearly as large in an American ally, is one referred to Dinodon 
horridus, and represented in fig. 21, pi. 9, of my memoir on the Extinct Verte- 
brata of the Judith River, published in the eleventh volume of the Transac- 
tions of the American Philosophical Society. The reconstructed outline of 
this figure is, however, too large, rendered so by the too distant removal of 
the apex of the tooth from the other fragment. The breadth of this specimea 
really did not exceed an inch. 

The longest togth of the fossil under inspection, for the most part broken 
away, exhibits a mould of the large interior pulp cavity. This mould, from 
the hotiom of the latter to its broken eud in the position of the crown, is 5^ 



inches long. The broken end is 8 lines wide and If lines thick ; the widest 
and thickest part of the mould near the middle of the length of the tooth is 
11 5^ lines wide and 5 lines thick. 

The fangs of the teeth do not continue of the same width to the bottom, as 
in the teeth of crocodiles, and, as I believe, is considered to be the case in 
Megalosaurus, but from about their middle they contract, or become narrower, 
as is ordinarily the case in mammals. Indeed, one of these teeth isolated 
might be taken for the canine of a Drepanodon^ or sabre-toothed tiger. In 
the fossil the bottoms of the fangs narrow antero-posteriorly, and become 
thinner from without inwardly, and they also curve somewhat in the latter 

The long fangs of the teeth in the fossil, and their becoming narrowed at 
bottom, at first led me to suspect the specimen belonged to a different genus 
from Megalosanrus, but a view of fig. 1, plate xii, of Prof. Owen's monograph 
above mentioned, seems to prove by the appearance of the successional teeth 
within the jaw, that the fangs actually become narrowed towards the bottom 
in that genus. 

In the best preserved tooth of the fossil, the enamelled crown exhibits the 
same shape, familiar as the characteristic form of that of 3Iegalosaurus. The 
trenchant borders of the crown are denticulate, and the enamel is compara- 
tively smooth, or only very feebly striate. 

The contracted condition of the bottom of the fangs of the teeth would 
leave more space than there otherwise would be for the development of suc- 
cessional teeth within the jaw. In the fossil the remains of one of the latter 
is seen at the lower part internally of one of the functional teeth, and an im- 
pression in a corresponding position of the other functional tooth indicates 
a similar occupant. 

In the progress of the successional teeth of Megalosaurus, their summit 
first appeared at the margin of the jaw internally to the teeth in functional 
position. In the course of growth and protrusion they excited absorption in 
the contiguous bone and fang of their predecessors, and continuing to ad- 
vance from within and beneath (in the lower jaw), as it were, shouldered the 
latter from the jaw. A third tooth in 3Iegalosaurus appears to have occupied 
a position internal to the second one, before the protrusion of this from the 

The outer portion of the jaw bone retained in the specimen has an average 
depth from the alveolar border of 5 inches. Its outer surface is a vertical 
plane, rounding only near the basf . 

The present opportunity is an appropriate one to make a few remarks on the 
American 2i\\\&& of Megalosaurus. Since I have had the opportunity of inspecting 
the remains of the remarkable reptile from the green sand of New Jersey, de- 
scribed by Prof. Cope (Proc. 1866, 275) under the name oiLselaps aguilunguis, in 
observing the comparative uniformity of the teeth, identical in character with 
those of Megalosaurus, I am more strongly impressed with the idea that the 
teeth of like shape, forming part of those referred by me to Binodon, alone 
belong to this genus. The others, of which no representatives have been 
discovered or recognized as belonging to Megalosaurus or Loilaps, most pro- 
bably indicate a distinct genus and species, for which I propose the name of 


Future discovery may prove Lselaps and Dinodon identical, and, judging 
from the comparison of corresponding parts of the jaws and the teeth, will 
be found to be more closely allied to Megalosaurus than was suspected, even 
should they not prove to be generically the same. 

It is clear, from an examination of the anterior portion of the mandible of 
Megalosaurus described and figured by Buckland, Cuvier, Owen, etc., that no 
such teeth as those now referred to Aublysodon occupied the forepart of the 
jaw. It is also probable that the upper teeth of Megalosaurus and of its 



allies differ ia no important point from those below. It follows, therefore, 
that the teeth now referred to Auhlysodon, if they belong to the maxillary or 
mandibular series of Megalosaurus or its allies, could only pertain to the 
back part. The variation ia form of the teeth in question appears too great 
for such a position. 

The teeth now viewed as characteristic of Auhlysodon are represented in 
figs. 36 — 45, pi. ix of vol. xi of the Transactions of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society. The specimens consist of parts of three teeth, which diflfer 
much in size and other important points. In general the crowns are laterally 
compressed conical, with the anterior part thick and convex transversely as 
well as longitudinally, and with the sides nearly parallel. The posterior part 
forms a surface nearly as wide as the thickness of any part of the crown, and 
is defined from the lateral surfaces at right angles. In the two larger teeth 
these angles or borders are denticulated, like the trenchant borders of the 
teeth oi Megalosaurus and its American allies. In the longest tooth (fig. 35, 
36, op. cit.) the posterior surface forms an even plane; in the second sized 
tooth (figs. 37 — 40) the posterior surface presents a median elevation. In 
the smallest tooth (figs. 41 — 45), which indeed may belong to a different 
animal from the preceding, the borders defining the posterior surface are 
somewhat prominent backward, non-deniiculate, and subside approaching 
the base of the crown so as to make a transverse section in this position oval 
(fig. 45). 

Hadrosaurus Foulkii, the bulky vegetable feeder, and cotemporary of the 
rapacious Lselaps aquilunguis^ was at most probably only specifically distinct 
from Trachodon mirabilis, the teeth of which were found in association with 
those of Binodon, so that, according to the laws of nomenclature, as Trachodon 
has priority of name, I suppose the first mentioned animal must be called 
Trachodon Foulkii, though the names of Hadrosaurus Foulkii and H. mirabilis 
would appear more appropriate for these powerful dinosaurs. 

The best preserved tooth of those originally referred to Trachodon, repre- 
sented in figs. 1 — 6 of the plate above cited, is identical in form with those 
referred to Hadrosaurus, and differs only in the absence of the rugulations of 
the lateral borders of the crown, and in some less important points. 

The remaining specimens of teeth referred with the former to Trachodon, 
are represented in figs. 7 — 20 of the plate cited. Most of them are so worn 
and probably altered from their original form, that it is rendered uncertain 
whether they belong to the same animal as the preceding tooth, and one 
unworn (figs. 18 — 20) has a very different shape from this. Perhaps these 
specimens belonged to another Dinosaur, for which the name Trachodon might 
be reserved, while that of Hadrosaurus might include the first mentioned and 
more characteristic tooth. 

As Iguanodon had its enemy in a species of Megalosaurus, Trachodon, the 
representative of the former both in the western and eastern portions of the 
North American continent, was accompanied by an equally bloodthirsty 
enemy, which may, perhaps, on nearer comparison of corresponding parts, 
prove to be another species of the same genus, until now supposed to be 
different, under the names of Binodon and Lrelaps. 

Prof. Cope remarks of l^vlaps (Pr. A. N. S. 18G6, 276), that " in its dentition 
and huge prehensile claws it resembled closely Megalosaurus, but the femur, 
resembling in its proximal regions more nearly the Iguanodon, indicated the 
probable existence of other equally important dift'erences, and its pertinence 
to another genus." Thus the genus is especially distinguished by the appa- 
rent peculiarity of the femur, but in my estimation oven this disappears if 
the bone referred to Lmlaps bo viewed in the corresponding position to that 
of M. Bucklandi, represented in pi. vii, pt. iii, of Prof. Owen's Monograph of 
the Fossil Reptiles of the Wealden, which appears to me to be the reversed 
one to that in which Prof Cope has described it in Pr. A. N. S. 1866, 276. 

The teeth of Bathygnalhus, a huge carnivorous reptile, whose remains have 



been found in the triassic red sandstone of Prince Edward's Island, have 
the same form as those of Megalosaurus^ Dinodon and Lselaps. But here, so 
far as we have the corresponding parts for comparison, the resemblance 
ceases. The remarkable depth of the dentary bone in rMation with its 
length in Bathygnathus^ indicates a form of head very different from that of 
Megalosaurus and its American representatives. It was this unusual relation 
of depth to breadth which led me to suspect a form of head more in accord- 
ance with that of the skeleton of an upright animal, and led me to ask the 
question, "was this animal probably not one of the bipeds which made the 
so-called bird tracks of the New Red Sandstone of the valley of the Con- 
necticut?" (See Jour. Ac. Nat. Sc. 1854, 329.) 

Subsequently, in examining the remains of Hadrosaurus, the American 
representative of igi'Manof/on, from the great disproportion between the fore 
and hind parts of the body, I was led "to suspect that this great herbivorous 
lizard sustained itself in a semi-erect position on the huge hinder extremities 
and tail, while it browsed on plants growing upon the shores of the ocean." 
jJUret. Kept, of the U. S. 1865, 97.) 

The remains referred to Lselaps exhibit even a far greater disproportion 
between the fore and hind limbs than in Hadrosaiirus, which, together with 
its long bird-like claws, etc., suggested to Prof. Cope a similar position of 
body to that o? Hadrosaurus, and a use of the hind limbs in attack upon the 
prey of the animal analagous with that in the eagle (Pr. A. N. S. 1866, 279). 
The extraordinary disproportion between the fore and hind limbs of Lselaps, 
which appears to me so closely related with Megalosaurus, leads me to sus- 
pect that the remains described by Buckland, Cuvier, Owen and others, and 
attributed to the shoulder of M. Bucklandi, perhaps, at least in part, belong 
to the pelvis, if they in whole or part do not belong to other animals. Had 
the humerus of Lselaps been found isolated, I nev^r would have thought of 
associating it in the same skeleton with the huge bones of the hinder ex- 
tremity of that animal. Perhaps, when this great disproportion comes to be 
known, it may be discovered that there exist specimens of remains of the 
fore limbs of Megalosaurus, from the Wealden, in the British or other muse- 
ums of England, which heretofore have excited no suspicion as to their true 

Teratosaurus, from the upper Keuper, in the vicinity of Stuttgart, described 
by Meyer (Palaeontographica, 1859-61, 258), approached Bathygnathus most 
in the proportions of its face, as well as resembled it in the form of the 
teeth, but the fossil dentary bone of the latter is even still shorter and deeper 
than would relate to the fossil maxillary of the former. 

Bemarks on CONOSATJEUS of Gibbes. 

In a memoir on Mosasaurus and the allied genera, by Dr. R. W. Gibbes, pub- 
lished in the second volume of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, 
the author described some teeth from the eocene formation of Ashley River, 
South Carolina, which, from their general resemblance with those of Mosasau- 
rus, both in form and conjunction with osseous bases, he referred to a reptile 
with the name of Conosaurus Bowmavi. 

An examination of the structure of these teeth proved to me that they be- 
longed to a fish. The body of the crown is composed of a compact vaso- 
dentine, invested, in place of enamel, with a thin layer of ordinary dentine. 
There is no pulp cavity in the interior -, and in the complete teeth, the crown 
is continuous with a robust osseous fang, resembling in general appearance 
that of the teeth of Mosasaurus. 

A short time since Prof. F. S. Holmes submitted to my examination the 
dentary bone of Conosaurus, imbedded in a block of white eocene marl, from 



the vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina. The specimen fully confirms the 
view that the animal is a fish. 

The dentary bone, from its symphysis to where it articulated with the angu- 
lar bone, judging partly from the bone itself and the impression of the remain- 
der on the matrix, has been a little over six inches in length. Its depth at the 
symphysis has been about two and a quarter inches. 

Twelve teeth have occupied the alveolar border in a space of four inches 
and ten lines, and perhaps a couple more occupied the part broken away be- 
hind. The teeth form an unbroken row, close together, and generally differ 
but little in size, though those posteriorly are a little the smaller. 

The perfect crown of the teeth forms a nearly regular cone, the fore and aft 
diameter of the base slightly exceeding the transverse. It is curved inwardly, 
pointed, smooth, shining, and even, except at the base, where it is slightly 
fluted, being most so in the anterior teeth, and more or less feebly so in the 
hinder ones. 

The crown ceases at the alveolar margin, where it becomes continuous with 
a more robust,^ solid, oval fang, which is inserted into the jaw and coossified 
with its alveolus. 

In the dentary bone above mentioned, the crown of the first tooth, or that 
nearest the symphysis, is broken off, displaying a clean continuous disk of vaso- 
dentine, nearly circular, and about four lines in diameter. The fang is visible 
from a destruction of a portion of the bone. It is half an inch long, of greater 
diameter than the base of the crown, and composed of bone hardly more dense 
than that of the jaw itself, with which it is coossified. The fourth tooth of the 
series is in the same condition as the former. 

The crown of the second tooth had been shed, and its remaining solid fang 
is somewhat encroached upon, through absorption, by the fang of the tooth 
in front. 

The third, eighth and twelfth teeth have been shed, and their fangs absorbed, 
leaving deep oval cavities. These were filled with matrix, and nothing more. 
It is probable they contained successional teeth, which dropped out in the 
decomposition of the animal. 

The fifth tooth had been shed, and its remaining fang contains a funnel- 
shaped pit. 

The sixth and tenth teeth alone remain in the specimen, the latter entire, 
the former without its point. The crown of the sixth was nearly eight lines 
long ; the other is seven lines. 

The crown of the seventh tooth has been broken off, and the fractured surface 
displays a small central cavity. 

The crown of the ninth tooth, which was smaller than any of the others, is 
shed, leaving the fang somewhat excavated ; but the sides are narrowed, as if 
the position of the tooth were to have been obliterated to give more room for 
the accommodation of others. 

Back of the tenth tooth there is a small pit, probably the remains of the 
position of an early tooth smaller than that last indicated. This included 
would give thirteen to the series. 

The crown of the eleventh tooth had been shed, leaving a shallow basin on 
th6 top of the fang. 

I could find no successional teeth in the specimen. Those which existed 
appear to have dropped out of the exposed cavities. 

From a study of the fragment it would appear as if the germs of new teeth 
originated in the centre of the preexisting teeth, — that is, at the conjunction 
of the crown and fang. In the development of the new tooth it was first 
accommodated in its growth by the absorption of the fang of the old tooth. 
The crown of the latter being shed, that of the new one gradually assumed its 
position, and when protruded its fang became coossified with its alveolus. 

A specimen in the museum of the Academy, from Ashley River, S. C, con- 
sisting of an isolated tooth with the greater portion of its fang, is larger than 

18680 14 


any of the teeth in the dentary bone above described. The crown is eight lines 
long and four and a quarter in diameter at base. The fore and back part of 
the robust osseous fang present concavities, as portions of cavities remaining 
after the shedding of teeth with absorption of their fangs. 

Of two shed crowns in the museum, from the same locality, one is 5^ lines 
long by 21 and if in diameter at base ; the other 6| lines long by 3| and 3^ 
at base. 

The museum of the Academy also contains two specimens consisting of 
alveolar fragments of jaws with teeth, of the same animal, from Burlington 
Co., N. J. They were presented by W. J. Taylor, and are reputed to have been 
obtained from the green sand. 

One of the specimens is 2| inches long, and contains an alternation of teeth 
and empty cavities for successional teeth. The first cavity is large, the fang 
formerly occupying its position being completely absorbed. The second tooth 
of the specimen is entire. Its crown is 7 lines long by 4 and 3^- at base. The 
third and fifth cavities for successional te6th are not quite so large as the first, 
nor are the fangs which occupied them so completely absorbed. The fourth 
tooth has its crown mutilated. Its base behind is irregularly excavated, but 
whether by erosion, or whether it is the remains of a position occupied by a 
successional tooth, I cannot determine. In the sixth tooth the crown is not 
entirely protruded, and its fang is already coossified with a tubular sheath of 
the fang of the former tooth which occupied its position. In the seventh tooth 
the crown is shed, but the fang remains with a large cavity. The crown of 
the eighth tooth was also shed and the fang nearly obliterated through ab- 

The smaller alveolar fragment is IJ inches long, and contains two teeth, 
with an intervening cavity for a successional tooth. Before and behind the 
two teeth are the remains of other cavities. 

Though I have an aversion to change names, yet the name Conosavrus is so 
obviously wrong and liable to mislead, especially also as there is a saurian 
named Coniosaurus, that I propose for the former the name of Conosaurops. 

I may here take occasion to mention that I have suspected that the tooth 
represented in figs. 7, 8, 9, pi. xx, of my " Cretaceous Reptiles of the United 
States," and referred to a carnivorous reptile with the name of Tomodon, may 
also have been a fish. The base of the specimen presents an irregular porous 
condition, but this I suspect rather to be the result of erosion. As it is unique, 
I have not been able to obtain a section to examine its microscopic structure. 
As the name Tomodonhsid been previously appropriated by Dumerilfor a genus 
of serpents, I would propose to alter the name applied to the animal to which 
the fossil belonged, to that of Diplotomodon. 

August ISth. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Sixteen members present. 

August 2dth. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Twenty-three members present. 

Messrs. Uselma Smith and B. Waterhouse Hawkins were elected 

Mr. Kalph Tate, of London, was elected a correspondent. 

On favorable report of the Committee, the following paper was 
ordered to be printed : 



On the Crocodilian genus FEBOSUCHDS. 

Characters. — Toes 5-4, with claws two — three. No osseous nasal septum 
or bony eyelid. Belly protected by series of osseous plates, as well as the 

All the genera of Crocodiles hitherto known as living are characterized 
by the possession of three claws on the fore foot. The pres'-nt therefore 
offers a remarkable exception. The free fingers and half webbed toes, and 
the bony abdominal buckler, together with the cartilaginous nasal septum are 
points of strong resemblance to Jacare (Gray, including Cseman Gray), but it 
differs from these creatures in the lack of bony orbital plate. In specific cha- 
racters it differs from those of this genus, which it most resembles, as J. n i- 
gra, in the absence of a transverse bony ridge between the orbits. Another 
feature of importance is the relat ion of the canine teeth of the lower jaw to the 
upper. On one side this tooth is received into a notch, as in Crocodiles, on 
the others it enters a pit of the maxillary bone, within the border of the 
same, as in Alligators ! This remarkable combination may be abnormal even 
in this species, but this cannot be now ascertained, as it rests at the present 
time on a single specimen only. As iis affinities are rather more alliga- 
torial, I am disposed to anticipate that the dental arrangement of the latter 
type will be most common. 

Perosuchus pdscus Cope. 

Char, specificus. — Nuchal plates in a cross row of six ; cervicals in four 
cross-rows, all of four plates except the last of two. Dorsal plates six — in 
a few eight in each transverse row. No posterior crest on arm or leg. Tail 
short with remarkably low crest. Muzzle broad, flat, without any ridges ; 
its width at the eighth tooth entering 1-4 in length from end of muzzle to 
anterior margin of orbit. 

Description. — The specimen in the Museum of the Academy is young, 
measuring only 2 feet 5 inches in length. Of this the skull measures to the 
margin of the supra-occipital 2 in. 10 5 lin. ; and the tail from the vent 13 in. 
1 line. From groin to heel 3 in. 2-5 lines, and the hind foot 2 in. 7-5 lines. 
The muzzle is a broad ovate, the sides rather more convergent anteriorly 
than in the Alligator mississippiensia. There is a thickening in front 
of each orbit, and between them on the middle line another, which together 
enclose two shallow concavities. Superciliary margins raised, the cranial 
table quite flat. The margin of the quadrato-jugal bone projects strongly. 
The scales of the limbs are all smooth and those of the dorsal region with 
very low keels. The sides have four longitudinal rows of ovate scales sepa- 
rated by scarcely defined smaller ones. The abdominal plates are longer 
than broad, and are in twelve longitudinal rows. Dorsals in seventeen 
transverse series from interscapular to crural region. The lateral crests of 
the tail are only obtuse keels; they unite on the thirteenth annulus behind 
the vent inclusive. Color above dark brown, almost black on the upper sur- 
face of the head. The tail is paler^ of a light olive brown. Lower surface 
everywhere bright yellow, including the entire lower jaw and margin of the 
upper. Eyelids and a band through ear yellow, the former with a black spot 

Remarks. — This interesting addition to our knowledge of the Reptilia was 
made by Schulte Buckow, of New York, while on a visit to the interior part 
of the course of the Magdeleua River, in New Grenada. This naturalist 
has also enriched our collections with other interesting vertebrata of that 
region, both living and dead. 



Sept. Ist. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Twenty-two members present. 

Sept Sth. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Twenty-eight members present. 

Sept 15th. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Twenty-eight members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 

Extinct Mammalia of Dakota and Nebraska, including an account 
of some allied forms from other localities, together with a synopsis of 
the Mammalian Remains of North America. Illustrated by twenty- 
eight plates. By Joseph Leidy, M. D. Preceded by an introduc- 
tion on the Geology of the Tertiary Formations of Dakota and 
Nebraska, accompanied by a Map. By F. V. Hayden, M. D. 

Notice of American Species of Ptychodus. By Joseph Leidy, 
M. D. 

Synopsis of the Extinct Batrachia of North America. By Edw. 
D. Cope. 

Dr. Leidy read a letter from Mr. B. Waterhouse Hawkins, pro- 
posing to erect in the Museum, at his own expense, the fossil remains 
of the Hadrosaurus to their natural relations in the figure of that 
great Dinosaur, in accordance with Dr. Leidy's descriptions in his 
Monograph of the Cretaceous Reptiles of the United States. 

On leave being granted, the following resolutions, offered by Dr. 
J. L. LeConte, were adopted : 

That the Academy accept the proposition of Mr. B. Waterhouse 
Hawkins, to erect in this Hall, at his own expense, a restoration of 
the skeleton Hadrosaurus. 

That the thanks of the Academy be respectfully tendered to Mr. 
Hawkins for his liberal offer, and that the Curators be instructed to 
furnish to him every facility in the use of specimens in the Museum, 
which the most liberal interpretration of the By-Laws will permit. 

Sept 22d. 
Dr. Bridges, in the Chair. 
Twenty-four members present. 

Sept 2m. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Twenty-four members present. 



Dr. D. G. Brinton was elected a member. 

On favorable report of the Committee, the paper of Dr. Leidy, 
presented Sept. 15th, entitled " Extinct Mammalia of Dakota and 
Nebraska," etc., reported in favor of its publication in the Journal. 

On favorable report of the Committees, the following papers were 
ordered to be printed : 

Notice of American Species of FTYCHODTJS. 


The Cestraciont genus of fishes Ptychodus, so far as known, is confined to 
the Cretaceous Formations. Remains, consisting of teeth, I have had the 
opportunity of inspecting from Alabama, Mississippi and Kansas, and 
although reported to exist in the Cretaceous Formation of Delaware, I have 
not met with them from that locality nor from the Green Sand, of correspond- 
ing age, of New Jersey. The following list comprises all the specimens of 
American Ptychodus teeth I have had the opportunity of examining. 

Ptychodus Mortoni. 

Agassiz, Poissons Fossiles III. (1833-43), 158, Tab. 25, figs. 1 — 3; copied in 
figs. 773, 773a, of Dana's Manual of Geology, 

Palate bone of a fish ? Morton : Syn. Org. Rem. Cret. Group. (1834), pi. 
xviii, figs. 1, 2. 

The teeth of Ptychodus Mortoni I have seen only from the cretaceous forma- 
tion of Alabama and Mississippi. Morton, in the work above noticed, figures 
a tooth, but does not mention the locality from which it was obtained. 

Agassiz, in his Poissons Fossiles, gives a good representation of a tooth of 
this species, from the Green Sand of America, in three views, figs 1 — 3, Tab. 25. 

Dixon, in his Geology of Sussex, represents two small teeth, (figs. 6, 7, pi. 
xxi), which he refers to the same species. Though exhibiting some resem- 
blance in character to the American teeth, I think a further comparison is 
necessary to establish their specific identity. 

The teeth of Ptychodus Mortoni are well defined in character, and in com- 
parison with teeth of well recognized European species are almost generic in 
their peculiarity. Though exhibiting some variety, their likeness presents a 
distinct specific uniformity. Their size of course varies greatly with age and 
the relative position they occupied with one another in the mouth of the 

Viewed from above, the crown is reniformin outline, the long diameter being 
transverse ; the incurvature posterior. The crown rises in the form of a cone 
with a more or less obtuse summit. The sides of the crown slope to the base 
and frequently more or less abruptly expand, laterally approaching the latter. 
The back part is occupied by a wide triangular sinus for the reception of the 
fore-part of the crown of the tooth which was situated in front of it wheu 
the teeth were contained within the mouth. The border of the crown is thick 
and rounded and dips beneath. At the sinus it is prominent. The summit of 
the crown presents a prominent crucial ri^ge, more or less distinct in ditlerent 
specimens. From the cross numerous ridges of about the same thickness 
diverge upon the sides of the cone, branching in their course, multiplying and 
becoming finer, and ultimately conjoining. upon the base in a fine reticulation 
extending to the borders of the crown. The coarser ridges vary in their pro- 
portionate length in different specimens. The reticulation of the base is most 
extensive laterally, occui)ying usually half the breadth of the space between 
the summit and border. It also occupies the sinus, and is least developed at 
the fore-part of the crown. The width of the crown approaches double the 



fore and aft measurement, and the height is usually little less than the latter. 
The root partakes of the form of the outline of the base of the crown, but is 
more square and is flat or transversely concave below. 

Twelve specimens of teeth of Ptychodus Mortoni^ from the Cretaceous For- 
mation of Alabama, belonging to the Yale College Museum, have been sub- 
mitted to my examination by Mr, William M. Gabb. Among them occurs 
the largest tooth of the species I have seen, and larger than any on record. 
It is labelled as having been derived from Perry Co., Alabama. The fang 
and parts of the lateral and back borders of the crown are broken away, 'i^ 
the perfect condition the crown has measured a little over two inches in 
transverse diameter, one inch and a quarter antero-posteriorly, and ten lines 
in height. The crushing surface is porportionately less prominent at the 
centre than in the smaller teeth attributed to the same species, and is more 
uniformly convex, or less expanded laterally at the base. The borders of the 
posterior sinus also are less abrupt or defined. The unworn summit presents 
a crucial ridge, of which the lateral radii are most distinct and directed pos- 
tero-laterally. From the crucial ridge, numerous ridges, equally prominent, 
diverge, branch in their course and ultimately conjoin in a fine reticulation at 
the base af the crown. This reticulation has the greatest breadth at the sides 
of the crown and is least developed at the fore-part. 

Eleven teeth from Uniontown, Alabama, exhibit a gradation in size from less 
than three-fourths that of the above described specimen down to one little 
more than a fourth of its diameter. The specimens present a remarkable sim- 
ilitude throughout. Some are proportionately wider fore and aft than others, 
and the smallest are porportionately higher than the largest ones. The outline 
of the base of the crown is reniform, with the relation of the longer and 
shorter diameters varying. The largest specimen has the crown an inch and 
a half wide, a little over three-fourths of an inch fore and aft, and about half 
an inch in height. The sides of the crown expand at the base laterally; the 
fore-part forms nearly a uniform slope, and the back surface slopes to the 
sinus, which forms a broad triangular depression. The fang is fourteen lines 
wide, seven lines fore and aft, and three lines in depth. 

The crown of a median sized tooth of the series, unworn, measures scant 14 
lines wide, 7 ^^ fore and aft, and 6^ high. The smallest specimen has the crown 
7 lines wide, 4^ fore and aft, and an equal height. Its base laterally appears 
more abruptly expanded than in the others. Most of the specimens are unworn 
and exhibit the characteristic ridges of the crown in a striking manner. In 
three specimens the coarser ridges are resolved into the reticulation much 
earlier or nearer the summit than in the others. In one specimen the crown 
is smooth or totally devoid of ridges, presenting the same appearance repre- 
sented in figs. 4, 5, pi. XXX, of Dixon's Geology of Sussex, and described as 
" nascent or incomplete teeth of Ptychodus. 

Seven specimens of teeth in the Museum of the Academy, from Alabama, 
exhibit the same characters expressed in the description of those above. They 
all present an unmistakeable specific likeness, though varying in the propor- 
tions of their diameter. The largest specimen has the crown 16 lines wide, 11 
lines fore and aft, and 8 lines high. The root is an inch wide, 7 lines fore and 
aft and nearly 3 lines thick, A secoj;id specimen, with the crown 16 lines wide 
and 9 lines fore and aft, has been proportionately lower than the former. Its 
summit is worn away, leaving an exposed circular disk of vaso-dentine 4 lines 
in diameter. 

Two specimens in the Museum of the Academy, presented by Prof. Joseph 
Jones, are from Green Co., Alabama. The larger is perfect and unworn. The 
crown is scant 14 lines wide, by 7 lines fore and aft, and 5 lines high. The 
root is 11^^ lines wide, 4 J fore and aft, and 2 lines thick. 

Two specimens in the Museum of the Academy, presented by Dr. Wm. Spill- 
man, are from Columbus, Mississippi. They present the same character as the 
Alabama specimens. The larger specimen has the crown 20 lines wide, 10 lines 



fore and aft, and has perhaps been about 8 lines high. The summit is worn ofiF, 
leaving an exposed flat circular surface of vaso-dentine half an inch in diame- 
ter. The root is 15 lines wide, 6 lines fore and aft, and three lines thick. The 
smaller specimen consists of an unworn crown 11 J lines wide, 7 lines fore 
and aft and 5J lines high. 

Ptychodus occidentalis, n. s. 

The Museum of the Academy contains a specimen consisting of the crown 
of a tooth of a species oi Ptychodus differing from any other previously known. 
I#was obtained by Dr. John L. LeConte, in association with other remains of 
fishes, from an ash-colored rock of the Cretaceous series, a few miles east of 
Fort Hays, Kansas. 

•The tooth is remarkable, especially from the comparatively near approxima- 
tion of its diameters, the width transversely and fore and aft and the height 
approaching one another more nearly than in any other species. The fore- 
part of the crown is somewhat injured and the root is broken away. The 
transverse diameter of the crown at base is 14 lines ; the fore and aft diameter 
has been about an inch ; and the height is also an inch. 

In shape the crown is a blunt cone with the sides sloping evenly to the base 
and to the posterior sinus. The latter is a triangular concavity about two- 
thirds of the breadth in height. 

The direction and arrangement of the ridges of the crown are much like as in 
the European Ptychodus dectcrrens, but the principal ridges crossing the crown 
transversely are finer and the intervals much narrower, indeed the space occu- 
pied by a pair of ridges with their interval in P. decurrens would accommodate 
three ridges with a pair of intervals in P. occidentalis. Descending the sides of 
the cone the ridges branch as in P. Mortoni, and at the basal half of the crown 
form a reticulation much as in P. decurrens. At the back of the summit of the 
crown the principal ridges continue their transverse or parallel course until 
near the upper part of the sinus, into which as they descend they are resolved 
into a fine reticulation. The fore-part of the crown is occupied by a reticula- 
tion formed by the descent, convergence and division of the more anterior 
principal ridges. 

From the description it will be observed that the tooth holds an interme- 
diate position in anatomical character to those of Ptychodus Mortoyii, and 
P. decurrens. 

Three small teeth, found by Dr. Le Conte in association with the latter, re- 
semble, in their proportions and in the proportionate size and arrangement of 
the ridges of the crown, the teeth of P. decurrens, but perhaps may belong to 
the same species as the large tooth above described. The larger of the three 
specimens is perfect, but has the summit of its crown worn off. The crown 
measures 7 lines transversely, 6 lines fore and aft, and has been from 4 to 5 
lines high. The root is 6 lines wide, 4J lines fore and aft, and 2^ lines thick. 
Comparatively coarse ridges cross the crown transversely, curving forward 
laterally and ending in a marginal reticulation. Branching ridges descend in 
front from the foremost of the transverse ridges, and likewise end in a marginal 
reticulation. The sinus is occupied b}-- a finer reticulation joined by fine ridges 
descending from the summit and sides of the crown. The smallest tooth, like- 
wise perfect, has the crown 4 J lines wide, 3 J lines fore and aft, and 2 J lines 

Three additional specimens associated with the former ones, are the smallest 
teeth of Ptychodus I have seen, but I suspect that they belong to the same 
species. They are transversely ellipsoidal in outline at the base of the crown, 
and this appears as a low cone elevated at tlie inner third and with a broad 
expanding base. The sinus is situated at the inner posterior third. The sur- 
face of the crown is crossed with transverse ridges which form a narrow retic- 
ulation at the border. The largest of these small specimens is 3^ lines trans- 
versely, 1;| fore and aft, and J of a line high from the root. The smallest tooth 
is 2|^ lines wide, 1^ fore and aft, and \ a line from the root. 



Ptychodus polygyrus. 

Agassiz : Poissons Fossiles III, 156 ; Dixon: Geology of Sussex, 1850, 363. 
Gibbes: Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1849, 299, pi. 42, figs. 5, 6. 

Dr. Gibbes, in the work above noticed, figures two teeth, from the cretaceous 
formation of Alabama, which he refers to Ptychodus polygyrus. They clearly 
bear a close likeness to specimens of the European species of that name. 

A single specimen of a tooth, accompanying the Alabama specimens be- 
longing to the Yale College collection, resembles the teeth of the European 
Ptychodus polygyrus. The crown is nearly square or transversely oblong, wi^ 
the fore and back borders nearly straight, and the lateral borders convex. 
The crushing surface is moderately convex and is crossed transversely by ten 
coarse acute ridges, separated by similar intervals. The borders of the sur- 
face, including the posterior sinus, are occupied by comparatively fine vermicu- 
lar and interrupted ridges, appearing like granulations. The coarse ridges 
are nearly straight, and at the end rather abruptly resolve themselves into the 
finer vermicular ridges of the border. From European specimens of the teeth 
of P. polygyrus and P. latissimus, this tooth appears especially to differ in the 
proportionately greater degree of fineness of the bordering vermicular ridges 
or granulations of the crown. Its measurements are as follows : 

Width of crown 13 lines; fore and aft 11 lines; height 5^ lines; width of 
fang 8 lines ; fore and aft 6| lines ; thickness 3 lines. 

Of other species of Ptychodus, Agassiz mentions teeth of P. mammillaris, 
found in the excavation of the Delaware canal, and preserved in the Museum 
at Paris. (Pois. Fos. Ill, 151.) I have seen no specimens of that species 
from an American locality. 

Synopsis of the Extinct BATRACHIA of North America. 


The vomer is double, and usually bears teeth in this class ; the premaxillary 
is usually double ; Amphiuma and Spelerpes belli are exceptions. Teeth never 
planted in deep alveoli. 

There are six orders, as follows : 


Caudal vertebrae and frontal bones distinct. 
Inferior pelvic elements not confluent. 

0. o. maxillaria, prefrontalia, palatina and pterygoidea wanting ; nasalia 
Ethmoid,* two lateral pieces, each forming part of palate. 
Mandible toothless, condyloid. 
No " postorbital and supertemporal bones." 
First pair ceratohyals distinct. 

Caudal vertebrae and frontal bones distinct. 
Inferior pelvic elements not confluent. 

0. o. maxillaria, prefrontalia and nasalia wanting ; palatina and pterygoidea 

Ethmoid,* a vertical plate on each side the cerebral lobes. 
Mandible toothed, teeth pleurodont.f 

* Erroneously called orbitosphenoids by me, Jour. Acad. 1866 (on Anura). 

fThe statement made by Dr. Gray that the teeth of Necturus are eanaled, as in venem- 
ous serpents, by a channel entering at the base and issuing below the tip, appears to the 
writer to be of doubtful accuracy. No other opening exists in the teeth of Necturus m a- 



Ceratohyals, first pair connate. 

No postorbital and supertemporal bones. 


Usual cranial bones present, but pterygoids reduced or wanting. 
No " postorbital or supertemporal bones." 
Caudal vertebrae and frontal bones distinct. 
Ethmoid a vertical plate on each side. 
Mandible dentigerous, teeth pleurodont. 

Inferior pelvic elements horizontal, in contact, no osseous pubis ; ilium sus- 
pended to a sacral rib. 

(Mostly no quadratojugal.) 


Usual cranial bones present and distinct, including frontals and pterygoids. 

Caudal vertebrae distinct. 

No " postorbital or supertemporal bones."* 

Ethmoid an annulus surrounding cerebral lobes. 

Mandible dentigerous ; teeth anchylosed by their bases.f 

(A quadratojugal.) 


Usual cranial elements distinct, including frontals and pterygoids, and add- 
ing " postorbitals and supertemporals." 
Caudal vertebrae ? 
Ethmoid normal. 
Inferior pelvic elements distinct. 

Mandible dentigerous ; teeth with anchylosed bases, or 
(A quadrato-jugal.) 


Frontal and parietal confluent, nasals wanting or rudimental ; other cranial 
bones present. 

Postorbital, supratemporal and usually nasals wanting. 

Ethmoid an annulus (usually complete above) surrounding cerebral lobes. 

Caudal vertebrae represented by an elongate compound style. 

Inferior elements of the pelvis consolidated into a single vertical mass ; ilium 
attached immediately to sacral vertebra. 



The vertebral centra not ossified ; ? the dentition pleurodont ; teeth simple ; 
? no branchial hyal bones. ? Occipital condyles. 

culat us than the emargination at the base of the root occupied by the growing crown of 
the successional tooth, as in other Batrachia. If the structure described by Dr. Gray exists, 
it is in a species as yet unexamined by American zoologists. Professor Winchell, of Ann 
Arbor, confirms rny observation. 

In my Synopsis of higher groups of Batrachia (Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1866), I stated that 
Ampliiunia possesses minute scales. Gray, in 1850 (Catalogue Brit. Mus.), makes the same 
statement, which Dumeril (18G;i, Catal. Mus. Paris) contradicts. I must accord with Prof. 
Dumeril, since a subsequent examination has convinced me that they do not exist. The 
specimen in which the appearance of scales was presented was mislaid at the time of 
writing, and I find it was due to numerous free portions of the true dorm, which are con- 
tinuous with the attached portions. 

* When the temporal fossa is overarched it Is by expansion of the maxillary and quadrato- 
jugal. (Stannius says "squama temporalis.") 

fThe teeth of Ctecilia are compressed with a trenchant posterior edge, which ia crenate. 
after the manner of Megalosaurus, Carcharias, etc. Thus to the numerous genera or 
Saurians and Belachians possessing this character, must be added a Batraohian. 




Vertebral centra ossified ; no branchial hyoids ; teeth simple or with slightly 
inflected enamel, pleurodont. Occipital condyles. 


Vertebral centra cartilaginous ; branchial hyoids present ; teeth with slightly 
inflected enamel, anchylosed by their bases. No ossified occipital condyles. 

Labyrinthodontia vera. 

Vertebral centra osseous ; no branchial hyoids ; teeth with much inflected 
enamel, anchylosed by their bases. Occipital condyles. 


This order I proposed for the reception of the genus Amphibamus Cope, in 
1865, I proposed to regard, as one of its characters, the existence of opistho- 
coelian vertebrae. Such impressions were observed in the matrix in which the 
fossil was preserved, as to induce a belief in the existence of such vertebrae, 
and the existence of these in a well ossified condition, in the apparently nearly 
allied genus Pelion Wyman, strengthened such belief. There were actually, 
however, only osseous neural arches present, and I am now decidedly of the 
opinion that the vertebral centra were either cartilaginous or annuliform, as in 


Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1865, 134. 

Amphibamus grandiceps Cope, Proc. Ac. N. Sci. Phila. 1865, p. 134. Palaeon- 
tology 111. State Survey. Tab. 
Carboniferous ; Lower Coal Measures, Morris Co., Illinois. 


This sub-order was established by Prof. Dawson, for small lizard-like verte- 
brates from the Coal Measures, which he thought presented points of affinity 
to, or should be under the Saurian reptiles, at the same time recognizing Ba- 
trachian characteristics. 

After examining the evidence brought forward by Prof. Dawson, it appears 
to the writer that the Saurian characteristics are analogical only, and not in- 
dicative of true affinity, and that these creatures form, in fact, a series closely 
resembling or parallel with what was probably an immature stage of the 
Labyrinthodontia. They are in fact Labyrinthodonts, with simple or very 
slightly inflected enamel of the teeth, and with the extent of the exostosis of 
the cranial bones much reduced. This character has been much overrated by 
some authors. In the Dendrerpeton obtusum Cope the grooving and pit- 
ting exists only on the posterior parts of the cranium, and gradually disappears 
anteriorly. In the Alligator mississippiensis the same is the case. 

The points in which they have been said to resemble the Lacertilia, are, 1st, 
the dermal scales ; 2d, the parietal fontanelle ; 3d, possession of ribs. All of 
these features belong to the Labyrinthodontia ; the Xenorhachia also had 
scales. On the other hand, the two occipital condyles, indicating the existence 
of a parasphenoid bone, distinguishes it at once from all the Allantoid verte- 
brata, and the form of the vertebra? is very Batrachian. In the Lacertilian 
families of Gecconidae and Hatteriidae only we have biconcave vertebrae, but 
the concavities are comparatively shallow, and the vertebrae less constricted 
medially than in the Microsauria. Those of the latter are much like those of 
Salamanders, according to Prof Dawson's figures. 

The bones figured as pelvic are unlike those of any Batrachia or Lacei'tilia 
known to the writer. But until those of the Labyrinthodontia are discovered, 




■we cannot assert that they differ from the latter. The long spatuliform ele- 
ments figured as pelvic are, perhaps, scapulfe, which are of not very different 
type in the Trachystomata, Proteida, and the Ganocephala. 

The only species included in this tribe in which inflections of the enamel 
have been described, is the Dendrerpeton acadianum, and here it is only 
at the base. It is, however, not impossible that this genus should not be asso- 
ciated with Hylerpeton, Oestocephalus, etc. The genera Urocordylus, Cera- 
terpeton, Lepterpeton, Ophiderpeton and others recently described by Prof. 
Huxley, also belong here. 

PELION Wyman. 

In litteris. Raniceps Wyman, Amer. Jour. Sci. Arts, 1858, 158. Not of Cuvier 

Pelion lybllii Wyman. Raniceps lyellii Wyman, 1. c. 

This animal differs from the genus Amphibamus in the well-ossified verte- 
bral axis ; no remains of a tail with elevated neural spines exist in the type 
specimen, and no ventral scales are seen in it. 

Middle Coal Measures, Jefferson Co., Eastern Ohio. 


Hylonomus lyellii Dawson, loc. cit. viii, 167. 
The Joggins. Nova Scotia Coal Measures. 

Hylonomus aciedentatus Dawson, 1. c. viii, 258. 
Coal Measures ; with the last, 

Hylonomus wymanii Dawson 1. c. viii, 270. 
Coal Measures, Nova Scotia ; with the last. 


This genus is represented by a large part of the cranium of a Batrachian 
from the triassic coal measures of Chatham Co., North Carolina. If not a Ba- 
trachian, it could only belong to a ganoid fish, but though some of its charac- 
ters are somewhat ichthyic, it lacks the following important elements of the 
ganoid structure, i. e., free post- and suborbital bones ; postnareal cavities ; 
branchiostegal, and arched branchihyal bones. On the other hand it has a 
large preorbital, bounding the frontal and maxillary to the nares, and the inner 
border of the orbit as in Stegocephalous Batrachia ; also a postorbital element 
contributing to the formation of an extended supratemporal roof. 

Contrary to what has been found the case in most genera of Stegocephali, 
the maxillary appears to extend posteriorly to a free termination, as in modern 
Salamanders, and the supra-temporal bone presents a very prominent, obtuse, 
arched margin. This margin extends from the orbits on each side, and is in- 
curved towards the posterior part of the cranium. There is therefore no 
quadratojugal piece. 

Tiie maxiUary and mandibular pieces are slender, flat bones, as in Menopoma ; 
the form of the posterior or articular portionof the latter cannot be ascertained 
from the specimen. The more or less exposed part of the median region of the 
latter exhibits a succession of shallow transverse notches, enclosing thirteen 
obtuse elevations. The former resemble rudimental lateral alveolae for minute 
pleurodont teeth, A few other similar minute ribs, and perhaps a minute 
curved cone without sculpture, are the only other indications of dentition. 

The bones of the upper surface of the cranium are most readily interpreted 
by reference to those of Menopoma. A pair of narrow nasals, acuminate be- 
hind, ])enetrate between the frontals as far posteriorly as the posterior margins 
of the orbits. The suture between these is very distinct, and entirely straight. 
The preorbitals extend to above the orbits, and there appear to cease with a trans- 
verse suture. Between these and the nasals a broad triangular element enters 



on each side, not attaining the probable position of the nostrils. Each is di- 
vided by a longitudinal groore, which is probably a suture, and which would 
then divide the frontals from the parietals. The frontals would then divide 
the parietals entirely, as they do in Menopoma for the anterior half of their 
length. This would give the frontals a narrow form, acuminate in front, and 
bounded behind by a regular coarse, zig-zag transverse suture. The cranium 
behind this point is rugose, and the surface not well preserved, and it can only 
be said that two irregular grooves converge to a point between the posterior 
extremities of the frontals, like the boundaries of the supraoccipital. The 
posterior boundary of the cranium with the condyles cannot be readily deter- 
mined. When the postorbital roof bone is raised up, the meeting of two gular 
dermal bones, as I interpret them, is seen. One of these is a plate directed 
backwards and outwards, bearing minute radiating lines on its upper surface. 
It meets a similar flat plate directed forwards and outwards, with similar lines 
radiating to the circumference. The inner margins of these plates were not 

The orbits are remarkably small, and situated probably near the middle of 
the longitudinal measurement of the cranium. The external cares are not 
defined, but symmetrical depressions in the position they usually occupy in 
Salamanders are distinct. 

The general form recalls Menopoma, particularly the necessarily small eyes. 
A slender curved bone with a slightly dilated and truncate extremity, lying by 
the cranium in connection with the mandible, is like a branchihyal of that 
genus. Nevertheless it cannot be positively assigned to this genus, as numer- 
ous scales of cycloid fishes are on the same block. 

Pariostegus myops Cope. 

The surfaces of the cranial bones are little sculptured ; there are small tu- 
berculiform elevations on the parietals and more numerous ones on the pre- 
orbitals. The postorbitals show the strongest markings of elongate pits which 
radiate to their circumference, leaving a smooth obtuse border. The nasals 
present a series of small warts at a little distance on each side of their com- 
mon suture, and transverse to it. The surface of the maxillary is marked with 
longitudional grooves and shallow pits. 

No suture separating maxillaries and premaxillaries can be traced with cer- 
tainty, though the bones of the jaw are interrupted at the usual place of suture, 
opposite the nostril. 



Length of specimen (including mandible) 18 

Width between outer convexities postorbitals 17 

" " inner borders orbits 11 

" of same without preorbitals 8 

" of nasals at middle 2-5 

" orbit 1-5 

Length of frontal nasal premaxillary 11. 

" " supposed branchihyal 12. 

The name is derived from the roof-like postorbitals with free lateral margin. 
Locality .—CodA bed of the Keuper Triassic, Chatham Co., North Carolina. 
The species was discovered by Prof. Jos. Leidy, who handed it to me for de- 
scription. It is in the Museum of the Academy of Nat. Sciences of this city. 


Journal Geol. Soc. London, 1853, p. 81. 

In the form of the cranium this genus differs from Brachydectes and Ophi-. 
derpeton, much as Menopoma does from Amphiuma. Two species appear to 
have left their remains in the coal measures at Linton, Ohio. 




This species is known by a partially preserved cranium. The superior sur- 
face is exposed, the outlines of the jaws and orbits are well preserved, with the 
occipital condyles. The os-quadratum is directed obliquely backwards, and 
the angle of the mandible extends to a line a little behind that of the occipital 
condyles. The zygomatic arch exists in a position similar to that in which it 
may be seen in a few genera of Anura, as Discoglossus and Pelobates. It ex- 
tends downwards and forwards from the suprasquamosal to the maxillary 
region, but whether it is homologically squamosal or malar, the specimen can- 
not show. The postorbital is present as well, and with the last, and the su- 
pratemporal forms the bony roof of the temporal fossa. A piece which may 
be the pre- and postfrontals combined, borders the inner superior margin of 
the orbit; it widens posteriorly, where it has contact with the parietal, etc., 
and narrows in front. Supra-occipitals form together a broad triangle on 
the upper plane of the cranium, of less extent than the adjoining supratemporal. 
The latter elements are pitted, and towards their margins radiate grooved. 
These sculpturings grow less on the margins of the supratemporal, and the 
portions of the surface of the more anterior element remaining are so slightly 
marked as to give the impression that the sculpturing in this species is much 
less than in others of the genus. A few beaded ridges are all that remain on 
a few of the parietals and postorbitals ; the maxillaries have a slightly 
stronger sculpture seen in a few spots. 

The general form of skull is elongate behind, and much shortened in front of 
the orbits. The orbits are thus altogether in front of a line equally dividing 
the cranium transversely, while in the D. acadianum Ow. they are in the 
middle of the skull. The outline of the muzzle in one species is thin, broad, 
rounded, as in the Menopoma allegheniensis, while in the latter it is ovate 
and produced. 

The parietal bones extend to opposite the posterior margins of the orbits, are 
then gradually contracted and form an acuminate prolongation on each side 
the wedge-shaped frontals. The prefrontals are thickened on each side the 
front, behind the external nares. The sutures defining the frontals anteriorly, 
the nasals, and the premaxillaries behind, cannot be made out. The median 
longitudinal suture is a marked and zigzag one, and can be seen as far post- 
eriorly as the anterior margin of the orbits. The external nostrils are large 
and opposite the inner margin of the orbit on each side. This separation of 
the nares is associated with a greater transverse extent of the premaxillaries 
than in some of the genera. These have been set with numerous teeth, judg- 
ing by their small impressions ; no larger ones have left traces, and no 
traces of any on the maxillaries. The teeth of the genera before described 
are all much larger relatively, indicating still further the diversity between 

A fragment of mandible remains, but without teeth or external surface. It 
shows a large internal canal. 



Total length cranium. 25-5 

Width cranium 3 lines behind orbits 24 

'* between orbits 7*5 

" " nares , 6* 

" •' occipital condyles, -. 2-2 

" of supraoccipital bones 6 

" of right parietal 6 

Extent of premaxillaries , ,. 8'7 

Length orbit , 6 

From the Coal Measures at Linton, Columbiana Co., Ohio, (West Pennsylva- 
nia Basin). Discovered by Dr. John S. Newberry. 
Another cranium accompanies the collection which belongs to a species dis- 



tinctfrom the last. The muzzle is not so broadly rounded, and the premax- 
illary teeth are relatively much larger. The sculpture is more delicate, with 
the ridges more acute. The orbits and nares are not defined. The maxillary is 
well preserved for a length of an inch ; its teeth are smaller than the premax- 
illaries ; I count four in a line ; crown simple conic. External surface of 
maxillary not very strongly sculptured. 

This species cannot be referred to its genus without further material. I 
therefore do not name it, hoping to avoid the unworth}'- practice of some, who 
give prosj)ective names — to be applied to other peoples future discoveries, and 
the like. 

Dendrerpeton acadianum Owen, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, x, 1853, 81. Daw- 
son loc. cit. 
Coal Measures : Joggins of Nova Scotia. 

Dendrerpeton owenii Dawson, Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, viii, 161. 
Coal Measures : as tlie last, 


Hylerpbton dawsoni Owen, Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond., 1862, 241. Dawson, 
Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, viii, 272. 
Carboniferous Coal Measures. The Joggins, Nova Scotia. 


This genus is indicated by two rami of a mandible, and a portion of a pre- 
maxillaryouly. These, when compared with those of Oestocephalus and Dendrer- 
peton from the same locality, and with others described by authors, are so 
much stouter, i. e. shorter and more elevated, that they evidently pertained to 
a genus not hitherto known. The genus further differs from Oestocephalus in 
having the teeth of equal size to the posterior parts of the series, that is to the 
base of the elevated coronoid process. The teeth are elongate cylindric cones, 
with t,heir acute tips turned a little posteriorly. The fractured ones display a 
large pulp cavity. The three premaxillaries preserved are similar but without 
curvature of the tips. They do not exhibit striae or any other sculpture. So 
far as the remains known go, the genus is nearer Hylerpeton than any other. 
The latter does not give any indication of the very elevated coronoid process 
of Brachydectes, though the external portion of the dental bone in that region 
being lost, little can be said about it. Prof. Owen's plate indicates a ramus 
whose depth at the last tooth enters 8J times the total length. In our species 
this depth enters about five times. There are at least nine teeth in the Nova 
Scotian species ; seven in the present one, 

Brachydectes newberryi Cope. 

This species is represented by one nearly perfect ramus mandibuli, one den- 
tary bone, and one premaxillary probably not complete. 

The dentary bone appears to have been attached by suture to the articular 
and angular, as its free margin has very much the outline of that suture in 
Amphiuma and lizards. The coronoid process would also seem to be a part 
of the same bone as in Amphiuma and Menopoma, and not composed of a 
coronoid bone as in lizards. It rises immediately behind the last tooth, and 
displays no suture. 

The lower portion of the dentary is prolonged into an acute angle. This is 
separated by a deep and wide concavity from the superior posterior prolonga- 
tion, which is obtuse and rises at once into the coronoid process. Teeth on 
this dentary seven ; the same number is on the preserved ramus ; this number 
I suspect to be complete or nearly so. The teeth terminate at the obvious 
termination of each ramus, which is it is true slightly obscured. The teeth 
are the longest of the Microsauria in relation to the depth of the ramus, equal- 
ling the largest in Ophiderpeton. They are doubtless exposed, as are some of 




those of the last named genus, by the splitting away of the outer parapet of the 
dentary bone. As no traces of alveoli have been thus rendered visible, I 
suspect the dentition to have been pleurodont, as in existing Batrachia. 

No external surface of the mandible remains, but there are no impressions of 
sculpture on the matrix. A little external face of the prenJaxillary displays 

Measurements. . 


Preserved length of ramus (imperfect) 11. 

Depth at last tooth 2. 

Length of exposed tooth 1'7 

" dentary 1-5 

Depth at coronoid 3-5 

" at first tooth 1-3 


Neural and haemal elements of the caudal vertebrae elongate, distally dilated 
and grooved, attached by contracted bases. Ventral aspect defended by a 
series of oblique dermal ribs on each side, which meet anteriorly on the median 
line. Limbs distinctly developed. Ribs long, well developed. Scales none. 

No dermal bones have been discovered, nor are any portions of the cranium 

This genus is allied to the Urocordylus of Huxley, recently discovered in the 
coal measures in Leinster, Ireland. It differs only in the presence of elongate 
lizard-like ribs (whence the name), and in the absence of " oal-shaped scales" 
of the upper surfaces. 

It is a matter of much interest in American palaeontology that this remark- 
able type should be found to occur in our coal measures. It was first announced 
by Dr. Newberry at the meeting of the American Association for the advance- 
ment of Science for 1867 (see Proceedings, p. 144), as a supposed Urocordylus, 
occurring with Ophiderpeton. He mentioned at the same time the discovery 
of the ganoid Dinichthys Newb. 

The forms discovered by Dr. Newberry have an interesting relation to those 
of Ireland, such as types of the present period frequently present. 

The genera may be thus parallelized ; where no representation exists, we 
may look forward to a future discovery to supply the present want : 
Geraterpeton Huxl., represented by 

Urocordylus Huxl., " " Sauropleura Cope. 

Lepterpeton Huxl., . " " 

Dolichosoma Huxl., " " Molgophis Cope. 

Ophiderpeton Huxl., " " Oestocephalus Cope. 

Brachydectes Cope. 
Herpetocephalus Huxl., ? ? Dendrerpeton Ow. 

Of the American genera, Sauropleura and Oestocephalus exhibit the peculiar 
ventral dermal armature of Urocordylus and Ophiderpeton, while Molgophis 
does not possess it, nor Dendrerpeton, if our species truly belongs there. 

The museum of Columbia College, New York, contains portions of two spe- 
cies of Sauropleura, but both unfortunately represented by portions only of the 
vertebral column. These are, though closely resembling the species ^.-scribed 
by Prof. Huxley, sufficient to demonstrate marked generic distinction. This is 
further established by the remains of the trunk of a third, and larger species, 
whose relationships can be shown to lie within this genus. This individual 
has been spread over a surface of the coal slate, exhibiting ventral armature, 
dorsal region with ribs, and anterior and posterior limbs. Of skull aud caudal 
vertebra? nothing remains. 

The dermal riblets are arranged as in Urocordylus, i. «., in parallel lines di- 
rected obliquely forwards and continuoas on the median line, lorming there a 



chevron, directed forwards. The striae are not so closely placed as in U. p e c- 
t i n a t u s , but are separated by grooves wider than themselves. 

The humerus, ulna, and radius are rather stout, and of a size relative to the 
body, as in comjnon types of existing Sauria ; the ulna and radius separate. 
There is no carpus, but five well-developed digits have phalanges in the follow- 
ing numbers, commencing on the inside : 3 — 4 — 5 — 6 — 5. The last phalange 
of the second is obscured, and it is not positive that the number is as given ; 
it is more probable than that it should have been 3. The outer toe has been 
more slender than the others ; the distal phalanges of all the toes are short 
conic, as in Salamanders. Thus this form differs much from Amphibamus, 
where the numbers are 3 — 3 — 4 — 5 — 4, showing a lower developement of 

The ribs are long and curved, as in Reptiles, and judging by their distances 
the vertebrae are short ; the latter arc not well defined, but there is no indica- 
tion of prominent spines of any kind. 

The pelvic bones and portions of those of the hind limbs are present, but so 
obscure and confused as not to be made out. Enough remains to show that 
the hind limbs are considerably larger than the anterior. 

Sauropleuba digitata Cope. 

This species had a length of body about equal to that of a fully-grown Cha- 
maeleo vulgaris of the largest size, or of a half-grown Menopoma, Thirteen 
ribs on one, and several on the other side, are preserved ; where they terminate, 
probably at the pelvic region, some small or rudimental ribs project from the 
two or three first caudals. Three ribs and their interspaces extend over five 
lines. The humerus is broken, but its length can be clearly made out to be 
seven lines ; it has no condyle, and is dilated at both extremities. The ulna 
and radius are distinct, truncate, hollow, and dilated at the ends. Length of 
ulna 5-1 lines, distal width 1-8 lines. Carpus not ossified. The fourth toe is 
considerably longer than the others, the fifth is next, and reaches the basal 
third of the antepenult phalange of the fourth ; the third is very little shorter ; 
the first is not quite so long as the first two of the third. The bones of the 
hind limb are not readily distinguished. They are evidently much longer and 
larger than the anterior; no part of a foot is preserved. 

This form is probably allied to Urocordylus. It has relatively much stronger 
ribs in relation to the vertebrae than we have seen in that genus, and there is 
no evidence of the existence of the peculiarly formed spines of the vertebrae 
characterizing the latter. The limbs are relatively much stronger' than in 
Ophiderpeton, and it lacks the peculiar dermal armature of that genus. 

Sauropleura pectinata Cope. 

This species is represented by portions of the vertebral columns of four indi- 
viduals. In two of these, vertebral centra are discoverable ; in one quite defi- 
nitely. They are slightly constricted medially, and without ridge or process. 

The neural and haemal spines of superior and inferior lines are similar, and 
in the specimen^ undistinguishable. The dilated portions form nearly equi- 
lateral triangles, which stand on moderately short pedicels. They are weakly 
ridged, and each ridge is prolonged into a narrow acute tooth, beyond the 
margin, of which eleven may be counted on one of the best preserved. The 
longitudinal striae are terminated near the pedicel by two others, which cross 
obliquely from each side, and, meeting, present an appearance similar to an 
overlapping of each margin. The edges of the spines form a continuous line. 

As in the other species, there are no indications of other processes, nor of 
dermal scales. 

The smallest of the specimens shows that in front of the region furnished 
with the peculiar spines described, the body is furnished with a mass of bristle- 
or hair- like scales. The grooved neural spines are slightly displaced anteri- 
orly, and the bristle-like mass looks like a continuation of their striae, and it is 
not easy to find any line of demarkation between them. The serrate spines are 



continued further forward on one side than the other. These linear scales 
were arranged as in other genera, in lines which converge forwards to the me- 
dian line. They are somewhat obscured in the specimen, but it can be de- 
termined that they are continuous on the median line. Whether this is the 
posterior or anterior portion of the body cannot positively be determined from 
the specimen ; it is, however, most likely the posterior, for near the posterior 
portion of the striate surface a weak pair of limbs is given off on each side. On 
the right, a moderately stout ? femur is followed by a broken tibia and fibula, 
and by five slender, closely appressed metatarsals. The last are about two- 
fifths as long as the space between them and the femur; beyond them a few 
«Iender phalanges are moderately distinctly defined. The tibia is more distinct 
on the left, but no tarsus or phalanges ; some of the metatarsals are preserved 
here also. Length of limb to end of metatarsals equal to five vertebra in juxta- 
position, measured along the edges of the neural spines. The limb has been 
slender, especially the hand. 

The above specimen enables me to assign, as the ventral armature of this 
species, a closely packed series of V-shaped grooves, which lie in connection 
with an obscure vertebral column, on the block containing one of the typical 
specimens of this species. They are not continuous with any of the series ex- 
hibited on other parts of the block ; some of these at least are the doublings of 
the slender animal, and this ventral portion has been displaced. The grooves 
are perhaps the impressions of haemapophysial rods, vastly more numerous, 
however, than the number of vertebra? ; perhaps they are rather the dermal 
armature. Huxley figures a portion of this as on the block with Urocordylus 
wan de sfo r d i i , but does not refer it to its precise relation to the animal. 
A few well-developed ribs are preserved with this portion, — the only ones I 
can refer to this species. The vertebra^ are partly enclosed in matrix, partljr 
impressions. The neural spines, though expanded antero-posteriorly, are les* 
elevated than in the caudal region, and have left no traces of their character- 
istic ribs or serration. 

The number of spines in the type specimens is six in a half-inch ; in iher 
smallest, just described, ten in the same distance. The height of the spine in 
the former is 1-15 lines. 

As the characters of this species are most determinable, I regard it as the- 
type of the genus Sauropleura. 

Sauropleura remex Cope. 

This species is larger than the S. pectinata, and about equal to the Uro- 
cordylus wan desfordii Huxl. The caudal spines differ from both in the 
greater attenuation of the haemal series, and the presence of a basal lamina on 
the neural. 

it is represented by a portion of the vertebral column three inches in length. 
In this space may be counted twenty-four vertebrte Such of the latter whose 
outlines are visible display centra, characteristic of the genus; their terminaf 
concavities conic, with aj)ices meeting medially ; zygapophyses present ; and 
their length a little greater than their depth. 

The characteristics of the species are the remarkable length and slenderness 
of the fan-shaped neural and haemal spines, and the absence of an acute serra- 
tion on their margins. In this species the spines have a lamiiiiform expansion 
at the base in their planes. In the other species here described these spines 
are not only relatively broader and move fan-shaped, but they are acutely ser- 
rate on the margin and constricted at the base. 

In S. r e m ex the dilated neural s[)ines are a little more than three times as 
long as they are distally wide, while the luemal S{)ines are a little narrower. 
The neural spines stand about the middle of the centrum. The basal half i* 
furnished with an anterior ahi, which leaves the anterior margin rather ab- 
ru[>tly and extends to the next spine in advance. It returns gradually to the 
centrum and is separated from the articular face of the latter by a notch. A 

1868.] 16 


similar ala exists on the posterior margin of the neural spine, which extends 
for a shorter distance above the base, and is narrower than the anterior. Each 
spine presents a median groove on its surface, which extends halfway to the 
base or further ; on each side of this are some three other grooves, 
which extend but a short distance ; surface otherwise smooth. The ends of 
the grooves slightly notch the truncated end of the spine. 

The hfemal spines are on the posterior portions of the centra, and in con- 
tact with the anterior part of the basis of those succeeding. They are without 
the dilatations of the neural spines, and are directed rather more obliquely 
backwards. They are similarly grooved, though without that so distinctly 
median, seen in the neural series. 

Both neural and haemal spines become larger towards the posterior part of 
the vertebral column. There appear to be no zygapophyses nor diapophyses, 
nor rudiments of ribs. The centra are rather stout, and somewhat constricted 
medially. There are no traces of dermal armature of any kind. 



Length of a posterior centrum 1-2 

Depth " " " 1- 

Length neural spine of adjoining vertebra 4-4 

Basal width 1-4 

Median width -9 

Distal width 1-1 

Length of a more anterior neural spine 43 

Distal width " " " '' 1-5 

" anterior haemal spine 4 

" width " <• , 1-4 

From the Coal Measures, the Western Pennsylvania and Ohio Bituminous 
Basin, at Linton, Columbiana Co., Ohio, near the Ohio River. Prof. J. S. 


This genus is known from a single species as yet. As before remarked, it 
irepresents in many respects the Ophiderpeton of Huxley, and has been alluded 
■to by Dr. Newberry as the same. It, however, differs markedly in the narrow 
lanceolate form of the head, with probable accompanying peculiarities of de- 
tail, .and in the presence of limbs, which have not been found in the Irish 
genu*. The form of the head is somewhat nearer that of Lepterpeton Huxl., 
but the limbs of the American genus have as yet been seen as one pair only, 
and very small, while in Lepterpeton there are two pairs, which are large. 
The general form of the body of Oestocephalus is more snake-like. 

In more detail, w.e have an elongate lanceolate head with little or no sculp- 
turing ©f th« external surface of the bones. The angles of the mandibles are 
iffiuch prolonged backwards as in. Archegosaurus and frogs, and the well de- 
veloped ribs commence but a short distance behind the head. The vertebrae 
.are slender, and furnished with well developed diapophyses. A pair of sym- 
.metrical bones, whose impressions are seen posterior to the occipital region, 
look like ceratohyals or small scapulae, and one of them is continuous with 
a second piece, which occupies the place of a humerus. A third piece follows, 
which is probably ulna 5 no radius or manus is preserved. This then is a 
Tudimental fore limb, situate very close to the head. The skin has been occu- 
pied by a great number of closely packed, curved, spine-shaped scales. They 
have occupied the ventral integument passing from the median line of the belly 
coutwards and posteriorly, having acute tips which may have penetrated the 
skin on each side ] whether such tegumentary spines protected the back can- 
not now b.e determined, 



Oestocepbalus AMPHiuMiNus Cope. 

This species is represented by the imperfect crania and anterior portions of 
the bodies of two individuals. They indicate an animal of the average size of 
the Amphiuma m e a n s . 

The extremities of the vertebrae are deeply concave, but the centra are so 
long as to prevent the concavities entering more than one-fifth of the latter, 
each. The diapophyses are behind the middle, and are broad, curved back- 
wards, and acuminate, as in Amphiuma. The centra have a prominent median 
line below, with a longitudinal concavity on each side. Five of them a little 
exceed an inch in length. Neural spines are nowhere visible. The humerus 
is longer than the scapula and is considerably dilated distally ; the scapula 
slightly dilated at its superior extremity. 

The dermal armature commences immediately behind the head, and forms a 
band of 14 lines in width ; measuring across the spine- like scales, in a width 
of a line, four cylinders may be counted. The external portions are carried 
backwards, the interior nearly straight, those of the anterior more delicate 
than the posterior. 

The head is wedge-shaped with regularly acuminate sides. The top of the 
cranium is somewhat broken in the specimen ; the portions preserved are 
smooth, and the longitudinal suture is distinct for a considerable distance. The 
angle of the mandible is produced considerably behind the occiput and is 
enlarged and rounded. The end of the muzzle is broken away, and the region 
of the orbits so fractured as to render their precise location uncertain. The 
superficial layer of the cranial bones is nowhere clearly visible, so that it can- 
not be ascertained whether it is sculptured or not. The quadrate bone pro- 
jects well posteriorly. Some fragments indicate small cylindric teeth, as in 
Amphibamus, but they are not characteristic. 


. Lines. 

Length cranium without muzzle 17-3 

Width " posteriorly 11-5 

Length scapula 2-1 

*' humerus 2-5 

" of sixth vertebra from skull 3 

Extent diapophyses 3-5 

Width centrum 1-5 

This species was discovered by Prof. Jno. S. Ne^jberry, at Linton, Eastern 
Ohio, in the slate of the coal measures. Mus. Columbia College. 

The characters of the genus are further shown by a part of another indi- 
vidual in the same coal slate matrix. The cranium and anterior portion of the 
vertebral column only are preserved, the latter so much injured as to render 
the vertebral characters very obscure. As in the other, the bristle-like scales 
extend along the dorsal region to near the cranium. The anterior two-fifths of the 
ventral side shows a large number of small oval scale-like bodies, which 
belonged undoubtedly to the animal and were probably dermal scales. They 
are, however, neither regular in form or position. Close behind the head two 
or three long bones of the fore limbs have been exposed. They are slender, 
and similar to those of the last specimen. 

The cranium, though without the muzzle, shows its long wedge shape. The 
maxillary bone cannot be distinguished, nor can the orbits be made out; one 
ramus mandibuli is i)retty well preserved; it shows no coronoid process. 
Twenty-one teeth may be counted on a portion a little more than one-third its 
length. The anterior eleven of these are abruptly longer and stouter than the 
others. They are, except a few most anterior, in pairs, t. e. with a slight va- 
cancy between every two. The larger ones were broken at the bases, exhibit 
a moderate pulp cavity ; the smaller, a large one extending to near the tip. 
Several, though not all of the larger teeth, display a shallow groove on tlie ex- 



ternal face to near the tip, which is probably owing to pressure, and a partial 
crushing. The points of the larger teeth are rather abruptly acute, and turned 
abruptly backwards. A portion of their increased length ('25) is to be attrib- 
uted to the splitting off of the external dentary margin, and the exposure of 
the roots. No alveoli are shown, and the dentition is probably pleurodont, 
with anchylosis of expanded base as in true Labyrinthodonts. 


This genus is established on remains represented by three specimens, which 
are two series of dorsal vertebrae with ribs, and a series of caudals. One of 
the dorsal series embraces sixteen vertebrae, the other fourteen ; the caudal 
series, twenty-two. 

From its serpentine form this genus may be compared with the Dolichosoma 
of Huxley, though a close relation does not exist between them. In the Irish 
genus the series of caudal vertebrae is quite short, and the ribs are short and 
but little curved. In Molgophis the tail has been like that of an elongate ser- 
pent, and the ribs are as well developed as those of many reptiles. 

Though no limbs or arches can be certainly found, a rather quadrate, paral- 
lelogrammic piece, about as long as the diameter of a vertebra, may be a 
femur. This is, however, very doubtful. 

The characters of the genus are, a long serpentine body, without dermal 
Armature, so far as discoverable ; the vertebrae large and broad, with very 
prominent zygapophyses and moderate neural spine, those of the caudals with- 
out narrowed bases (and grooved or serrate edges, most probably). ? Limbs 
and cranium unknown. 

This genus differs from Urocordylus in its caudal vertebrae, and from Ophi- 
derpeton in its dorsals; the latter, in their zygapophyses projecting laterally, 
resemble those of Amphiuma. It differs from Sauropleura in the absence of 
ventral dermal bands and in the longer body, without indication of limbs. The 
size of the vertebrae would indicate a body of the size of a rattlesnake, (C. 
h o rri d a), and therefore too large for the species named Brachydectes n e w- 
b e r ry i. 

The ribs are long, and though the head is not bifurcate, there appear to be 
both tubercle and head on the dilated extremity. They show themselves, where 
crushed, to have had a large median vacuity. 

Molgophis macrurus Cope. 

The neural arches, viewed from above, have a posterior V- shaped outline, 
from the fact that the broad zygapophyses meet on the median line, and spread 
out distally over the broad anterior ones adjoining. The latter appear to be 
somewhat concave, and to border the former exteriorly as well as inferiorl}'. 
The base of the neural spine extends to the posterior emargination, but not 
quite to the anterior. The breadth of the dorsal vertebra above is equal from 
the emargination behind to the anterior margin of the anterior zygapophyses. 

The caudal series must have been very long, as there ig very little diminu- 
tion in the size of the vertebrae throughout the series preserved. They present 
much the same form as the dorsals, but are more contracted medially, and the 
Kj'gapophyses have a more transverse direction. There may indeed be a dia- 
pophysial element beneath these, but the two 'cannot be distinguished if so. 
They are connected by longitudinal impressions indicating the existence of the 
tendinous bands in the longitudinal muscles seen in Amphiuma, or the osseous 
spicules in the same situation in birds. The neural spines, indicated by their 
narrow bases, occupied the lengths of the neural arch, and remind one of 

The ribs are long for a Batrachian, but shorter than in a reptile. They are 
well curved, chiefly near the proximal extremity. The longest I can find, 
measured by a chord, eq'uals two vertebrae and two-fifths. Three vertebrae 



measured along the median line above equal eleven lines ; one of these is 3-6 
lines in width above ; width of a (?) posterior caudal 3 1. 

This animal has been, like Amphiuma, a snake-like Batrachian, but probably 
of even more elongate form. How near its affinities to this genus may be, 
cannot be ascertained, owing to want of important parts of the skeleton, but 
it differs in the important feature of the large, well developed ribs. 



DiCTYocEPHALus ELEGANS Leidv, Proc Acad. Nat. Sci.. 1856, 256. Emmons 
Geology North Amer., p. 59." Tab. 31. 
Triassic Coal Measures, Chatham Co., N. Carolina. 

Centemodon sulcatus Lea, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1856, 78. 
Triassic Shales near Phoenixville, Chester Co., Penn. 

Baphetes planiceps Owen, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond. x, 1853, (xi, notes). 
Carboniferous Coal Measures of the Joggins, Nova Scotia. 


Gen. nov. Char. Teeth subcylindric, with large pulp cavity at the basis only ; 
external surface without grooves ; dentine divided by numerous flat vertical 
lamina? of a dense substance, probably enamel, which radiate from very near the 
])ulp cavity to the external enamel layer. 

The species on which this genus depends was originally described by the 
writer as a Mastodonsaurus. The latter genus, however, exhibits external 
grooves where the inflections of enamel enter and separate the dentine. These 
inflections, as is well known from the figures and descriptions of Professor 
Owen, are more or less convoluted, some of them very highly so. The laminae 
of the teeth of the Eupelor cannot be looked upon as inflections of enamel, 
but rather as branches. They are exceedingly thin, and our sections do not 
demonstrate them to be double. If they are double they are very much more 
attenuated than the external enamel stratum. The}'- may be distinguished in a 
section of the wall of the pulp cavity at the base of the root as well as else- 

EiTPELOR DCBUS Cope, MastodoHsaurus durus Cope. Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., 1866, 249. 
From the Triassic Red Sand Stone near Phoenixville, Chester Co., Penn. 

On AGAFHELTJS, a genas of toothless Cetacea. 


During the autumn of 1866 a whale was cast ashore on the Long 
Beach, Ocean Co., N. J., opposite Westecunk, on the other side of Little Egg 
Harbor, near the residence of Wm. A. Crane. A recent visit to the spot fur- 
nished me with the means of determining the species to which this monster of 
the deep belonged, although not with the completeness desirable, as the tide 
had a short time previously taken oft" the most bulky part of the carcass. Thus 
the cranium, cervical and dorsal vertebrae, with the first ribs, the most import- 
ant portions for its identification, were lost. There were preserved, however, 
the mandibular arch, ear-bone, one scapula and both fins, numerous ribs, many 



lumbar and caudal vertebrae, with the baleen from one side of the maxilla. 
These portions, with a few prominent points dependent on the observations of 
Wm. A. Crane, serve to indicate a species not only new to our fauna, but new 
to modern science. The evidence of my informant, as that of an old and ex- 
perienced coaster and waterman, and one familiar with the appearance of our 
cetaceans, confirmed by his sons and by the specimens preserved, so far as 
they went, I consider reliable. That the species should have remained unde- 
scribed until the present time will not appear surprising to those who read 
carefully Gray's recently issued " Catalogue of Cetaceans," or Eschricht and 
Reinhardt " Om Nordhvalen," Copenhagen, 1861. 

The scapula preserved is low and elongate, with well-developed acromioa 
and coracoid process. It is evidently of the type of BakBuoptera and Physalus ; 
the ulna and radius relatively less elongate than in Sibbaldius 1 a t i c e p s 
and b o r e a 1 i s , being 1 -5 as long as the humerus, thus resembling Physalus. 
The four fingers, with the second much the longest, form a fin of the type of 
these genera. The ear-bone is much more compressed than in Physalus an- 
tiquorum or Sibbaldius 1 a t i c e p s . The mandibular ramus is rather 
massive, moderately curved, and with a more elevated coronoid process than in 
any whale that I have seen. The greatest peculiarity is in the form of the lum- 
bar and anterior caudal vertebrae ; they are of a much more elongate form than 
any I have seen or found figured, excepting those of the Bahenoptera r o s - 
t r a t a (as figured by Gaimard in Voyage de la Recherche), which, however, 
are relatively shorter. Those of the present species are of greater length than 
transverse diameter, the lumbars most elongate ; all furnished with an acute 
hypapophysial keel and concave sides, and entirely transverse diapophyses. 
This peculiarity is consistent with the account of my informant, who stated the 
animal to have been of an unusually elongate and slender form. When it came 
ashore it had perhaps been dead ten days; the flukes and muscular region as 
far as the third caudal vertebra had been devoured, probably by sharks and 
killers, and the abdominal region much lacerated ; the edge of a fin preserved 
was slit by the teeth of some carnivorous enemy. The measurement from the 
end of the muzzle to the end of the third caudal was 35 feet, which may be re- 
duced to 33 feet axial. Up to this point the dorsal line was, according to my 
informant, entirely smooth, without knob or fin, or scar of one ; hence I sup- 
pose the fin (if present) to have been situated as in Sibbaldius, &c., at the pos- 
terior fourth of the length, and not as in Balaenoptera, on the posterior third. 
It may then be safely assumed, bearing in mind the form of the vertebrae, that 
ten feet of the whale's length had been removed, making in all 43 feet. That the 
species attains over 50 feet is probable, as the present individual was quite young, 
the epiphyses separating from the vertebrae with the greatest ease. The slender 
form of the animal is corroborated by the slenderness and slight curvature of 
the ribs, one attached beneath the scapula, probably the second, being nar- 
rower than the corresponding ones in Sibbaldius. I therefore think it most 
probable that in this form the anterior ribs are single-headed. 

The baleen is peculiar; throughout the length of the maxillary bone it no- 
where exceeded one foot in length, and the width ^f the band, or length of the 
base of each plate, four inches. It is of a creamy-white ; the fringe very coarse, 
white, and resembling hogs' bristles. 

The proportions in most respects present a contrast to those of Physalus 
species, and Sibbaldius species. While the cranium and fin of the Physalus 
antiquorum are of about equal length, the latter is four-sevenths the for- 
mer in the present species. In the Physalus the cranium enters the length 4-7 
times ; in Sibbaldius 1 a t i c e p s 4 06, and in the present species 6-6 times ; in 
Balaenoptera rostrata 45 times. 

In general features this Cetacean seems to be an intermediate form of the 
toothless whales ; and an additional feature, which depends on the observation 
of my friend W. Crane, and in which 1 cannot conceive it possible that he 
should be mistaken, indicates still more conclusively that it pertains to a genus 




not before characterized. The whale was first driven on shore on its back, and 
the guhir and thoracic regions were seen to be entirely without ridges or plicae 
of any kind, but as smooth as any other part of the body, or as the throat of a 
right whale, Balaena cisarctica Cope, which is not uncommon on the same 

This my informant told me was the species known among the whalers as the 
" Scrag Whale." Though this name is indefinite when applied by whalers of 
different nationalities, it is probably used with accuracy by those accustomed 
to any particular region. At any rate I have little doubt that this is the spe- 
cies called by the same name by Dudley, who in 1725 wrote an account of the 
whales known by the whalers of the coasts of New England. He says it is 
near the right whale (B. ci sa r cti c a) in figure also; " is near akin to the 
fin-back, but instead of a fin upon its back, the ridge of the after part of its 
back is scragged with half a dozen knobs or knuckles. He is nearest the right 
whale in figure and quantity of oil. His bone is white, but won't split." This 
is published, with an account of the other species known, in the 33d volume 
of the Philosophical Transactions. He mentions particularly the fin-back and 
hump-back whales, describing the deep folds of the chin, throat and sides of 
those genera. There can be little doubt that his " scrag whale " had a smooth 
throat like the Balaenfe, and noi a plaited one like the Bala^nopteras and their 
allies. By the preceding account it has been shown that the species has but 
four slender fingers at the carpus; hence it is obviously the type of genus in- 
termediate between Balaena and Megaptera, not hitherto recognized, — furnished, 
however, with the scapula of Balaenoptera. 

Captain Atwood, a resident of a part of th8 peninsula of Cape Cod, Mass., 
who is a good observer of the life of the ocean, thus writes of the scrag whale 
in J. A. Allen's Catalogue of the Mammals of Massachusetts, in the Proc. Bos- 
ton N. H. Soc. for 1868: 

"Scragg. — A species of whale known by this name, and nearly allied, if not 
identical with the right whale, is sometimes taken here. It is the opinion of 
m^ny of our whalemen that they are not a distinct species, but are the young 
right whale that lost its mother while very young, and has grown up without 
parental care, which has caused a slight modification. The most prominent 
feature is on its dorsal ridge ; near the tail there are a number of small pro- 
jections or bunches, having some resemblance to the teeth of a saw. It has no 
dorsal fin or hump on its back." 

Additional evidence of the existence of this genus has been furnished by the 
Smithsonian Institution. In accordance with recommendations and directions 
furnished by the writer, Wm. H. Dall, the enterprising director of the West 
Coast Scientific Exploring Expedition, originally commanded by Dr. Kennicotl, 
sent to the Institution drawings and descriptive notes of the grey whale of the 
coasts of Upper and Lower California. The writer has also examined an al- 
most complete set of whalebone, with some other portions of the same species, 
in the museum of the Essex Institute, at Salem, Mass. The baleen is similar 
in character to that of the present species, but presents specific differences. 
The notes of Capt, Dall indicate a long-finned, smooth-throated whale, wiih a 
flat-pointed head like a fin-back, and no dorsal fin, but a series of knobs on the 
posterior region of the back. That it in all respects conforms to the generic 
type of the Atlantic species, can be determined from the description which 

The Atlantic species was named from Dudley's description by the com- 
piler, Erxleben, without his adding to our knowledge of it, Bahena gibbosa. 1 
will follow Dr. Gray in adopting this name. The latter author, in his excel- 
lent Catalogue of Seals and Whales in Brit. Mus., refers it, on the basis of the 
same description, to Balaiua, with doubt. 

Genus AGAPHELUS Cope. 
Fingers four, elongate. Cervical vertebrae ? Lumbar and antcriar caudal 




vertebrae longer than their greatest diameter. Dorsal fin wanting. Gular and 
pectoral region without folds. Scapula with well developed acromion and 
coracoid. Baleen narrow, short. 

Agaphelus gibbosus Cope. 

Scrag Whale, Dudley, Philos. Trans, xxxiii., 250, and of The Whalers. 
Balctna ffibbosa Erxleben, Syslema Mamnialium 610 (from Dudley), and after 
him of Gmelin, Bonnatere, Lacep^de, Virey, Gerard, Desmarest & Fischer. 
Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus. 1850, p. 18, and 1866, p. 90. 
Agaphelus gibbosus Cope, Proc. Ac. N. Sci. Phila., 1868, 159. 
Balsenoptera rostrata Cope, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1867, 147. 

Ft. In. 

Total length (estimated) of young 43 

Length to third caudal vertebra 33 

Length of cranium (estimated) 6 10 

" mandibular ramus (in curve) , 6 

" pectoral limb .^ 4 

Width of » " 15 

Length of humerus 11-5 

" radius and ulna 17 

Posterior margin of scapula 14 

Length of coracoid from glenoid cavity , 3-3 

" glenoid cavity ." , 6-3 

Mandible, length from condyle to coronoid 13-5 

" depth at coronoid 85 

" " 2-5 feet from coronoid 4-6 

The form of the mandibular ramus is pecnliar, and more like that of the 
Balaenoptera rostrata than any other. It is triangular ini section, having 
an inferior angulated ridge, and a broad, slightly convex, superior face, instead 
of their usual ridge. Such a ridge leaves the coronoid process, but soon turns 
inwards to form the inner outline. Width of the superior face 3-5 inches. 
The coronoid process is quite elevated, and turned outwards. In the fresh 
animal the lower lip included the upper all round. The laminae of whalebone 
are placed on a base having a sigmoid flexure. Greatest depth of the gum 1 
in. 3 lines. Within each principal lamina are two supplementary laminae, the 
intermediate being the narrower, the inner triangular, its intermediate bristles 
arising from the gum. The bristles of the supplementary plates are longer 
and finer than those of the outer; in the latter, three series of bristles are en- 
closed between very thin enamel plates. All the laminae are thin, five in an inch, 
and split transversely straight; white cream-colored, with a purplish shade near the 
centre of the base. The ulna is slender, but furnished with a prominent round- 
ed and flattened olecranon, which is prolonged into a thin cartilaginous plate, 
formed like the diapophysis of a vertebra, and in the plane of the ulna ; this 
structure appears to have been ossified in the Sibbaldius bo re alls Fisch., 
as figured by Dubar Li the Agaphelus gibbosus it occasions an abrupt 
angulation near the basal third of the inner margin of the fin. In the scapula, 
the coracoid is in its plane, but the larger acromion diverges outwards. 

The anterior caudal vertebras are more elongate than the lumbosacral, less 
depressed, and with the centra in every way larger. All are sharply keeled 
on the median line below, with a concave face between the keel and the base 
of the diapophysis. The caudal and lumbosacral diapophyses are obspatulate, 
the anterior becoming narrower. The neural spines of the lumbar vertebrte 
are much elevated, concave above both before and behind, the zygapophysis 
measuring a point considerably below the middle. 


Third (?) caudal (not perforate) length centrum 7'3 

depth 6 

width 6-5 



height neural spine 9"^ 

zygapophysis ^'3 

length diapophysis (from front base).. 3 3 

Lumbosacral 1; length centrum *?*3 

depth 5-3 

width 6-3 

height neural canal 2-5 

width 1-5 

height neural spine 15'3 

zygapophyses 5*5 

length diapophysis 7*5 

greatest width do , 5-3 

Lumbosacral 2 (more anterior) length centrum 6*3 

Lumbosacral 3 (anterior) height centrum 4-3 

width " ' 6 

length diapophysis V"7 

The ear bone is much compressed, with an inferior carina, towards which 
the lip of dense bone is suddenly decurved. The longitudinal opening is much 
contracted, especially anteriorly, where the bone is pinched up into a keel, 
and there is no abrupt concavity of the inner lip at that point. External sur- 
face not very rugose. Total length 3 in. 2-5 lines. 

The owner of the whale tried out about one-fourth of the blubber, and pro- 
cured sixty-five gallons of oil, which would give about four hundred gallons 
for the whole ; the thickness of the adipose layer would not average 4 inches, 
the greatest thickness was 5 inches. 

This species was black above and white below, the sides lead-colored, with 
longitudi«al shades of the darker color ; fins, basal half white, terminal 

Agaphelus glaucus Cope, sp. nov. 

The points in which this species differs from those of the genus Balaena, 
previously known, are numerous, and will no doubt be increased on a further 
knowledge of the animal. The head, between one-fourth and one- fifth of the 
total length, allies it to the shorter headed species. From the B. a u s t r a- 
- 1- is, the number of dorsal vertebra?, and the color and shortness of the baleen, 
distinguish it, and no doubt other features will be brought out when we are 
acquainted with the Cape species. The dorsal serration is not known to 
occur in any species of the genus Balaina, though said to be characteristic of 
the A. g i bb o s u s, whose characters I have just given. Two Balaenae have 
been described as inhabiting the north Pacific Ocean, Bahena sieboldii 
Gray,* and Balaena cullamach Chamisso.f Both have been established 
on figures carved by the natives of the Ja[)anese and Aleutian Islands respec- 
tively, the former under the supervision of a naturalist, the traveller Siebold. 
The carving of the B. c u 1 1 a m a c h, judging from the figure given by Ghamis- 
80, can but doubtfully represent apy species, but which, if it exist, will rest 
on the following diagnosis of its describer: " Rictu amplo forma littera; Scur- 
vato, elasmiis maximis atrocorruleis, spiraculis flexuosis in medio capite, 
tuberculo in apice rostri (ex imagine) pectore pinnisque pectoralibus albis 
dorso gibboso sexpinnato." 

These are, however, true Baloenae, A species of Agaphelus exists in the 
Kamtschatkan Seas, according to Pallas, who, however, derives his informa- 
tion solely from wooden models made by Aleutian Islanders. This is not 
sufficient basis for an introduction to the scientific system, yet Pallas indulges 
in applying to it the name Buliena agamachschik. The pectoral limb ot this 
species is said, however, to be white, with the under side of the flukes, charac- 

• Ciitalogiio CetaceunH, 1805, 96, Fauna Japonica, Temmiuck & Schlegol, t. 28, 29. 
fMova Acta Acad, t'uoH. xii.^ p, 261, Tab. 




ters not found in the A. gl a u cus Dr. Gray has already (Catal. Brit. Mus.) 
indicated that this, if reliable, indicates a genus unknown to him. 

The Agaphelus glaucus is the gray whale of the coasts of California. 
Two specimens have been examined by my friend, Wm. H. Dall, of the Scien- 
tific staff of the U. S. Russian American Telegraph Expedition, one of them 
near Monterey, and descriptions as complete as the state of the specimens would 
allow, were made. These, which were sent to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, and placed in my hands by Prof. Baird, are quite sufficient to indicate a 
whale of a species hitherto unnoticed, and to render certain its future identifi- 

Specimen No. 1, a skeleton nearly complete. 


Length of cranium 10 

Of dorsal vertebrae 12 

Lumbar and caudal (except of the fluke) 26 

? Vertebras of fluke ? 3 

Total..... 51 

Dorsal vertebrae and ribs, thirteen ; lumbar and caudal (those in the fluke 
cut off" with it), 28. Scapula, breadth and height not very different, with a 
short, broad coracoid process ; its head opposite first rib. Apparently only 
four fingers, of which the second is the longest. 145 laminae of baleen on 
each side, the longest eighteen inches long ; color light yellow. 

Specimen No. 2, killed by the " killers," (orca) ; skeleton still concealed by 
mass of muscle, etc. 

External measurements. 

* Ft. 

Flukes to anus 14^ 

Anus to sulcus penis 2 

Length of sulcus \\ 

Latter to plane of flippers 15 

Plane of flippers to end of mandible 15 

Total 48 

The lower jaw is four inches longer than the upper ; the blow-holes are 
entirely concealed by four dermal plicae, which accounts for the small misty 
spout peculiar to the species. 

Ft. In, 

Length of flipperand shoulder 6 

'' mouth 10 

" exterior canthus of mouth I 6 

" from chin to eye. 10 4 

" from eye to margin of canthus 6 

Width of caudal flukes 8 9 

Width of mouth at canthus : 4 

From chin to blow-holes 4 9 

Longest baleen 14 

Head of humerus opposite third rib ; anterior angle of scapula just anterior 
to first rib. On the vertebral line, for fourteen feet from the caudal flukes, is 
a series of 18 'ridges, like the teeth of a saw, which are altogether dermal in 
their character. Blubber 4 — 8 inches thick, thickest near the jaws and on the 
back near the tail ; yield of oil 35 bbls. Epidermis 1 inch thick, carium •75>, 
with numerous pores. Blow-holes 2 — 4 inches apart. On each side of sulcus 
penis a mammary sulcus a few inches shorter. 

Color above and below, black, with a gray bloom like a plum. This dis- 
tinguishes this species from the known Balaenae of the Pacific, which are more 
or less white on the belly and fin. 






Specimen N'o. 3. A full set of baleen of one side the maxillary is in the Mus. 
Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. A portion of this, kindly lent me, exhibits the 
foUowinfr characters : Compared with that of the A. g i b b o s u s, it is longer 
and has narrower basis. The plates moderately and simply concave, while 
those of the latter are sigmoidal, most curved near the outer margin, in cross 
section. The bristles of the California species are very coarse, varying from 
one to three series between the enamel plates. The bristles of the A. g i b b o- 
s u s much finer, three series together. Length of the latter 8-5 inches, 
width at base 4-4 inches. In the Agaphelus glaucus Cope, 22 in. 
iu length, width at base 6 in. In the former nearly 6 in an inch, in the latter 
2 J. The baleen of the A. gi b b o sus belonged to the specimen above de- 

Two rough outlines accompany Capt. Dall s notes. Both represent the pec- 
toral fin as rather elongate, not pointed, but rather broad at the extremity. 
A third sketch represents the inferior view, and in it we see two lines for grooves,' 
one on each side the median gular line. This feature, if existing, is interest- 
ing, as indicating a tendency to the plicae of the fin back whales. 

This species has usually one calf at a birth, but one was recently taken at 
San Diego with two foetuses. Penis 27 in. long, smooth, coarsely papillose, 
slightly bifid at tip, where the urethra is about the size of a goose quill. 
(Dall's m. s.) 

Oct eth. 

The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 

Thirty-five members present. 

The following paper was presented for publication : 

Notice of some American Leeches. By Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Oct. ISth. 

Mr. Cassin, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Thirty-four members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 
Notice of some Remains of Extinct Vertebrata. By Joseph 
Leidy, M. D. 

On the Origin of Genera. By Edward D. Cope. 
On some Cretaceous Reptilia. By Edward D. Cope. 
On variations in Taxodium. By Thomas Meehan. 

Oct. 20th. 
The President, Dr. Hays, in the Chair. 
Thirty-six members present. 

Dr. F. A. Genth made some observations on the occurrence of cupriferous 
dlres in Texas. 

Dr. A. R. Iloessler, Geologist at the U. S. General Land Office at Washington, 
had sent him for examination a specimen from Weatherford. Archer Co., Texas. 
It was a piece of copperglance, containing 55-44 per cent, of copper, pseudo- 
morphous after wood or a vegetable substance. It resembled so much similar 
pseudomorphs found in the Furmiau formation at Fraukeaberg iu Hesse, and 

1868.] ♦ 



elsewhere in Europe, that he pointed out the probability of its occurring also in 
the Permian formation, and requested Dr. Roessler to obtain fuller details with 
reference to its occurrence. A few days ago Dr. Roessler received an answer 
to his inquiries from the General Land Office agent in Texas, with more speci- 
mens, and the following report, which he sent to me: 

" After traversing the cretaceous and carboniferous series northward of 
Weatherford, Archer Co., Texas, I was agreeably surprised by a grand pano- 
rama of the Permian formation. This system is extensively developed in Russia 
between the Oural Mountains and the River Volga, in the north of England, 
and in Germany, where it is mined for its treasures of copper, silver, nickel and 
cobalt ores. It has not heretofore been known to exist in this State, or it had 
been mistaken for the Triassic system, which is overlying the former to the 
«outh-east. Its hills, which have been traced throughout Archer and Wichita 
Counties, resemble in shape the copper-bearing or gossan-crested upheavals in 
Ducktown, Tenn., but they are of a different age and composition. They are 
nearly barren, and, towering above the most beautiful mesquit prairies fringed 
by the finely-timbered bottoms of the tributaries of Red River, are exceedingly 
picturesque. The members of the Wichita System, as far as open to ocular 
inspection by out-crops or cross-cuts, making allowance for climatic differ- 
ences, correspond closely with the lower strata, discovered at Perm and Mans- 
feld, but its mineral resources are evidently more promising. Such numerous 
veins of copper ore have been traced over the summits and sides of the hills, 
that hardly a hundred and sixty acre tract could be found without ore on the 
surface. The ore crops out, a.s, for instance, on the Isbell Douglass Ball, in 
such quantity and quality that the mere collection of it, without mining, would 
prove remunerative. It is supposed that those veins are cotemporaneous with 
injections at different ages of quartz, trap and porphyry. The vein lodes are 
parallel with the strata, but there is sufficient evidence that they partake of the 
nature of true veins. Cupriferous and ferruginous cross-courses, feeders and 
leads of manganese are often met with. A cross-cut was made to a depth of 
about fifteen feet upon the Isbell lode, and ten hours work resulted in the 
raising of 6000 pounds of copper ore. This ore is far superior to the ferro- 
sulphuret of copper, or copper pyrites, which ore is most generally worked in 
England, and it is, in fact, more profitable than the native copper as found at 
Lake Superior. It is easily smelted, and the strata in which it is found can 
also be more economically excavated than any other in which copper ores 

Dr. Le Conte, in continuation, spoke of the occurrence of calamite tinged 
with copper in the Permian formation of Southern Mexico. 

Mr. Gabb mentioned the deposits of grey copper near the Colorado River, in 
Arizona, scattered over the surface, the debris of metallic veins. 

Dr. Leidy remarked, that shad had been brought to our markets, for several 
years past, during the late autumnal months, which were caught in salt water, 
perhaps in Delaware Bay or off the Jersey coast. When the shad ascend the 
river to spawn, their stomachs and intestines appear to contain so little that 
the question is often asked as to the nature of their food. A shad which Dr. 
L. had purchased a few days since, on examination, was found to have the 
stomach full of small fishes. There were 30 of them, from 2 to 4 inches long, 
and all one species, which appears to be the Sand-launce, Ammodytes Ameri- 

Oct. 27th. 

Mr. Vaux, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Twenty-six members present. 

Philip S. Wales, M. D., was elected a member. 





The following gentlemen were elected correspondents: L. E, 
Latemer, M. D., of New York; A. A. Breneman, of Lancaster; 
H. Evan Rijgersma, of St. Martin's, W. I. ; Prof. Oliver W. 
Holmes, of Boston. 

On favorable report of the Committees, the following papers were 
ordered to be published : 

Notice of some American LEECHES. 


Having been invited by Mr. R. H. Lamborn, Secretary and Treasurer of th« 
Mississippi and Lake Superior Railroad Company, to join an excursion to Min- 
nesota and Lake Superior, tlie last summer, during the trip T had the opportu- 
nity of making many interesting observations in natural history. The many 
lakes of Minnesota are rich in moUusca, annelides, &c. Among the anne- 
)ides, besides an abundance of the ordinary American medicinal leech Ilirudo 
decora, I noticed one which struck me from its general resemblance to a variety 
of the European medicinal leech, H. medicinalis. One of the gentlemen in 
company with us, Mr. Clark, allowed me to try upon him its disposition to 
bite, but I did not succeeed in getting the animal to do so. Upon exami- 
nation of the leech, I find it belongs to a different genus from Ilirudo, appar- 
ently to the genus Aulas tomiim. Its characters are as follows : 


Body cylindroid, compressed, narrowing anteriorly, obtuse at the sides (in 
movement more cylindroid, or less flattened, and quite obtuse laterally com- 
pared with Hirudo decora in the same condition). Color throughout olive 
green, (with more of a yellowish hue than in the dorsal green of H. decora), 
closely maculated everywhere with confluent spots of a darker hue of the 
«ame color. Ninety-two annuli, exclusive of the lips, of uniform widih, 
smooth. Upper lip half ovate, obtuse ; lower lip narrow. Eyes ten ; eight in 
the upper lip ; the last pair separated by an annulus from the others. Mouth 
obliquely terminal, large. Acetabulum subbasilar, ventral, sessile, circular. 
Anus dorsal, above the acetabulum. Male aperture in the 24th annulus (but 
^ppaI■ently between the 23d and 24th). Female aperture in the *29th annulus 
(apparently between 28th and 29th). Oesophagus capacious, extending to about 
the 22d annulus, with 12 folds. Jaws three, small, when at rest included in 
pouches formed by an eversion of the mucus membrane. Teeth 12 in number 
to each jaw, bilobed at base. Length 4 to 5 inches, breadth 5 lines posteri- 
orly; acetabulum 2 lines in diameter. 

Var. An individual of lighter olive green than the former had black macu- 
lae replacing the dark green ones, which were also more distinct and fewer. 

Specimens described from Twin Lake, Minnesota. In the summer of 1865 
I saw several leeches at Saut St. Marie, in Lake Superior, which so far as I 
can remember were of the same species. At the edge of the shore I also saw 
some cocoons which I supposed to belong to the same animal. They were 
ochreous yellow, oval, about 4 or 5 lines in diameter; the surface impressed 
with concave' pentagonal and hexagonal pits. From the angles of the mar- 
gins of the latter projected branching processes curling at the ends. 

Notwithstanding our familiarity with the American medicinal leech, its long 
and frequent employment in the medical profession, and the vast numbers 
which have been brought to notice, it has been so imperfectly described that, 
in the excellent Systema Helminthum of my late esteemed friend Dr. Diesing, 
<>f Vienna, it has been placed with the " JJdcUidea s[)ecies genere penitut 
dubia\" I therefore take the present opportunity of indicating its characters 
more fully. It agrees most nearly with the diagnosis of the genus Ilirudo, of 




which the II. medicinalis of Europe is the type, but nevertheless possesses pe- 
culiarities perhaps rather more than specific. Its characters, generic and 
specific, are as follows: 


Say: Long's Expedit. vol. ii, 1842, Append. 268. Moquin-Tandon : Monog. 
Hirud. 1846, 344. Diesing : Syst. Helm, i, 1850, 474. Wood and Bache : 
United States Dispensatory. 

Body elongated, compressed cylindroid, narroAving anteriorly, laterally sub- 
acute ; in motion convex above, flat below, with the margins compressed, thin, 
acute and somewhat wavy ; composed of from 90 to 94 annuli, which are uni- 
form and smooth. Head continuous with the body. Mouth obliquely termi- 
nal, bilabiate ; the upper lip prominent, semiovate, obtuse, or from contraction 
of the tip emarginate ; lower lip forming the inferior portion of the first annu- 
lus ; the lips together acting as an acetabulum ovoid or obcordate in form. 
Eyes 10, arranged in horse shoe form, the anterior 8 above the upper lip, the 
posterior pair separated from the others by the first annulus. Acetabulum 
subbasilar, ventral, sessile, circular. Anus dorsal, above the acetabulum. 
Male aperture perforating the 25th annulus, with the lips more or less promi- 
nent. Female aperture between the 29th and 30th annuli. A group of four 
papillae situated back of the latter on the 34th to the 36th annuli inclusive. 
Jaws three, semicircular, laterally compressed, furnished with 55 teeth, which 
have an acute curved summit and an expanded bilobed base. Oesophagus 
short and narrow compared^with that of Aulastomum, furnished with 6 longi- 
tudinal folds, of which three coarse ones descend from the jaws and three nar- 
row ones are intermediate. 

Color. Porsal surface olive green, with a median irregular band and a 
lateral line of darker hue of the same kind ; a median row of reddish brown 
dots, and a lateral row of black dots. Ventral surface reddish brown, extend- 
ing slightly above the lateral margin, devoid of spots, or more or less macu- 
lated with black. Acetabulum colored like the back above and the belly 

In the genus Hirudo, as characterized by Diesing, (Sj-st. Helm, i, 465), and to 
which he assigns 9 recognized species, the jaws are furnished with from 60 to 
70 teeth, and the male aperture is situated between the 24th and 25th seg- 
ments. MoquinTandon (Monog. Hirud. 1846, 326) likewise assigns the latter 
as the position of the male aperture in the genus Hirudo. 

The position of the generative apertures in H.. decora often appear more or 
less discolored, or of a dull purplish hue, and the same is the case with the 
group of papillae back of them. The latter do not exist in the medicinal leech 
of Europe. They are quite conspicuous in ours. I have suspected that they 
were provided for the adherence of individuals in sexual intercourse, and this 
view is confirmed by Mr. S. J. Moore, the well known professional leecher 
and bleeder of this city. Mr. Moore informs me that in copulo two individuals 
adhere in the position of the papillae and make two turns of a spiral upon 
each other. 

The red and blacks spots of the back contain from 20 to 22 in each row. 

Length up to 7 inches, by 8 lines in breadth posteriorly ; and the acetabu- 
lum 3 lines in diameter. 

Notice of some remains of Extinct PACHYDERMS. 



Extinct Peccary. Leidy : Pr. A. N. S. 1860, 416. 

An extinct species of Peccary, obviously different from any one heretofore 
noticed, is indicated by a specimen submitted to my examination by the late 
Dr. David D. Owen. It was found in digging a well in Gibson Co., Indiana, at 
a depth of between 30 and 40 feet. 





The specimen consists of the fore part of the snout, containing on one side 
of the jaw the upper canine and anterior two molar teeth. It belonged to a 
species larger than any of those previously noticed. The face in advance of 
Uie molars was more prolonged proportionately than in other species, but wae 
also proportionately narrower. 

The two premolars retained in the fossil are blunted from wear, but are 
clearly constructed after the same pattern as those of the living Peccaries. 

The incisors, as indicated by their alveoli, held the same relative position as 
ia the latter, but appear to have been comparatively feeble organs, and the an- 
terior pair were but slightly larger than the lateral ones. 

The upper canine has the same form and mode of insertion as in the recent 
Peccaries, but is proportionately smaller. 

The anterior ends of the coossified premaxillaries project to a much greater 
degree in advance of the incisors than in the other known Peccaries. They 
are also more truncate in appearance ; and on each side of the intermaxillary 
notch they exhibit a conspicuous pit, apparently for the attachment of a pair 
of muscles intended for a longer and more mobile snout than is possessed by 
the living Peccaries, 

The measurements of the fossil compared with those of other Peccaries, are 
as follows : 

First molar to front of premaxillaries, 

*' " to canine alveolus, 
Length of jaw in advance of canines, 
Breadth outside of canine alveoli, 
Ant. post, diara. first premolar, 

" " ** second " 

" " " base of canine, 

Mr. Timothy Conrad has recently submitted to my inspection the crown of a 
second molar tooth obtained by Dr. P. Knieskern, from a mioceue formation of 
Shark River, Monmouth Co., New Jersey. 

The tooth bears nearly the proper relation of size with the premolars in the 
specimen above described of D. nasutus to belong to the same animal, but the 
fact of its being found in a miocene deposit, while the latter is of supposed, 
post-plioceoe age, renders it probable that it pertains to a different species. 

The crown has a strong basal ridge, hardly interrupted at the most prominent 
portion of the lobes externally and internally. The lobes present the same 
form and relative position as in D. labiatus. They are considerably worn, ex- 
hibiting on their summits exposed tracts of dentine ; nearly circular on there 
external, and larger and irregularly reniform on tbere internal. The measure- 
ments of the tooth in comparison with the corresponding tooth of other species 
are as follows : 





58 lines. 

46 lines. 


31 lines. 

30 " 

23 " 

14 " 

8 " 

24 " 

19 " 

20 " 

17 " 

28 " 

29 " 

31 " 

26 " 

Ah " 
5| " 

4| " 
5 " 

5 " 
5 « 

8 " 

A\ «' 
4i ." 
6 " 

trans. 8^ lines. 

Fossil tooth, ant. post. diam. ^\ lines, 
D. labiatus, " '* 7 " 

D. torquatus, "■ '' 6^ " 

D. compressus, ^< " 7| " 

Anchippus Texanus. 

An a[>parent solipedal pachyderm, allied to Anchitherium, is indicated bv a 
specimen consisting of the greater and more characteristic portion of an upper 
molar tooth submitted to my examination by Dr. B. F. Shumard. It was ob- 
tained from " Hutchen's well," from a yellow sandstone, supposed to be of 
miocene age, at a depth of 50 feet below the surface, in Washington Co. 

The size of the tooth, as well as the general form and proportions, have been 
nearly as in the European Anchitherium aurelianense. Six lobes, as in the latter 
enter into the constitution of the crown. The external lobes, imperfect, appear 


to have had the same form as in Anchitherium. The inner lobes also have the 
same form but are proportionately less robust, while the median lobes are 
more so. The postero-median lobe pursues the same course as in Anchitherium 
and likewise, as in this, joins the outer lobes at their conjunction. From near 
the middle of its course it gives off a process directed towards the interval of 
the antero-internal and antero-median lobes and ceasing short of them. This 
process looks as if disposed to join the contiguous portion of the antero-median 
lobe, together with it to form a crescentoid lobe, embracing the antero-exter- 
nal one, as in the corresponding columns of equine teeth. No such arrange- 
ment exists in Anchitherium. A triangular tubercle, as in the latter genus, 
occupies the space at the back of the crown, and it appears as if its anterior 
angle had a disposition to join the contiguous portion of the postero-median 
lobe, to form with it a crescentoid lobe, in like manner as in the former case, 
to embrace the postero-external lobe. 

The construction of the tooth clearly indicates an animal of intermediate 
diaracter to Anchitherium and Equus. 

Anchippodus riparius. 

Mr. Timothy Conrad has submitted to my examination the specimen of a 
tooth of rather enigmatical character, which I suspect to indicate n. pachyderm 
at least with solipedal affinities. It was obtained by Dr. Knieskern, from a 
tertiary formation, either eocene or miocene, of Shark River, Monmouth Co., 
New Jersey. 

The tooth would appear to correspond with a first or second lower true mo- 
lar of a ruminant, or with any of the series between the first and last molars in 
Palseotherium or Anchitherium. The crown is much worn, even so as to obliterate 
some of its distinctive features It is composed of a 'pair of demi-conoidal 
lobes, one before the other, the plane side internally, the convex and sloping side 
externally. From each lobe descends a fang in the usual manner. No fold, 
and only a feeble basal tubercle occupies the deep external angular interval 
between the lobes. The worn triturating surface presents, on the anterior 
lobe, a wide crescentoid tract of exposed dentine, slightly concave and bordered 
with thick enamel. The anterior arm of the crescent is obtuse ; the posterior 
extends less inwardly and is acute. The posterior lobe exhibits ahalfellip- 
spoidal tract of dentine, nearly straight at its inner margin, and bordered with 
enamel, except behind, where it has all disappeared. The dentinal tracts of 
the two lobes are separated by a narrow isthmus. The enamel is thick, black 
and shining, and though it appears to have originally been more or less rough, 
yet it is now nearly smooth. The measurements of the specimen in its pre- 
sent condition are as follows : 

Fore and aft diameter of the crown 10 lines ; breadth of posterior lobe 
obliquely at base of the enameled crown 9^ lines; breadth of anterior lobe in 
aame position 8J lines ; breadth of worn triturating surface of posterior lobe 
6 lines ; breadth of do. on anterior lobe 5J lines. 


Dr. Hayden's last collection of Mauvaises Terres fossils contains a last infe- 
rior molar tooth which has all the characters ascribed to the corresponding 
tooth of the extinct tapiroid genus Lophiodpn of European eocene formations. 

The crown is composed of a pair of transverse hill-like lobes, as in the 
lower molars of the Tapir with the addition of a Avell developed posterior 
conoidal talon. The principal lobes have subacute summits slightly concave 
transversely, their posterior surface sloping, their anterior surface concave, 
and their exterior sides convex. The talon is about half the height of the 
principal lobes, convex behind, and with the front surface inclining from 
the middle on each side. The crown is bounded in front by a basal ridge. 
Fore and aft diameter of the crown 9| lines ; transverse diameter in front 6.] 


1 have a suspicion that this specimen belonged to the lowest bed of the 




White River tertiary formations, and with associated remains of Hyopota- 
mus and Tifanothcrium, probably indicates the end of the eocene, which was 
succeeded by the more extensive miocene deposits of the Mauvaises Terres, and 
the pliocene deposits of the Niobrara River. 

On some Cretaceous BEPTILIA. 



This genus is established on a species represented by a single dorsal verte- 
bra, which was found by my frieni Prof. 0. 0. Marsh, of Yale College, in a 
marl pit near Swedesboro', Gloucester Co., N, J. Its form is highly character- 
istic, and resembles considerably that of such genera of Iguanidae as Euphryne 
and Dipsosaurus, and in some degree those of Cyclura and Iguana. It differs 
from the dorsals ^of known serpents in having a zygosphen on the plane of 
the anterior zygapophysis, and in having the costal articular surface continu- 
ous with and covering the diapophyses. It differs from the genera of Iguanidae 
mentioned in the very small amount of upward direction which the face of the 
articular ball of the centrum exhibits. This face is nearly vertical, meeting 
the lower plane at a slightly less angle than the upper. It is much more 
strongly convex transversely than vertically. The neural arch rises from the 
anterior three-fourths of the centrum, the zygapophysis coming off from the 
edge of the cup, and the diapophysis from -2 of the length behind it. The 
zygapophysis is more prominent than the zygosphen, and tlie sinus between 
them is floored by a thin horizontal plate at its fundus. 

The general form of the vertebra is depressed. The zygapophyses are 
spread apart, and their outer margin continues in a straight line from the dia- 
pophyses. The diapophyses are directed upwards, and are vertical compressed 
in form ; they are opposite to about equal portions of the centrum and neural 
arch. Their posterior face is slightly concave, and the upper face behind forms, 
with the neural arch, a deeply concave line. The convexity of the ball is not 
so great as in the Crocodilia, and, with the thin lipped cup, resembles that of 
Mosasaurus ; this resemblance is heightened by the slightly depressed upper 
outline of the ball, and the form of the diapophyses. The inferior face of the 
centrum presents a median obtuse ridge, and nearly flat lateral faces, which 
are concave antero-posteriorly. The cup is broader than deep, and has a 
slightly concave outline ; the base of the zygosphen originates opposite the 
middle of the neural canal. The latter is a broad vertical oval. 

Clidastes iguanavus Cope, sp. nov. 

In this species the articular face of the zygosphen is inclined at an angle of 
45°, while that of the zygapophysis is a little more horizontal. The posterior 
zygapophyses are broken off. 

In. Lin. 

Length of centrum below , 2 0-5 

Width of cup 1 6-8 

Depth " 1 1-5 

Width between extremities diapophysis 3 0-5 

Depth articular face diapophyses. 10-5 

From diapophysis to end zygapophysis 9 

Between zygosphen and zygapophysis 4-5 

Width centrum anterior to ball 15 

Width of neural canal behind 5-5 

While there is a probability that this animal was a forerunner of the Igua- 
nian type of Lacertilia, it possessed, no doubt, strong relationships to Mosasau- 

1868.] 16 



rus. Its nearest ally is Macrosaurus, in some of the vertebrae of which a 
slight groove, beside the zygapophysis, is the rudiment of the zygantrum. 
If of the same proportions as Iguana and Amblyrhynchus, its length would 
not have been much different from twelve feet, or that of the largest alliga- 
tors of the Mississippi. 



Pal^ophis littoralis Cope. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1868, 147. 

This, with the following, is the only serpent whosie "remains have been 
found in the United States in deposits older than the post-pliocene. We owe 
its preservation to Dr. Knieskern, of Shark River, N. J., best known by his 
botanical investigations. It is in possessi(m of the New Jersey State Geologi- 
cal Survey, and has been submitted to me oy Prof. Geo. H. Cook, the Director, 
for examination. The specimens consist of three vertebrae, neither of them 
perfect ; the most so with neural arch, but with diapophyses broken off. 

The more perfect is an anterior dorsal, with two hypapophyses, the anterior 
small and directed forwards, the posterior larger, and directed vertically down- 
wards. The ball has some superior up-look, though the groove which 
bounds it is but little oblique. Centrum much compressed behind the middle. 
Plane of basis of zygapophysis opposite floor of neural arch ; zygapophysis di- 
rected slightly upwards and outwards, continuous by a broad wing running 
posteriorly, with the diapophysis. Neural arch well elevated, (broken off be- 
hind). The basis of the neural spine is narrow on the anterior part of the arch, 
and does not reach the anterior margin. 


Length centrum (ball to edge cup). 8-25 

Depth ball 4-25 

Width " 5- 

*' between extremities of zygapophyses .'.. 8* 

Depth cup and neural arch .' 7-5 

Width neural arch behind 2-25 

A strong ridge extends from the zygapophysis posteriorly parallel with the 
centrum. There is no ridge continued from the zygosphen. Except a slight 
ridge below the fossa, which is above and back of the diapophysis, the surface 
of the vertebra is smooth. 

Another vertebra is rather broader in proportion to its length, and less com- 


Length (as above)... 7-8 

Width ball 5 

in both the ball has a subtriangular outline. In the more perfect, the base 
of the neural canal is divided by a narrow longitudinal epapophysis. 

Locality. — The eocene green sand bed of Shark River, Monmouth Co., N. J. 

Pal^ophis halidanus Cope, sp. nov. 

A single vertebra represents this species. It indicates one of the largest of 
the genus, being little different from the P. typhasus of Owen in size. The 
bulk of the vertebra is double that of the P. 1 i 1 1 o r a 1 i s. In addition to this 
point, it differs from the latter in the greater transverse diameter of the cup 
and ball; these are transversely oval; in the P. littoralis subtriangular 
ovate ; the centrum is naturally less constricted and broader in the former. 
The articular face of the zygapophysis is broadly ovate in the P. halida- 
nus, narrowly in the smaller species ; while there are indications of similar 
posterior hypapophysis in both, the anterior in the P. halidanus appears 
to have been smaller. 

As compared with the species described by Owen, the cup and ball are more 





transverse thaa in any noticed in the British Fossil Reptiles, approaching that 
figured by him in pi. 3, fig. 22-4; the ball has not the oblique, up-lopking 
profile of that species, but forms a nearly regular arc, with its posterior margin 
superiorly a little behind its position interiorly. The hypapophysial ridge is 
considerably interrupted, as in the P. ty p h oe u s, while P. I i 1 1 o r a 1 i s agrees 
with the P. toliapicus in having it continuous. The two last named 
species differ in the rflevelopment of their hypapophyses ; in the American 
species both are large, especially the posterior ,• in the English, the anterior 
process is weak or wanting; the ridge connecting the zygapophyses disap- 
pears in the P. toliapicus and continues in the P. 1 i tt o ral i s. The 
general proportions of the centrum are slender, as in P. t o 1 i a p i c u s, and not 
so stout as in P. p o r c a t u s Owen. 

The diapophyses in the P. hal idanus are not so pedunculate as in P. ty- 
p h £e u s, though they are separated above by a notch from the vertical ala 
which descends fj-ora the zygapophysis, which I do not find in the P. I i 1 1 o ra- 
l i s They approach near the margin of the cup in their transverse extent 

The horizontal ridge between the zygapophyses is strongly marked, and in 
the specimen in hand comes off from the anterior vertical ala below the zyga- 
pophysis, rather than from the plane of that process, as in P. littoral is. 
The neural canal is depressed behind, below the margin of the ball, and has 
an obtuse epapophysis along the median region of its median line. There is 
no ridge parallel to the hypapophysis. The cup is partially broken, but its 
transverse diameter appears to have been one-fourth greater than the vertical. 
The transverse plane of the face of the zygapophysis is transverse. A large 
part of the neural arch is broken away. 


Length from edge up to convexity of ball 12-75 

Width between anterior zygapophyses 13-5 

" of cup ". 8-4 

Depth "• 6-2 

Least width centrum at middle 5-3 

Width neural canal 4* 

Locality. — This serpent was found by my friend 0. B. Kinney in the excava- 
tions of the Squankum Marl Company, at Squankum, Monmouth Co., N J., a 
few miles south of Shark River. The horizon is eocene. 

This animal was probably a sea-serpent distantly allied to the Boas, and far 
exceeding in dimensions those at present inhabiting the Indian Ocean. Its 
size was similar to that of the very largest of terrestrial serpents of the 
modern era, and was probably proportioned to a length of tweuty feet. 



Emydoid tortoises, in which the rib-heads of the posterior costal bones are 
represented by rudimcntal lamina^, and the anterior by a crest or truncate 
ridge in addition. Vertebral scuta narrow ; external surfaces smooth or 
nearly so. 

Name from A, and Awkoc, rafter (?. e., rib-head). 

This genus, now first characterised, differs from Emys in the absence of cos- 
tal capitula of the costal plates of the carapace, a feature pointed out by Leidy 
in the type species. It also possesses a character of Pleurosteraum in the pres- 
ence of a series of marginal dermal plates on the sternal bridge. It belongs to 
the true Emydidie, having the eight paired sternal bones instead of ten of the 
first-mentioned. The markings of the dermal plates of the plastron are not 
distinct. Besides the species here described, it includes A beatus(Emy8 
Leidy), A. firm us {Kmys Leidy), A. p r a v u s (Emys Leidy), and A agilis 
Cope. It represents Emys in our cretaceous, as Ostcopygis Coi)e does Chelydra, 
and Taphrosphys Cope (type Platemys s u 1 c a t u s Leidy) does Ilydraspis. 



Adocus petrosus Cope. 

This species is represented by portions of four costal bones, parts or wholes 
of six'Snarginal bones, most of the right hyosternal, and a posterior portion of 
the right hyposternal, with the head of the os coracoideum. They were found 
in the West Jersey Marl Company's pits, Gloucester Co., N, J., in the same lo- 
cality whence the Laelaps was procured. 

The hyosternal bone is preserved in its axillary margin, and is continuous 
wath two marginals of the carapace of the same side. Two of the costals are 
adjacent, and give the outlines of the vertebral bones and scutes. These show 
the inferior outline to be very convex, the whole, from angle to angle of the 
marginal bones of opposite sides, amounting to an arc of about 124 degrees. 
Each hyosternal is slightly concave below the plane of their common suture. 
Each thins out laterally, though the one preserved is very thick on the axillary 
margin. There is little difiFerence between the thickness at the mesosternal 
and hyposternal sutures. All the sutures have minute rugosities, differing much 
from sternals in A. agil is and Taphrosphys, which are very ragged, and re- 
sembling those of Pleurosternum pectorale m. The piece of hj^posternal is 
even thicker than the hyosternal. The bone is everywhere remarkable for the 
thickness of its dense layer, and the closeness of the texture of the spongy. 
The former is one-third the thickness of the sternal and costal bones frac- 

The scute sutures of the inferior surface are obsolete ; those of the dorsal 
surface are like those of Adocus, i. e., the vertebrals with bracket-shaped 
lateral borders, with the costal proceeding from the point of the bracket. 

The marginal bones vary much in thickness proximally. They have two 
proximal sutures, one side convex, the other concave. Four have a heavy bor- 
der, round in section ; in two of these it is considerably everted. Another has 
a rather thin margin, slightly decurved, with a submarginal groove separating 
it from the most massive portion. The costal bones are strongly convex in 
their length, indicating an arched carapace. 


In. Lin. 

Hyosternal width , 3 9 

" " to origin axillary abutment 2 1-5 

" length on median suture 2 1-5 

" thickness near mesosternal line ^ 9 

" " " hyposternal " T-2 

Hyposternal thickness near posterior suture 9 

Costal width 1 V-5 

" thickness vertebral suture 8 

Marginal No. 1 width 2 1-5 

" " length 1 7 

" " proximal thickness 3 

" No. 5 " " 8-2 

" " length 1 6 

'' " width 1 7-5 

" " width dermal scute 9 

This animal is therefore a species of considerable size, though less than most 
of those described here, and particularly convex and solid in every part. While 
the sutural lines of the hyosternal measure about the same as in A. f ir m u s 
(Emys Leidy), it is much more convex and not so thick at the mesosternal 
suture. The marginal bones are relatively just half the size. The Pleuroster- 
num pectorale differs in being very much flatter, and in having a more 
discoid mesosternal bone. The hyosternals are also much thicker at their 
union with the marginals than in the present. 

A portion of a hyo- or hyposternal bone collected at the same place, and 
near or at the same time, mav be referred to a larger individual of the same 



species or to A. fir m u s . It exhibits a wedge for a diagonal gomphosis be- 
tween the two sutures, which are preserved. The thickness on the median 
suture is 14 lines. 


L^LAPS Cope. 

L;elaps aquilunguis Cope. 

External form and position in Lselaps. 

The short fore-limbs of this genus suggest at once the habit of standing 
upon the hind limbs chiefly, yet this disproportion is no sufficient reason 
therefor, and is seen to exist in the tailless Batrachia, where no such position 
is assumed. It exists to a less degree among the modern lizards, whose position 
we well know to be always horizontal. 

Laelaps had, however, no doubt an erect position, for the following reason : 
The head and neck of the femur are at right angles to the direction of motion 
on the condyles, or in the same plarfe as the transverse direction of the con- 
dyles. This indicates that the femur has been reflexed and extended in a plane 
parallel with that of the vertebral column. The relations of articulation are 
those of birds, and different from those of reptiles, where the directions of the 
proximal and distal condyles of the femur are oblique to each other, and the 
proximal of a vertically elongate form, thus allowing the femur to be obliquely 
directed as regards the axis of the body, so that in a prone position it rested on 
the ground equally clear of the body and the flexed tibia. 

The resemblance of the tibia, with its high crest and embracing astragalus, 
as well as the slender fibula, to those of the birds, confirms this position ; so 
do types of the iliac and sacral structures. The same is suggested by the great 
bird-like reptile tracks found in many places. 

How must a reptilian form with elongate vertebral column and heavy tooth- 
bearing cranium have stood erect? The elongate form of the femur as com- 
pared with the tibia is only seen among animals who walk^||ect, in man ; in 
the birds and kangaroos the femur is very much shorter tlMm the t:'bia ; be- 
sides these no other vertebrates progress on the hind limbs entirely. The 
lizards, which are prone, present the long femur exceeding or equalling the 

The bird-like reptile did not, however, exhibit the slight flexure between 
femur and tibia presented by man. The acetabulum in the known Dinosaurs 
is not or but weakly completed below, or what would be in man anteriorly, in- 
dicating that the weight of the body was supported by a femur placed at a 
strong angle with the longitudinal axis of the ilium ; otherwise the head of the 
femur would be most readily displaced. If, therefore, the ilium were more or 
less erect, the femur was directed forwards ; if horizontal, the femur must have 
projected downwards. I have shown, however, that the position and therefore 
the ilium was oblique or erect ; therefore the femur was directed very much 

• There are, however, other reasons for believing that the femur was directed 
forwards, and somewhat upwards from the ilium. One is, that the centre of 
gravity of an elongate reptilian dorsal and sternal region must have been fur- 
ther forwards than in the short-bodied bird, and therefore the knee must have 
been further forward, in order to bring the support — i. c, the tibia, etc. — be- 
neath it. 

♦ The remarks of Prof.Owen on this relation in Megalosaurus are so pertinent, that they 
are introduced here : 

" The backward position and production of tlie corresponding articular prominences or 
condyles in imtli femur and tibia, indicate that these bones were joined toKCther at an 
angle, probably approachitijj; a ri^lit one, when iu their intermediate state between Hex on 
and extension ; and tliat the motion of the tibia could not have Uikeu place to tlie extuot 
required to bring the two bones to the same lino." 




the tibia is excessively oblique, requiring that one or both sections of the limb 
should be very oblique to the vertical line. As the tarso-metatarsal elements 
support the weight immediately on the ground, and as it is obvious that the 
leverage moving the great vs^eight of the body on its support must have been 
the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles extending the tibia on the metatarsal 
segment as the fixed point, and as there is no indication of correspondingly 
powerful muscles to flex the metatarsals on the phalanges, it is obvious that 
the latter has been the more vertical, and the former the more oblique seg- 
ment. And if the tibial segment has been oblique, for reasons just given, the 
femur must have been oblique also.* 

The length of the femur has had relation to another peculiarity as well, as 
follows : 

In an animal designed to walk erect, it is necessary that the centre of gravity 
should be transferred as far posteriorly as is consistent with the type. In Lse- 
laps and other Dinosauria we have very elongate pubic and iliac bones, and, as 
I have before described, these appear to have been designed to enclose and 
support an abdominal mass, in a position beneath the sacrum, and posterior to 
the position observed in quadrupedal mammals and reptiles. We would thus 
have a prominent keeled belly between the femora, supported by elongate 
curved ischia behind, and slender pubes directed downwards in front. In Poe- 
cilopleurum the space between the latter and the sternum was occupied by 
abdominal ribs. The length of femur places the arc through which the knee 
moves beyond this projection. 

The confluence of a greater number of vertebrae to form a sacrum, seen in 
this order and in the birds, would seem to have a direct relation to the support 
of the above-mentioned greater weight by it, than in horizontal vertebrata, 
where the weight is distributed throughout the length of the vertebral column. 

The shifting of the neural arches backwards, seen in the same orders, pointed 
out by Owen, would have a mechanical relation to the same necessity, — i. €., 
their partial transfer over the intervertebral spaces naturally tending to 
strengthen thejpiion of the sacral elements. 

The foot neec^ot, however, have been placed precisely beneath the centre 
of gravity of the body, as the animal was furnished with a tail of greater or less 
weight. This member bears, however, little proportion to the great size of 
those seen in Iguanodon, Hadrosaurus, etc., but exhibits a commencement of 
the reduction which is so striking among the birds. 

The proportions of the metatarsus are only to be ascertained by an examina- 
tion of those of allied species, as L. m a c r o p u s and Megalosaurus b u c k- 
1 an d ii. As all the other bones are more slender than those of the latter, so 
were no doubt these bones longer in proportion to their breadth. I have esti- 
mated it above as equal to a little over half the tibia. 

The digits in the genus Lgelaps have not, in all probability, been more than 
four. The less bird-like forms of Hylaeosaurus and Iguanodon have had, ac- 
cording to Owen, but three metatarsals, and it is not according to the rule of 
successional relation that there should be any repetition of a reptilian character, 
in a point of prime importance in measuring the steps of succession between 
reptiles and birds. Lselaps, and probably Megalosaurus also, had but three 
digits directed anteriorly, and a fourth lateral or rudimental. 

It is true that Deslongchamps ascribes five digits to Poecilopleurum, after a 
careful study of abundant material. He was, however, much more impressed 
with the Crocodilian affinities of that reptile than with any other, and did not 
recognize the avine in the astragalus. It seems to me quite possible that one 
of his toes can be dispensed with, — for example, the second, of which but one 
phalange is said to remain. If we ascribe the fractured extremity of the bone 

* Probably in a squatting posture the animal rested on the entire sole as far as the heel, 
though not under ordinary circumstances ; as I have suggested in Amer. Naturalist, i, 28, 
Mycteria and other wading birds assume a similar position at times. 



regarded (Tab. viii, fig. 6) as the first phalange of the fourth digit, to the me- 
tatarsal of the same, the phalange referred to the second may find another 
place. The fifth digitals© rests on the evidence of one phalange only. Though 
the reasoning of Deslongchampsin referring these pieces is good, it seems to me 
that renewed study might result in ascribing to this genus three toes anteri- 
orly and one appendicular, — his first. 

The predominance of Reptilian characters in the Dinosauria, as indicated by 
the structure of the vertebrae and other points, renders it probable that the 
vertebral column did not present that remarkable flexure where the cervical 
and dorsal series are joined, which is seen in the birds, but rather that they 
were more or less continuous, and formed a continuum from the sacrum to 
the nape. The cervicals may have been somewhat elongated, as in some birds, 
yet this is not probable in view of the necessary balance to be preserved, which 
would not admit of much projection of the cranium anteriorly. The cervicals 
of Hadrosaurus are not so long as in the modern Varani ; in Iguanodon they 
are similar, while their rather oblique articular faces indicate the elevation of 
that region, and of the position of the cranium. In the case of these animals, 
there is not the same necessity for a long neck as in the birds, for even in Lae- 
laps and other genera which probably never used the fore limbs in progression, 
they furnished a support to the body when the head was employed in taking 
food, etc., on the ground. 

The caudal region affects the general proportions of a vertebrated animal 
materially. In Laelaps it is shorter than in any known Dinosaur, measuring less 
than the hind limb by half a foot. It was cylindrical, slender towards the tip, 
and in fact not unlike that of a dog, and probably capable of motion similar to 
the latter. When the Laelaps stood erect, the tail would trail its extremity on 
the ground, but could furnish little support. 

Comparison with other Dinosauria. 

The species with whi?lh detailed comparisons can be made, are the Poecilo- 
pleurum bucklandii Deslongchamps, and Megalosaurus bucklandii 
Mantell. All three were of nearly similar size. The Poecilopleurum is better 
known than the Megalosaurus, and furnishes many similar parts. Thus the 
humeri possess the same disproportionately small size, the extremity of the tibia 
is similarly expanded and flattened, and is similarly embraced by the astraga- 
lus. There are, however, abundant specific differences in all the bones described 
by Deslongchamps. in the same manner tfie Laelaps aquilunguis presents 
abundant specific differences from the Megalosaurus bucklandii. The 
slender curved femur differs from the massive straight one of the latter ; the 
tibia is more slender, and more flattened distally ; its extremity is wedge- 
shaped, not rhombic as in the European species. The claws of Megalosaurus 
are relatively shorter and less curved. 

The generic relations with these two types must be understood. Laelaps is 
obviously distinct from Poecilopleurum in the structure of its feet. In the 
former the phalanges are slender, in the latter massive, and mostly broad. The 
claws are more different ; in the former compressed and hooked ; as broad as 
deep in the latter, and but little curved. They are prehensile in the former, in 
the latter not at all, or adapted only for defense ; they present a very small 
point of insertion, compared with the large knob of the former ; they also ex- 
hibit a deep groove on the side, which is weak in Laelaps. The diflference in 
this respect is about that between a raptorial and rasorial bird. 

As compared with Megalosaurus, Laelaps probably had very short fore-limbs. 
I have pointed out the difference in the femur, which is perhaps not more than 
specific, though this cannot be positively asserted. The difference in the form 
of the extremity of the tibia I suspect also to indicate more than specific differ- 
ence. The bone described by Owen (Palaeontographical Society) as scapula, 
furnishes means of estimating the size of the humerus. The glenoid cavity 



some six inches in diameter, indicating a humerus of four times the size of 
that of Laslaps at least. The claws also of the Megalosaurus are intermediate 
between those of Laelaps and Poecilopleurum, being less compressed and hooked 
than in the first. 

Size. — In estimating the length of this reptile we have the lengths of the 
limbs and tail, and proportions of parts of the jaws to rely on. There is some 
reason to believe that the lengths of the hind leg and of the tail were similar. 
In erect animals, as the Kangaroo and Ostrich, the length of the vertebral 
column anterior to the sacrum about equals the length of the hind limb. In 
the present form the limb is increased by the greater length of the femur than 
in either, but is shorter than that of the bird by the abbreviation of the meta- 
tarsals. The proportions would then remain about the same as in the bird, 
were it not that a head larger than in that class has evidently been borne 
upon the cervical vertebrae, more as in the Kangaroo. It appears then that 
the increased length of the femur in Laelaps may be added to the proportions 
of the Kangaroo, thus giving a nearer equality between the lengths of the hind 
limb and the body and head together. The length would then be seventeen 
feet, divided as follows : 

Ft. In. 

Tail 8 6 

Body and neck 6 6 

Head 2 

Total , 17 

This is probably the size of the Barnesboro individual, which is in all pro- 
bability young, as the sacral vertebrae are entirely disunited. The phalange 
from Mississippi, above described, is very much larger than any of the former, 
and may have belonged to an adult animal. In any case it indicates a gigantic 
reptile of twenty-three feet or more in length. 

The femur of the young individual is as long as ^tat described by Owen 
(Palaeontographica) as belonging to Megalosaurus. As that genus was proba- 
bly more bulky anteriorly than Laelaps, its length, as compared with the 
dimensions of the hind limb, is greater. If, however, it approached Laelaps in 
proportions, as is probable, the length of thirty feet assigned to it appears too 
great. In fact it cannot have been larger than the Mississippi, or adult Laelaps 
a q u i 1 u n g u i s. 

Thus the original estimate of the lengths of these carnivorous Dinosaurs 
is still further reduced. Owen accomplished part of this by estimating on the 
mammalian and rejecting the reptilian type ; the introduction of the avine 
element places the proportion at about the proper point in respect to the Gonio- 
poda at least. 

The elevation of the head of Laelaps would no doubt depend more upon the 
pleasure of the animal, than in a more quadrupedal form. Nine feet above 
the ground is a probable estimate for the young one, and twelve for the adult. 

Movements. — The mind will picture to itself the actions and habits of such 
strange monsters as the Dinosauria, and in respect to some of the genera there 
is considerable basis for speculation. 

That monsters walking on two posterior limbs have inhabited the earth, has 
been familiar to all since the publication, by Hitchcock and Deane, of the 
histories of the great foot-tracks of the Triassic Red Sandstone of the Connec- 
ticut valley. Such tracks have been discovered by Jno. Smock, in the same 
formation, in New Jersey, and by Dr. Chas. Hitchcock in Pennsylvania. Prof. 
Hitchcock ascribed the tracks described by him to birds. Prof. Agassiz* ex- 
presses the belief that they were made by vertebrates combining characters of 
existing classes, perhaps of reptiles and mammals, rather than by birds. Now 
a carnivorous Dinosaur probably allied to Laelaps, as proven by a portion of 

* Contrib. Nat. Hist. U. S., 1857, vol. i. 



the jaw with teeth, in the Academy's Museum, the Bathygnathus borealis 
of Leidy, has left its remains in the red sandstone of Prince Edward's Island, of 
the same age. and we safely conclude that some of the large-clawed biped 
tracks of Hitchcock are those of that animal. Dr. Leidy has suspected that 
this would prove to be the case, as he asks* "was this animal probably not one 
of the bipeds which made the so-called bird tracks in the sandstone of the 
Connecticut valley?" This enquiry was, after an examination of the form of 
La^laps, answered in the affirmative.f I have ascribed these tracks to r^tiles 
allied to Laelaps, and Huxley believes also that they were made by Dino- 

The creatures which strode along the flats of the Triassic estuary have been 
various in species and genera, as pointed out by Hitchcock. Some were pure- 
ly biped ; some occasionally supported themselves on a pair of reduced fore- 
limbs. There are impressions where these creatures have squatted on their 
haunches. One can well imagine the singular effect which these huge grega- 
rious reptiles would produce, standing motionless, goblin-like, on a horizon 
lit by a full moon ; or lying with outstretched neck and ponderous haunches 
basking in the noonday sun ; or marching or wading slowly along the water's 
*edge, ready for a plunge at passing fishes or swimming reptiles. But in the 
active pursuit of terrestrial prey did such an animal as the Laelaps run like the 
Ostrich, or leap like the Kangaroo? So far as the Triassic tracks go, there is 
no evidence of leapers, only runners, fell upon an exhausted quarry. Or were 
they only carrion eaters, tearing and devouring the dead of age and disease ?» 
Probably some were such, but the prehensile claws of Lselaps are like instru- 
ments for holding living prey. 

Lajlaps has a long femur ; those great leapers the Kangaroos have a short 
one ; the cursorial birds, however, have a similar form of femur, but they do 
not leap. So this form is not conclusive. The modern Iguanas have long 
femora, and they all progress by their simultaneous motion; they only leap ; 
but man with his long femur runs only. The question then does not depend 
on the form of the femur. 

I have suggested on a former occasion that Laelaps took enormous leaps and 
struck its prey with its hind limbs. I say, in describing it, •' The small size of 
the fore limbs must have rendered them far less efficient as weapons than the 
hind feet, in an attack on such a creature as Hadrosaurus ; hence perhaps the 
latter were preferred in inflicting fatal wounds. The ornithic type of sacrum 
elucidated by Prof. Owen suggests a resemblance in the use of the limb." 

The lightness and hoUowness of the bones of the Lselaps arrest the attention. 
This is especially true of the long bones of the hind limbs ; those of the fore 
limbs have a less considerable medullary cavity. In this respect they are 
quite similar to those of Ccelosaurus Leidy, of which its describer remarks, 
"that the medullary cavity of the tibia is large, and the walls thin and 
dense," " being intermediate in this respect between the characters of the 
mammals and birds." 

The mutual flexure, as well as the lightness and strength of the great femur 
and tibia, are altogether appropriate to great powers of leaping. The feet 
must have been elongate, whatever the form of the tarsi; the phalanges, or 
finger bones, were slender, nearly as much so relatively as those of an eagle, 
while the great claws in which they terminated were relativel}-^ larger and more 
compressed than in the birds of prey. There was no provision for the retrac- 
tibility observed in the great carnivorous mammalia, but the size of the infe- 
rior basal tuberosity indicates the insertion of a great tendon of a powerful 
flexor muscle. The slight grooves at the base, and deeper one on each side 
of the phalange, suggest the usual horny sheath, which, prolonging the point 
of the claw, would give it a total length of eleven inches. 

♦Journal Acad. Nat. Sciences, 18r)4, :129. 

t American NuturaliHt, 1H()7, 27. Hay's Medical News and Reporter, 1868. 

tProceedings Royal Society, London, 1808, p. Natural Science Review, 1868. 



The fore limbs must indeed have been of very little use, and it is very diffi- 
cult to imagine an animal running and seizing the prey it overtakes with the 
hind limb. If it were not a carrion feeder it must have leaped. We are in- 
formed by Sochstetter,* that the Apteryx leaps with the utmost ease over ob- 
jects two and three feet in height, that is, higher than its own head. Huxley 
suggests that the Compsognathus "hopped" along on its hind limbs. The 
bulk of Lffilaps is no objection to its leaping, for the giant extinct Kangaroos, 
, Mac^pus atlas and titan, found in the postpliocenes of Australia, did not 
fall far short of these reptiles in this respect. We may add that Lselaps had 
smaller allies, asL. macropus one-half, and Coelosaurus antiquus one- 
fourth or fifth the size, whose remains, so far as they go, indicate an identity 
of habit. Deslongchamps says of Poecilopleurum bucklandii, that it " could 
project itself with prodigious force, as a spring which unbends itself; but this 
could not have been on a solid surface, since the fore limbs are too weak to 
resist the shock of the fall of suck a heavy body." He supposed it to be marine 
in its habits, accustomed to battling a stormy sea. However, his objection to 
leaping on land is obviated by understanding that progressive movement was 
entirely performed by the hind limbs. 


On the Origin of GENEBA. 


Introduction. — The present fragmentary essay is a portion of what other oc- 
cupation has prevented the author from completing. It does not therefore 
amount to a complete demonstration of the points in question, but it is hoped 
that it may aid some in a classification of facts with a reference to their signi- 
fication. When all the vast array of facts in possession of the many more 
learned than the writer, are so arranged, a demonstration of the origin of 
species may be looked for somewhere in the direction here attempted to be 

Conclusions of any kind will scarcely be*Teached, either by anatomists who 
neglect specific and generic characters, or secondly by systematists who in 
like manner neglect internal structure. Such will never perceive the system 
of nature.f 

Analysis of the subject. 

I. Eelations of allied genera. 

First ; in adult age. 

Second ; in relation to their development. 

a. On exact parallelism. 

3. On inexact or remote parallelism. 

y. On parallelism in higher groups. 

JP. On the extent of parallelisms. 

II. Of retardation and acceleration in generic characters. 

First ; •taetamorphoses in adult age. 

a. The developmental relations of generic and specific characters. 

(3. Probable cases of transition. 

y. Ascertained cases of transition. 
Second ; earlier metamorphoses. 

<r. The origin of inexact parallelisms. 

* New Zealand Amer. Transl., 181. 

t It might seem incredible that either class should systematize with confidence, yet a 
justly esteemed author writes even at the present day, " However, there is scarcely a sys- 
tematist of the present day who does not pay more or less attention to anatomical charac- 
ters, in establishing the higher groups !" (The italics are our own,) As though a system 
was of any value which is not based on tne whole sti ucture, and as though lower groups 
were only visible in external characters : in a word, as though external (muco-dermal, 
.dental, etc.) characters were not " anatomical !" 



III. Relations of higher groups. 

n. Of homologous groups. 

/?. Of heterology. 

y. Of mimetic analogy. 

IV. Of natural selection. 

tt. As affecting class and ordinal characters. 
p. As affecting family characters. 
y. As affecting generic characters. 
J. As affecting specific characters. 
(. On metaphysical species. 

V. Of epochal relations. 

The laws which have regulated the successive creation of organic beings 
will be found to be of two kinds, as it appears to the writer. The first, that 
which has impelled matter to produce numberless ultimate types from com- 
mon origins ; second, that which expresses the mode or manner in which this 
first law has executed its course, from its commencement to its determined 
end, in the many cases before us. 

That a descent, with modifications, has progressed from the beginning of 
the creation, is exceedingly probable. The best enumerations of facts and 
arguments in its favor are those of Darwin, as given in his various important 
works. The Origin of Species, etc: There are, however, some views respect- 
ing the laws of development on' which he does not dwell, and which it is pro- 
posed here to point out.* 

In the first place, it is an undoubted fact that the origin of genera is a more 
distinct subject from the origin of species than has been supposed. 

A descent with modification involves continuous series of organic types 
through one or many geologic ages, and the co-existence of such parts of such 
various series at one time as the law of mutual adaptation may permit. 

These series, as now found, are of two kinds ; the uninterrupted line of 
specific, and the same uninterrupted line of generic characters. These are 
independent of each other, and have not, it appears to the writer, been de- 
veloped pari passu. As a general law it is proposed to render highly proba- 
ble that the same specific form has existed through a succession of genera, and 
perhaps in different epochs of geologic time. 

With regard to the first law of development, as above proposed, no one has 
found means of discovering it, and perhaps no one ever will. It would 
answer such questions as this. What necessary coincidence of forces has 
resulted in the terminus of the series of fishes in the perches as its most 
specialized extreme ; or, of the Batrachia, in the fresh-water frogs, as its ulti- 
mum ; or, of the thrushes, among birds, as their highest extreme : in a word, 
what necessity resulted in man as the crown of the Mammalian series, instead of 
Bome other organic type ? Our only answer and law for these questions must 
be, the will of the Creator. 

The second law, of modes and means, has been represented to be that of 
natural selection by Darwin. This is, in brief, that the will of the animal, ap- 
plied to its body, in the search for means of subsistence and protection from 
injuries, gradually produces those features which are evidently adaptive in 
their nature. That, in addition, a disposition to a general variation on the 
part of species has been met by the greater or less adaptation of the results of 
such variation to the varying necessities of their respective situations. That 
the result of such conflict has been the extinction of those types that are not 
adapted to their immediate or changed conditions, and the preservation of 
those that are. 

In determining those characters of plants and animals, which constitute them 
what they are, we have, among others of higher import, those which constitute 
them species and those which constitute them genera. What we propose is : 
that of the latter, comparatively very few in the whole range of animals and 



plants are adaptations to external needs or forces, — and of the former a large 
proportion are of the same kind. How then could they owe their existence to 
a process regulated by adaptation ? 

Darwin is aware of these facts to some degree, but, as already said, he does 
not dwell on them. Where he dbes, he does not attempt to account for them 
on the principle of natural selection. 

There are, it appears to us, two laws of means and modes of development. 
I. The law of acceleration and retardation. II. The law of natural selection. 

It is my purpose to show that these propositions are distinct, and not one 
apart of the other: in brief, that while natural selection operates by the 
" preservation of the fittest," retardation and acceleration act without any 
reference to "fitness" at all; that instead of being controlled by fitness, 
it is the controller of fitness. Perhaps all the characteristics supposed to 
mark generalized groups from genera up (excepting, perhaps, families), to 
have been evolved under the first mode, combined with some intervention of 
the second, and that specific characters or s/)ec/es have been evolved by a com- 
bination of a lesser degree of the first with a greater degree of the second mode. 

I propose to bring forward some facts and propositions in the present essay 
illustrative of the first mode. 

I. On the relations of nearly allied genera. ^. 

First. The writer's views of the relations of genera have already been given 
at the close of an Essay on the Cyprinoid Fishes of Pennsylvania.* It is easy 
enough to define isolated genera which have few immediate affines, but among 
extensive series of related forms the case is different. One principle, however, 
pervades the conception and practice of all zoologists and botanists, which 
few take pains to analyse or explain. It is simply that they ooserve a succes- 
sional relation of groups, by which they pass from one type of structure to one 
or several other types, and the presence or absence of the steps in this succes- 
sion they regard as definitions of the genera. 

It is true that the reader will often find introduced into diagnoses of 
genera, characters which indicate nothing of this sort. It is often necessary, ^ 
indeed, to introduce characters which are not peculiar to the genus character- 
ized, for the sake of distinguishing it from similar ones of other series, but this 
only in an imperfect state of the record. Moreover, the ability of the writer 
to distinguish genera being thus tested, he too often fails by introducing 
family and specific characters, or by indulging in an unnecessary redundancy. 
In general it may be said that adjacent genera of the same series differ from 
each other by but a single character ; and generally, that the more remote 
difi^er by characters as numerous as the stages of their remove. 

It is precisely as, among* the inorganic elements, we pass from the electro- 
negative, non-oxidizing extreme of the Halogens, with Fluorine as the extreme, 
to the electro-positive, violently oxidizing extreme of the alkaline metals, 
whose extreme is potassium, by steps whose relative position is measured or 
determined first by these tests ; and as these steps have each their included 
series of bodies, characterized by their successive relations on the lower level 
of a subordinate range of characters. Ttjis principle is distinctly admitted by 
many zoologists ;f those who deny it generally failing to perceive it because 
they attempt to guage a major scale by characters which are really the test of 
one or all of the subordinate or included scales. It holds true of most of the 
groups of organic beings ; thus the class is a scale of orders, the order of 
tribes. I will not now say that the tribe is a scale of families, as the case is 
here much modified, but what is chiefly to be considered in this essay, is that 
the family is composed of one or several scales of genera. 

* Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc, 1866, from Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei., Phil., 1859, 332. 
fProf. Bronn, in his Classen u. Ordnungen des Thierreiches, has everywhere a chapter 
on Die aufsteigende Eeihe,— " the ascending scale." 



Second. Now, the more nearly allied genera are, the more surely will these 
generic steps be found to fall into the direct line of the steps of the develop- 
ment of the highest, or that with the longest scale, the former being truly 
identical with the latter in generic characters. Less allied genera will offer 
an inexact or incomplete imitation of such identity, — some additional charac- 
ter being present to disturb it. Such genus belongs to another series, charac- 
terized by the disturbing feature, whose members, however, bear to each other 
the relation claimed above for such. 

The relation of genera, which are simply steps in one and the same line of 
development, may be called exact parallelism, while that of those where one or 
more characters intervene in the maturity of either the lower or higher genus 
to destroy identity, may be called incomplete parallelism. 

The latter relation has been dwelt on by Von Bar, Agassiz and other writers, 
but none have accepted the existence of exact parallelism, or seen its important 
relation to the origin of genera. 

Third. That the lowest or most generalized terms or genera of a number of 
allied series, will stand to each other in a relation of exact parallelism. That 
is, if we trace each series of a number, up to its lowest or most generalized 
genus, the latter together will form a series, similar in kind to each of the sub- 
series ; i.e. each genus will be identical with the undeveloped conditions of 
that which progresses the farthest, in respect, of course, to the characters 
which define it as a series. 

Those characters of the skeleton which we are accustomed to call embry- 
onic, are only so because they relate to the developmental succession witnessed 
in animals at the present time. Characters not so called now were probably 
as much so at one period now passed. Hence embryonic characters of the 
bony system do not, as I have often had occasion to observe, characterize the 
types of the highest rank, but only subordinate divisions of them. Thus the 
Elasmobranchs are probably repressed forms of groups of a really higher 
grade than the bony fishes, or Teleostei, which may be known to us. In their 
early presence in the geologic series we have evidence of the first beginning of 
a higher type. 

In the same manner it has been discovered that the molecular constitution 
of the elementary substances do not characterize their highest or most distinct 
series, but rather the substances themselves within the lower group or family 
to which they belong. The gaseous, liquid and solid molecular conditions 
being characters distinguishing otherwise allied substances in the same way 
morphologically (we cannot say yet developmentally), as the cartilaginous, 
osseous and exostosed or dermosseous characters distinguish otherwise nearly 
allied genera. 

The "family " group embraces one or many of such series. If we trace the 
series in several families to their simplest or most generalized terms or genera, 
and compare them, we will not find the relation to be one of exact parallelism 
in the series of the "order," so far as our present knowledge extends, but in a 
developmental sense, one of divergence from the commencement. 

If we could know the simplest known terms or family characters of a number 
of groups of families, or "orders," we would probably find them to represent 
a series of exact parallelism, though to find such simplest terms we must go 
far into past periods, since the higher the group the more extensive the range 
of its character, and the less likely to be found unmixed with additions and 
extensions, in modern times. 

Finally, the series of classes is in the relation of the essential characters of 
the same, as expressed in their now extinct, most generalized and simple repre- 
sentatives, also one of "exact parallelism." 

a. Examples of exact parallelism. ^ 

* In generic series. 
1. As an example we may take the genus Trachycephalus (Batrachia Anura). 




Nearly allied to it is the genus Osteocephalus, which diflfers in the normal ex- 
ostosis of the cranium not involving the derm, as in the former. Close to this 
is Scytopis, where the fully ossified cranium is not covered by an exostosis. 
Next below Scytopis is Hyla, where the upper surface of the cranium is not 
ossified at all, but is a membranous roof over a great fontanelle. Still more 
imperfect is Hylella,^ which differs from Hyla in the absence of vomerine teetli. 
Now the genus Trachycephalus. after losing its tail and branchia3, possesses aff 
the characters of the genus Hylella and those of Hyla, either at or just before the 
mature state of the latter, as the ethmoid bone is not always ossified in advance 
of the parietals. It soon, however, becomes a Scytopis, next an Osteocephalus, 
and finally a Trachycephalus. It belongs successively to these genera, for an 
exhaustive anatomical examination has failed to reveal any characters by 
which, during these stages, it could be distinguished from these genera. 

Now it would be a false comparison to say that the young of Trachycephalus 
was identical with the genus Agalychnis, which in truth it resembles, be- 
cause that genus is furnished with one other character, — the presence of a ver- 
tical pupil, — and belongs to another series in consequence, which is represented 
as yet, with our present imperfect knowledge, — or perhaps imperfect fauna, — 
by three genera only. 

2. The lowest type of the near allies of our common fresh- water frogs is the 
genus Ranula, where the prefrontal bones are narrow strips on each side the 
ethmoid cartilage ; the ethmoid cartilage itself entirely unossified above, and 
the vomerine teeth very few and on a small elevation. There are two spe-cies, 
R. a f f i n i s and R. p a 1 m i p e s. The other species have the ethmoid carti- 
lage ossiffied above, at least beneath the extremities of the frontoparietals. 

Those of the latter most like Ranula possess the same type of narrow pre- 
frontals, separated by a broad area of cartilaginous ethmoid, and fasciculi of 
teeth. Of this type is Rana delalandii, and probably R. porosissima 
Steind., of the South Ethiopian region. Other species of the same type extend 
their vomerine patches into lines ; such are R. mascariensis, R. fasci- 
ata, R. oxyrhynchus, R. grayi, and other South African species. 

The prefrontals are subtriangular, and approach each other more or less in 
the numerous species of North America and of the Regio Palajarctica, while 
generally the vomerine teeth are in fascicles or very short series. In the 
Ji^thiopian Rana fuscigula the prefrontals unite on the median line, roof- 
ing over the ethmoid cartilage and reducing it, while the vomerine teeth are 
in very short lines. 

In the species of the Palseotropical region, Rana tigrina, R. vittigera, 
R. cyanophlyctis, R. grunniens, R. hexadactyla, R. corruga- 
ta, R. ehrenbergii, R. gracilis, and the Ethiopian R. occipitalis, 
the prefrontals not only unite solidly (the suture remaining on the median 
line), but extend and closely fit to the frontoparietals. The vomerine series 
have lengthened out into series. 

Now the young of the latter type of Rana (I take as an example the R. ti - 
grina, one of the most abundant and largest of Indian frogs) presents the 
subtriangular prefrontals neither in contact with each other or with the 
fronto-parietals, and the vomerine series is much reduced ; in fact, it belongs 
in all respects to the Palaearctic group. I have not examined younger speci- 
mens, but have no doubt they are like those of the Palaearctic ; the latter, then, 
in their young stage, are precisely of the type of the Ethiopian Rana, with 
fasciculate teeth like the young of those of the same region with teeth in se- 
ries, since the prefrontals are still more reduced, becoming linear. Finally the 
first stage of the Nearctic Rana, after losing the larval tail, is the genus Ra- 
nula,- having linear prefrontals, minute vomerine teeth, and the ethmoid ring 
cartilaginous above. 

These points of stfructure are of generic quality, but I have not regarded any 

*I refer to H. carnea m., not having Reinhardt and Ltltken's type of this genus. 




group as sufficiently defined to be so regarded, except Ranula, as the adults of 
some species appear not to be constant in possessing them. Thus a very large 
Rana catesbyana sometimes exhibits prefrontals in contact on the median 
line, while it is difficult to say whether R. a r e o 1 at a of North America is of 
the Nearctic type so much as of the ^Ethiopian. Nevertheless the groups are 
generally quite geographically restricted. 

3. A similar relation exists between the genera Hyperolius, Staurois and 
Heteroglossa in respect to the prefrontal bones and the separation of the outer 
metatarsi, and — 

4. Between Ixalus, Rhacophorus and Polypedates also, in reference to vo- 
merine teeth, bifurcation of last phalange, and dermoossification of the cra- 

5. When the larvae of certain species of Spelerpes possess branchiae, they 
also lack one digit of the hind foot, also the maxillary, nasal and prefrontal 
bones, and exhibit a broad continuous palatopterygoid arch, in close contact 
with the parasphenoid. The prootic is separated from the exoccipital by a 
membranous space, and the exoccipitals themselves are not yet united above 
the foramen magnum. There is at the same time a series of splenial teeth. 
Both ceratohyals are confluent, the posterior is present, and there are but 
three superior hyoid arghes. After they lose the branchiie, the hinder foot, 
which has four tdfiB only for a time, gradually adds another at first rudimental 
digit, in the Mexican species ; in most North American species the fifih digit ap- 
pears at an early larval stage. Five digits are finally present in all Spelerpes. 

We have thus four combinations of the above characters, at different periods 
of the life history of certain (but not of all) of the species of Spelerpes. There 
exist four permanent series of species or genera, equivalent to these stages. 
The well-known " perennibranchiate " Necturus is nearly identical with the 
first, Batrachoseps with the second, the half-toed Spelerpes with the third, and 
the typical Spelerpes is the last. 

In one character of generic value only, do I find that Necturus differs from 
the early larval Spelerpes. It closes the premaxillary fontanelle with which 
it commences, by an approximation of the premaxillary spines, but not by a 
sutural union, as takes place in Amblystoma. It thus, in this one point, ad- 
vances a stage beyond the condition to which Spelerpes attains, though it 
maybe a question whether such a closure without union should not be classed 
among the specific characters by which N. m aculatus differs from the young 
of the various Spelerpes, as they do from each other. Characters of the latter 
kind are the following: in N. m aculatus the frontals are more deeply 
emarginate behind; it has little or no ala on the inferior keel of the caudal 
vertebrae, which is prominent in Spelerpes larvae. 

It may be that the parallelism in the case of Spelerpes is inexact by one 
character, and that a strictly developmental one ; or it may be regarded other- 

6. It is well known that the Cervidae of the old world develope a basal snag 
of the antler (see Cuvier, Ossem. Fossiles ; Gray, Catal, Brit. Mus.) at the third 
year; a majority of those of the New World (genera Cariacus, Subulo) never 
develop it except in " abnormal " cases in the most vigorous maturity of the 
most northern Cariacus (C. v i r gi n i a n u s) ; while the South American 
Subulo retains to adult age the simple horn of the second year of Cervus! 

Among the higher Cervidae, Rusa and Axis never assume characters beyond 
an equivalent of the fourth year of Cervus. In Dama the characters are on the 
other hand assumed more rapidly than in Cervus, its third year corresponding 
to the fourth of the latter, and the development in after years of a broad plate 
of bone, with points, being substituted for the addition of the corresponding 
snags, thus commencing another series. 

Returning to the American deer, we have Biastocerus, whose antlers are 
Identical with those of the fourth year of Cariacus. 




Now, individuals of the genus Cervus of the second year do not belong to 
iSubulo, because they have not as yet their mature dentition. Rusa, however, 
is Identical with those Oervi whose dentition is complete before they gain the 
antlers of the fifth year. When the first trace of a snag appears on one beam 
of Cariacus virginianus, the dentition includes the full number, but there 

remain _ milk molars much worn and ready to be shed. Perhaps the snag is 

developed before these are displaced. If so, the Cariacus is never a Subulo, 
but there can be little doubt that the young Blastocerus belongs to that genus 
before its adult characters appear. 

7. Leidy states* that certain Perissodactyle remains containing a foot of a 
liorse, contained the teeth of a genus, Merychippus, which has the per- 
manent teeth of Equus, and the deciduous dentition of Anchitherium. He 
observes "the deciduous'and permanent dentitions of both these genera are 
alike, therefore the new genus is in early life an Anchitherum, and later in life 
a true horse." This is therefore a case of exact parallelism, always providing 
that the Merychippus has not added to its immature Equine characters, others 
in other parts of \he body, which invalidate the indentity. In the latter case, 
it will still be an interesting example of the " inexact parallelism." 

8. It is well known that the Cephalopoda form q, number of series of re- 
markable regularity, the advance being in the first place j#the complication 
of the folds of the external margins of the septa, and in the second place in the 
<iegree of involution of one or both extremities of the shell to tfie spiral ; third, 
in the position of the siphon. 

Alpheus Hyatt, in an important essay on this subject,f points out that the 
less complex forms are in many cases identical with the undeveloped condi- 
tions of the more complex. He says : " There is a direct connection between 
the position of a shell in the completed cycle of the life of this order, and its 
own developement. Those shells occupying the extremes of the cycle " (in 
time), " the polar forms, being more embryonic than the intermediate forms. J 
The first epoch of the order is especially the era of rounded, and, in the ma- 
jority of the species, of unornamented shells with simple septa ; the second is 
the era of ornamentation, and the septa are steadily complicating ; in the third 
the complication of the septa, the ornamentation, and the number of species, 
about twice that of any other epoch, all combine to make it the zenith of de- 
velopement in the order; the fourth is distinguishable from all the preceding 
as the era of retrogression in the form, and partially in the septa. 

" The four periods of the individual are similarly arranged, and have com- 
parable characteristics. As has been previously stated, the first is rounded 
and smooth, with simple septa ; the second tuberculated, and the septa more 
complicated ; the third was the only one in which the septa, form and orna- 
mentation simultaneously attained the climax of individual complication; the 
fourth, when amounting to anything more important than the loss of a few 
ornaments, was marked by a retrogression of the whorl to a more tabular as- 
]>ect, and by the partial degradation of the septa." 

I will here quote an entirely antagonistic statement of Bronn's,^ as follows: 
In the development of Lamellibranchiate molluscs " it is not possible to esti- 
mate the successional changes of one genus by those of another, though nearly 
related; so diverse are the most significant relations in the manner of progress 

* Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1858, p. 7. 

f Memoirs Boston Soc. N. Hist, 1866, 193. 

^;He adds here: "Although in regard to geological sequence and structural position 
one of the extremes must be of higher geological rank." The ''highest'" extreme will be 
of higher geological rank according to the complexity of structure and length of develop- 
mental scale, whether it come at the middle or end of the history of the class in time. If, 
as has been the case so far as known, a decline has terminated the history of a class, its 
later forms are zoologically lower than its older ones. Hence the adjective high is only 
appropriate to types of the latter kind, when used as synonymous with extreme. 

g Classen u. Ordnungen des Thierreichs, iii, 445, 



among nearest allies. Therefore embryologic indications are throughout use- 
less in classification, and it is necessary to keep carefully separate the state- 
ments of observations on development of a given species, and not transfer 
such facts to the history of another species for the purpose of completing it. 
We cannot even range these histories in conformity with family groups." For 
us this statement, though no doubt largely true, is an indication of imperfec- 
tion, first, of knowledge of true affinities of recent, but especially of extinct 
adults, and second, of imperfection of knowledge of development. The posi- 
tion appears to be based on negative evidence, while the opposing can and 
does stand on nothing but positive. 

0. Examples of the inexact parallelism. 
1. The genera of the Batrachian family Scaphiopodidae form a series of steps 
differing a little more than as repressions or permanent primary conditions 
in the development of the highest.* Thus two of the genera, which are North 
American, maintain their tubae eustachii and tympanum through life, while 
three European lose them at an early period. The three European genera also 
advance beyond the larval character of the American in the ossification of the 
basis of the xiphisternum into a broad style. Thus we have two series estab- 
lished, which differ only in the two characters named. Each shows its devel- 
opmental steps in a similar manner, the European series extending further ; 
thus, — 

European. North American. 

1. Temporal fossa over arched. 

Cultripes. * * 

Temporal roof not ossified. 
2 Fronto-parietal bones ossified, involving 

Pelobates. Scaphiopus. 

3. Fronto-parietals ossified, distinct from 


* * (Unknown.) * * • 

4. Pronto parietals not ossified, distinct 

from derm. ^ 

Didocus. Spea. 

In this case Didocus cannot be said to be identical as a genus with an un^ 
developed stage of Cultripes, since while the cranium of the latter is in the 
condition of Didocus it bears a long tail, and the limbs are but little developed. 
Nor is Didocus identical with the undeveloped condition of Pelobates, since 
both cranium and limbs of the latter are developed before the tail is absorbed. 
Nor is Pelobates identical with the undeveleped condition of (^'ultripes, since 
while the cranium of the latter is that of the former, the limbs and tail are still 
larval. The same relations exist between the other members of the family. 
The genus Scaphiopus is not an undeveloped form of Pelobates as to its audi- 
tory organs, for when the latter is identical with the former in this resjjcct, it 
bears otherwise entirely larval characters. Nor is Spea an arrested Scaphio- 
pus, the relation being here precisely that between Didocus and Pelobates. 
Spea approaches more closely an arrested Didocus in all respects, but that 
when the latter posesses the auditory apparatusf of the former, it is a larva in 
limbs and tail, and that it loses this apparatus before reaching the other 
cTiaracters of Spea. The relations of these genera, as compared with those of 
the Trachycephalus, Cystignathidie and Bufo series, may be represented as fol- 
lows: the lines represent the developmental scale of each. 
— — — ♦— 

*8ee Jouniiil Acrtdemy, 18()(5, on Arcifera. 

tThe of caviim tympaniAnd tuba Eustachii in the undeveloped condition of 
this Kcniis in only as.sumed from its close relation to Polohates. 

J Ac('()r(iin^ to Uriich and Tscliudi in Pelobatow. I iiavo found traces of tlie eustachian 
diverticula in a tailed Pelobates f us c us, whose body nieuBurod 1 in. 4 liu., from Mue. 
Peabody Institute, Halcm, Mass. 

1868.] 17 



elations between the terms of 
the different series, Heterolo- 
gy or Eemote Parallelism. 


: : 




bC bC 



X m 


S 3 



« pq 




















K o a 



. liJ — < 

; c8 3 

73 • 

0) ■ 

03 ^ 

O ^ 

>< 2 

05 Oi 

o .2 

This is an example of the simplest case of 
inexact parallelism, as distinguished from the 
exact parallelism or identity. As the fauna 
of the present period is but a fragment, so the 
simple inexact is a more frequent relation 
than the exact, while the more complex in- 
exact relation is still more common. The 
greater the inexactitude, the more frequently 
do such parallels occur, till we have those' 
of the most remote character, as, for instance, 
the parallelism between the different stages 
of the development of the mammal, in the 
structure of the heart and and origins of the 
aorta, and the existing classes of vertebrates. 
The relation of these facts to the origin of 
genera will be noted hereafter. 

It will be borne in mind that in the Sca- 
phiopodidae the generic types are identical 
for a long portion of their developmental his- 

2. In both Perissodactylous and Artiodac- 
tylous Mammalia, certain types develop their 
family character of canines at the earliest ap- 
pearance of dentition, others not till a com- 
paratively late period of life (Equus), and 
the extreme genera never produce them. 

3. Among Cetaceans the genus Orca main- 
tains a powerful and permanent series of 
teeth, which is an important generic charac- 
ter. In Beluga the series is shed in old age, 
in Globiocephalus, or the Caing whales, they 
are shed at middle age, while in the Bala^nidai, 
of which the absence of teeth is an essential 
cTiaracter, these ^rgans are developed and ab- 
sorbed during foetal life (Eschricht). Though 
the condition of the teeth is not of sj'^stem- 
atic value in the two named intermediate 
genera, it is the important feature in the his- 
tory of progress to such value. 

4. Among the tortoises, the Testudinidae 
rapidly extend the ribs into a carapace, which 
fits closely the marginal bones, while equally 
early in life the elements of the sternum unite 
together. This is also the case with most Eray- 
didae ; among whose genera, however, we find 
the transitional scale. In Dermatemys and 
Batagur the carapace is very late in attaining 
its complete ossification, while the plastron is 
early finished. In Chelydra, on the other 
hand, while the carapace is even more slowly 
developed, the plastron is never free from its 
larval fontanelles. In the marine turtles 
neither plastron or carapace is ever com- 
pleted, while in the Trionychidae the marginal 
bones are also entirely undeveloped. 

In order that this last illustration be a true 
one for the theory in question, as applied to 
the families, these developmental characters 



should be the true distinctive features of these families respectively. This, 
as is well known, they are not. The Cheloniidse are characterized by the 
form of their anterior limbs, which is in an adapted structure, while the Tes- 
tudinidae similarly are distinguished by an extreme opposite modification of 
foot-structure, adapted to an extreme difference of habit. Here there is an 
example of the co-working of both laws. Nevertheless, we only claim at pre- 
sent to show the developmental relation o^ genera of the same family and the 
same series. This we see among the Emydidae. 

5. In the important character of the scutellation of the tarsi among the 
Passerine birds, the "boot" appears early in life in the highest Oscines, later 
in the lower, and does not appear at all in the majoritv. In respect to the still 
more important feature of the long posterior plates which appear very early in 
most Oscines, in the Myiadestes type* they appear late, th^ squamae remaining 
long, while the Clamatores never develop the plates, not advancing beyond the 
infantile squamous stage. 

6. It has been shown by Falconer that the genera of great Proboscidians 
form a remarkably regular and graded series, distinguished by their denti- 
tion. These are Dinotherium Kaup, Trilophodon Falc.f Mastodon Cuv., 
Pentalophodon Falc, Stegodon Falc, Loxodon F. Cuv., and Elephas Linn. 
In the first there are but two cross crests on the third molars, and a pair 
of permanent mandibular tusks ; in the second, three cross crests and man- 
dibular tusks only permanent in some males ; in the third, four cross crests 
and the mandibular tusks all deciduous; in the fourth, five cross crests 
on the third molar; tusks unknown. In Stegodon the tusks cease to ap- 
pear, the crests of the third molar become more numerous, and embrace 
between them, in the bottoms of the valleys, a strong deposit of ccmentum. 
In Loxodon the crests have the whole interspaces filled with cementum, while 
the same thing holds in Elephas, with a greatly increased number of cross 
crests, which become vertical laminae. The laminar character has become 
apparent from its rudimental condition in Stegodon. 

Now these are stages of development, though not in a continuous, single line. 
The shedding of the inferior tusks takes place earlier and earlier in the genera 
from Dinotherium, till they never appear in Stegodon. The molar teeth, it is 
well known, present, as they succeed each 6ther from back to front, a regu- 
larly increasing number of transverse crests in the same species. Thus, in 
'Trilophodon ohioticus the first molar presents but two, while the last 
'presents six. The last molars of other genera present a very much increased 
number. What is it then, but that the increased number of crests in the third 
molar, definitive of these genera, is an acceleration of growth ; the fourth 
in Trilophodon is structurally third in Mastodon, and the fourth of Mas- 
todon being third in Pentalophodon, the fourth of Pentalophodon becoming 
third in Stegodon, and so to the end ? This is confirmed from the proven fact of 
the disappearance of the premolars. They are fewer in TrilophodonJ than in 

•Baird, Review Birds N. America. 

t The genus Mastodon, as left by Cuvier, embraced two genera, as has been clearly shown 
by that excellent paheantologist, the late Dr. Falconer. lie named these genera Trilopho- 
don and Tetralophodon. It appears to us that this was unnecessary, as he was aware 
that Dr. Godman had named the American Mastodon Tetracaulodon iVom its sometimes 
persistent inferior tusks, a character distinguishing it from the later genera of the series 
though not so trenchantly as the three crests of its third molar, as pointed out by Fal- 
coner. As this group was taken from the ('uvierian Mastodon, it should retain Godnian's 
name, for the T. o h i o t i e u s, the T. a n g u s t i d e n s and T. h u m b o I d i i, while Cuvier's 
name should be preserved for the remainder, viz., M. longirostris, M. borsoni M 
a r V e r n e n s i s, etc., the Tftralophodons of Falconer. ' 

JThe two-crested and first three-crested molars are usually called milk molars, becnnse 
early shed. As, however, they arc not succeeded by any snl)soqnent teeth, but are similar 
to thos(( which lie behind them in the jaw, I cannot see why they are not true premolars 
I-)r. Warren, in his monograph of Mastodon oh i o t i c n s, says "This is called tlie tliird 
deciduous tooth, l)ut why it is more entitled to tliis epithet than the two which follow it 
would be (liflicfilt to d<>termine. Are not the first and second 8o-(!alled permanent teeth 
equally deciduous, since they are shed, and leave the last permanent molar solifurv'" 
V. p. m. Flower says (Transac. Koyal Society, 18r.7. (KJH), "In the Dugong and in the ex- 
isting Elephants the suocossionttl process is iimitod to tlio incisor teeth." 

1868.] / 




Dinotherium, and soon shed; they are also early shed in Mastodon and Stego- 
don (insignis Falc. Caut.) and are not known to exist in the succeeding 
types ; the acceleration of succession of teeth has caused them to be entirely 
omitted. The young tooth of Elephas moreover is represented by a series of 
independent parallel laminae at first, which, when they unite, form a series of 
crests similar to the type of the genus Mastodon and others of the beginning 
of the series. The deposit of cementum takes place later, till the valleys are 
entirely filled up. Thus the relations of this part of the tooth structure in the 
•series are also those of the successional growth of those of Elephas, or the ex- 
treme of the series. 

It would be only necessary to show that two distinct conditions in any of 
these respects occurred among the diflferent individuals of the same species of 
any of these genera, to render a hypothesis of evolution a demonstrated fact. 

It must be here observed that great size indicates little or nothing as to 
zoological rank. It merely indicates the expenditure of a large amount of 
stored vegetative force in the individuals of the group, however limited, which 
exhibits it. The greatest species are often not far removed in affinity from the 
least ; thus there can be but little doubt that Elephants are not far removed 
from the Rodents, and the Rhinoceros is near the Cony. Indeed, in the same 
genus the most extraordinary diversity prevails, for we have a very small Ele- 
phant of Malta, and in the Miocene of Maryland a fin-back whale not so large 
as the new-born young of the fin-backs now living. Hence Prof. Dana's ob- 
jection* to the developmental hypothesis, based on the great size of the 
primal Selachians and Ganoids, has but little weight. 

7. Rathke has shown that the arteria ophthalmica of the higher Ophidians 
is originally a branch of the arteria cerebralis anterior, and that it later forms 
a connection with the arteria facialis. This connection increases in strength, 
while the other diminishes, until finally its supply of blood is derived from the 
facialis instead of the cerebralis. 

Rathke has also shown that the cerebral origin of this artery is continued 
through life in the three lowest suborders of the serpents, the Scolecophidia, 
Catodonta and Tortricina ; also in the next succeeding group, the Peropoda. 

8. In most serpents the left lung is never developed ; in such the pulmonary 
artery instead of being totally wanting, remains as a posterior aorta bow, con- 
nected with the aorta by a ductus botalli ; serpents without left lung being 
therefore identical in this respect with the embryonic type of those in which, 
that lung exists. 

9. Dr. Lespes states that the optic region of the brain of blind cave Coleop- 
tera, examined by him, is similar in structure to that in the blind larvae of 
Coleoptera, whose images possess visual organs. 

f 10, Those Saurians, (IJromastix, etc.,) in which the premaxillary region 
is produced into a uniform cutting edge, are furnished during early stages 
with a series of premaxillary teeth, which become gradually fused and con- 
fluent with the alveolar margin. Hence other Acrodonts are equivalent, in 
this respect, to the young of Uromastix, etc. The same thing occurs among the 
Scaroid and Labroid fishes. In this most natural family we find the ma- 
jority of generic forms provided with a normal complete dentition; in others 
(Chaerops, Xiphochilus, Pseudodax, etc.,) the lateral teeth are gradually and 
normally replaced by a more or less cutting edge of the mandible; and finally, 
in the Scarina and Odacina the entire mass of teeth and jaws are coalesced, 
forming a beak with sharp cutting edges, the single teeth being still visible in 
the true Scarus, while they have entirely disappeared in adult Pseudoscarus 
and Odax.J Thus in dentition the adult Scarus is identical with not fully 
developed Odax ; Chaerops with the teeth less confluent, equals a still younger 

* Manual of Geology, p. 

t See under section on acceleration and retardation. 

X Gimther on Hatteria, Philosophical Transactions, 1867, II. I had already noticed the 
peculiar development in Uromastix, but not published it. 





Stage of Odax, while those with distinct teeth are the same in this point as 
the embryos of the highest — Odax, etc. I venture to predict that here will be 
found a long series of exact parallelism, in which the different genera, resting 
exclusively on these dental characters, will be found to be identical generically 
w4th the various stages of the successively most advanced. 

11. Professor Agassiz states that the absence of ventral fins is characteristic 
of an embryonic condition of the Cyprinodont fishes. The genus Orestias 
does not progress beyond this stage in this one point. Probably the genus 
will be found which will only differ from Orestias in the presence of ventral 
fins. If so, Orestias will be identical with an imperfect stage of that genus, 
if, as will probably be the case, the fins appear in the latter, after other struc- 
tures are fully completed. 

yy. Parallelism in Higher Groups. 

It is not to be anticipated that the series of genera exhibiting exact parallel- 
ism can embrace many such terms, since comparatively few stages in the de- 
velopmental condition of the same part in the highest, would bring us back to 
a larval condition, which, as far as we yet know, has no exact parallel among 
existing genera. But it is to be believed that the lowest terms of a number 
of the most nearly allied of such series, do of themselves form another series 
of exact parallelisms. 

Thus exact parallelism between existing genera of mammals ceases with all 
characters which are larval or foetal only prior to the assumption of the adult 
dentition, since among the higher mammalia at least we know of no genus 
which, However similar to undeveloped stages of the higher, never loses the 
milk dentition. It is nevertheless an important fact that, among smooth 
brained mammals, or many of them, but one tooth of the second series ap- 
pears; and inasmuch as smooth brained forms of the higher orders have be- 
come extinct, it is not too much to anticipate that a type of permanent milk 
dentition will be found among the extinct forms of the same high orders. 

As an example of exact parallelism in series of series, I select the follow- 
ing •• 

1. in the" Batrachian family Cystignathidae there are six groups or sets of 
genera. In the highest of these we have an ossified cranium and xiphisternum 
— i. e. in the Cystignathi ; in the Pleurodemae the cranium is not ossified, thus 
representing the Cystignathi while incomplete ; in the Criniae the xiphister- 
num is cartilaginous, as well as the fronto-parietal region, being an equiva- 
lent of a still lower stage of the Cystignathi. From this simplest type we can 
find a rising series by a different combination of characters ; thus the Cera- 
tophydes add an osseous cranium to the incomplete xiphisternum, while two 
succeeding groups diverge from each other at the start, the Pseudes loosening 
the outer metatarsus in their development to maturity, while the Hylodes add 
by degrees a cross-limb to the last phalange. The Ceratophrydes and Criniae 
are stages in the development of these, but neither one of them is a step in 
the development of the other. They are measured by adaptive characters 

2. The whole suborder of the Anurous Batrachia, to which the above family 
belongs, the Arcifera, differs from the suborder Raniformia by a character 
which distinguishes a primary stage of growth of the latter from its fully de- 
veloped form. That is, the Raniformia present, at one period of their devel- 
opment, a pair of parallel or over-lapping curved cartilages, connecting the 
the procoracoid and coracoid bones, which subsequently unite and become a 
single, slender median, scarcely visible rod, while the bones named expand 
and meet. The first condition is the permanent and sole systematic character 
of the Arcifera.* 

♦ This may be readily understood by comparing my monograph of the Aroifem, Journ. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1860, with Duges work, or Gegenbaur & Porker's memoirs on the siioul- 
der girdle. ' 

1868.] / 



Objection. — It may be objected by those who have observed some of these 
developmental relations, that they are exhibited by certain single structures 
only, and not by whole organisms. These objectors must not forget that the 
distinctions of those groups, whi- h alone we have in one geological period 
in a relation of near affinity, exist in single characters only ; and that it is 
therefore infinitely probable that the higher groups, when we come to know 
their representatives with the same completeness, will prove to be separated 
by single characters of difference also. 

3. The following table is here introduced to illustrate the relations of groups 
higher than the preceding. This is largely measured by the circulatory sys- 
tem, not only as to the class relations, but also as regards orders. In its less 
central portions it is, however, definitive of families at times.* [The reader is 
here referred to the table commencing on p. 256.] 

If the reader will compare the history of the development of vertebrates of 
any class or order, as those of Teleosts and the lizard by Lereboullet, of the 
snake and tortoise by Rathke and Agassiz, and of the bird and mammal by 
Von Baer, he will find the most complete examples of the inexact parallelism 
of the lower types with the embryonic stages of the higher. A few points are 
selected as examples, from the histories included in a few of the columns of the 
table, and given at its end. 

Similar parallels may be found to exist in the most beautiful manner be- 
tween the adult anatomy and structure of the urogenital apparatus within 
each class of the series taken separately, as indicating ordinal relationship. 
This department is, however, omitted for the present. 

As an example of the homologies derivable from the circulatory system, and 
of the use of the preceding table, I give the following relations between the 
types of the origins of the aorta. f 

The single ventricle of Teleostei is no doubt homologous with that of Lepi- 
dosteus, and that of Lepidosiren. The arteria vesicse nataloTise, which is the 
homologue of the A. pulmonalis of air breathers, issues in Lepidosteus from 
the last vena branchialis. thus receiving aerated blood from the gills In Lepi- 
dosiren it issues from the point of junction of two gilless and two gill-bearing 
venx branchiales, thus receiving mixed blue and red blood, or blue blood 
altogether, when the branchiae are not in functional activity. In Proteus it 
issues from the last vena branchiaJis, where it receives the ductus botalli of the 
preceding vein, which, when the gill is inactive, becomes a gilless aorta-bow, 
which brings it only carbonized blood, which it readily aerates in the swim 
bladder, now become a lung. The ventricle is homologous with the preced- 
ing. In Salamanders, where the substitution of the accessory gill arches by 
the ductus botalli^ converts the arterise and vense branchiales into " aorta-bows," 
the A. pulmonalis is given off from the posterior bow, and receives henceforth 
mixed blood. In the Anura the origin is the same but nearer the heart. In 
Grymnophidia it approaches the heart so far as to issue from the extremity of the 
bulbus arteriosus, which is now divided by an incomplete septum, one half 
conveying blood to the aorta roots, and the other to the A. pulmonalis. This 
septum was already preceded by a longitudinal valve with free margin in the 
Anura ! As if to meet the coming event, a trace of ventricular septum 
appears at the apex within. There can now be no question of the homology 
of the ventricles of the gar, and of the Caecilia. But we have next the true 
Reptilia. The Bulbus arteriosus is split externally, as it already was inter- 
nally, but it is first represented in most Tortoises by an adherent portion, one- 

*This sketch is not nearly complete, but is published in hopes of its being useful to 
students. It is compiled from the works of Meckel, Rathke, Barkow, Muller, Hyrtl, 
Briieke. Stannius and others, in connection with numerous dissections. 

t Professor Agassiz (Contrib. Nat. Hist. U. S., I 285) states that the ventricle of the Tes- 
tudinata " is not any more identical with the one ventricle of fishes, than with the two 
ventricles of warm blooded vertebrata; for in fishes we find only one vessel, the aorta, 
arising from it, while in Turtles both the aorta and arteria pulmonalis start together from 
it." We think this statement, which, if true, is destructive to the asserted homologies of 
the circulatory system, cannot be substantiated, for the reasons above given. 



half being the now, to this point, independent arteria pulmonalis and the other 
the nearly split aorta roots. There can, I think, be little question of the exac- 
titude of the homology throughout. 

It is no less certain that the Salamander* fulfils in its development the dif- 
ferent stages to its permanent one, and is identical in each stage, in respect to 
this pointy v^Wa the orders it represents at the time. This is true even of the long 
period during which it bears the long branchial appendages and contained 
arteries and veins which are not found in fishes ; it is then like the Pro- 
topterus, which has hyoid venous arches and appendages of those arches 
at the same time. The Tortoise f and Tropidonotus, X are also identical in 
their successive stages with the types already enumerated, the external or 
appendicular branchial vessels being omitted as belonging to the special serial 
development of the line of air-breathing Anallantoidans. The division of the 
bulbus arteriosus into three instead of two may indicate a case of ineocact par- 
allelism^ but on the other hand it may be that the pulmonary partition is com- 
pleted a little before the aorta-root partition, thus passing through the Batra- 
chian permanent type. For explanations of inexactitude see under Part II. 
No doubt the Batrachian type of bulbus arteriosus is passed by many serpents 
less extreme and specialized than the Tropidonotus. 

The aortic and pulmonary divisions of the bulbus in the Cfecilia are not 
laterally placed, but one is dorsal and the other ventral, the one passing a 
little spirally to the right of the other. So the pulmonary division of the 
bulbus turns over to the right in the Anura. When the septum of the true 
reptiles appears it rises on the anterior wall of the ventricle till it is seen in 
Eunectes to meet the partition between the arteria pulmonalis and aorta-roots, 
and we have at once the right and left ventricles of the bird and mammal 
structurally and functionally. Thus are the two ventricles of man the same 
as the one ventricle of the fish, merely divided by a septum.^ 

In the fissure of the aortic bulbus in the reptiles a spiral turn is again given, 
and in Testudo the one aorta-root issues behind the other. In the Crocodile 
the turn is still greater, and the right aorta-root issues to the left of the left 
root, and vice versa. In the birds we have lost the left root, and parallelism 
ceases with this change. In the mammalia the right root turns to the lef», 
so that in the comparison of these classes the rule of Von Baer above quoted 
is true ; no mammal at present known is identical in a foetal stage with any 
fully grown bird, but with a foetus of the same, up to a certain point. But 
for both classes the parallelism of those below them holds true. 

But it is with the exact parallelism or identity of genera that we have to do 
in the present essay. That being established, the inexact parallelism between 
the modern representatives of higher groups, follows by a process of reduc- 

/. The extent of parallelism. 

Prof. De Serres and others have stated it as their belief that the lower 
" branches " of the animal kingdom are identical with the undeveloped forms 
of the higher ; i. e. that the mollusc and articulate are not merely parallel 
with, but the same as the lower conditions of the vertebrate. The works of 
various embryologists as Von Baer and Lereboullet, have shown this state- 
ment to be erroneous " and founded on false and deceptive appearances." The 
embryos of the four great branches of the animal kingdom appear to be dis- 
tinct in essential characters, from their first appearance. But Lereboullet, who, 
in his prize essay, has compared with care the development of the trout, pike, 

• Amblystoma. f Agasslz. % Rathke. 

§ ApisHiz, 1. c.dftnioH the homoloj^y of the ventricles of the turtle find mammnl, but it 
appears to mo erronoouHly. He ways : " The fact that the great blood veswels (aorta ami 
art. pulmonalis) start together from the oavum venosuni seems to prove that the two cavi- 
ties in the heart of turtles, which are by no means very marked, do not correBpond to the 
two ventricles in mammalia and birds." 




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and perch of the Teleosts, with that of a Lacerta among reptiles, has failed 
10 point out characters by which the embryos of the two vertebrate classes 
essentially differ, for a considerable period. It is true, that as each and all of 
the species belong to widely different generic series, parallelism is of the kind 
to be called inexact or remote. But enough is known of embryology and pale- 
ontology to render it extremely probable that the historic predecessors of 
the types whose embryology LerebouUet studied, formed a series of parallels of 
the kind termed in this essay exact. 

LerebouUet states that a certain difference exists between the eggs of the 
fishes and those of the Lacerta. This is for us merely stating that the parents 
of the embryos differ, a fact which no one will contest. I he same may be 
said of the elevated or depressed character of the surface of the vitellus on 
which the embryo reposes. v 

Secondly, after the appearance of the embryo the Lacerta is furnished 
with the amnios and allantois, the Teliost not. This is certainly neither a 
generic, ordinal nor class character of the adult, for it is but temporary ; 
therefor^ in generic, ordinal and class characters the 'embryos of the Teliost 
and Reptile are still identical. It is a physiological character and not mor- 
phological, and therefore far the less likely to be a permanent one, even in 
embryos, under changed circumstances. The female of one of the species of 
Trachycephalus inverts the skin of the back at one season of the year to re- 
ceive her eggs, because she cannot lay them in the water ; the other species of 
the genus do not. The next genus in direct morphological line possesses a 
single species whose female does the same for the same reason ; but the rela- 
tions of these species and genera are zoologically the same as though this 
modification did not occur. Many such instances will occur to many natu- 
ralists. It is not pretended that they are as important as the presence of the 
allantois ,• but they constitute % character no doubt sinular in kind, and en- 
tirely at the service of the needs of the great system of morphological suc- 
cession. The same may be said of the vascular area of the Reptile. 

LerebouUet concludes his summary of the differences between the Teliost 
and Reptile, up to the period of completion of the heart, by saying '^ It is easy 
to perceive that all these differences, however important they may appear, are 
constituted by the accessory organs of the embryo, and do not modify the 
development of the latter, which progresses in reality exactly as in the fishes." 
He says the same previously, as to the relation of' the same to the bird and 

We have then in the embryos of the lower vertebrates at a certain time in 
the history of each, an " exact parallelism " or identity with the embryonic 
condition of the type which progresses to the next degree beyond it, and of all 
the other types which progress successively to more distant extremes. 

We have, however, so far, every reason to suppose that the embryos of the 
other branches of animals never present an exact parallelism with those of 
the vertebrata. 

The embryo of the fish and that of the reptile and mammal may be said to 
be generically if not specifically identical up to the point where preparation 
for the aerial respiration of the latter appears. They each take different lines 
at this point- The fish diverges from the course of the reptile and proceeds 
to a different goal ; the shark does the same, but proceeds a shorter distance, 
while the Dermopter scarcely leaves the point of departure. No doubt tliere 
have been types which never left this point, and whose plan or eirculo tort/ system 
is identical with that of the embryo Reptile and Mammal Such a type was only 
generically different from the reptile or mammal which had only taken the iucceeding 
step^ provided other structures were not super-added. 

By comparing the development of types of different classes in certain features 
which are only ordinal or generic in meaning, very erroneous conclusions may 
be reached by the inexact student, as to the want of parallelism of classes to 
each other. Thus Rathke says of the development of the eye of the Tropi- 




donotus at a certain period, that it is far in advance of that of the mammal at 
the same stage. Here, says the objector, is a case where their parallelisms do 
not coincide; the mammal is really similar to a younger stage of the Reptile. 

But, in fact, the size of the eye is but a generic or family character ; if the 
development of the lemur had been compared with the snake, ihe mammal 
would have been found to be in advance ; if the mole, much farther behind. 
If the snake selected were the purblind Atractaspis, almost any mammal would 
have been in advance ; if, on the other hand, the great eyed Dipsas, but few 
mammalia would have been parallel to it. 

In a word, to find exact parallelism it is necessary to examine the closest 

It is also of first importance to distinguish between the existence of generic or 
higher chajacters, and their condition under various circumstances of individual 
life. If a foetal or larval character be conserved through the adult life of a 
type, it will be of course adapted to the functions of mature age. Thus the 
undeveloped character of the horns of the genus of deer, Rusa, are not accom- 
panied with the marks of individual youth of the corresponding stage of Cer- 
vus; its individuals are fully grown an^ functionally t^qv\qq.%. The species of 
Hyla are not small and incapable of self preservation and reproduction, as is 
the corresponding stage of Trachycephalus ; they are functionally developed. 
The student need not be surprised, then, if, when identity or exact parallelism 
is asserted, he finds some differences dependent on age and adaptation, for if he 
be an anatomist he need not be informed that a morphological relation consti- 
tutes types what they are, not a physiological. 

II. Of retardation and acceleration in generic characters. 
First. Of adult metamorphosis. 

The question has necessarily arisen — have these remarkable relations between 
genera resulted from an arrangement of distinct generations according to a 
permanent scale of harmony, or have the same genetic series of individuals 
been made to assume the different positions, at the same or different periods of 
the earth's history.* 

Prof. Marcel de Serres proposed the theory of repressions of development to 
account for the existence of the lower groups of animals as now existing^ an 
error easily exposed, as has been done by Lereboullet in his various important 
embryological writings. But little observation is sufficient to prove that a 
mammal is not a shark where it has five gill arches or aorta bows, nor a batra- 
chian where it has three, or a reptile where it has the two aorta-roots. This 
has been already sufficiently pointed out by Von Baer, who says there is 
" Kein Rede," of such a theory as was afterwards proposed by de Serres. 
Thus are true the rules propounded by this author. f 3. "Each embryo of a 
given animal type, instead of passing through the other given animal found, 
diverges still more from it." 4. " In the basis, therefore, the embryo of a 
higher animal type is never identical with an inferior type, but with the em- 
bryo only of the latter." 

* Some naturalists seem to imagine that the demonstration of the existence of interme- 
diate types is only necessary to establish a developmental hypothesis. Thus Dr. Dohrn 
(Ann. Magaz. N. Hist., 1868), writing of his discovery of that most interesting genus Euge- 
reon, which combines characters of Neuroptera with those of Hemiptera, does not hesi- 
tate to say that it proves the truth of Darwin's theory. Now it appears to me that a dem- 
onstration'of the existence of a regularly graduated succession of types from the monad to 
man, would be only the mmor of a syllogism without its major, in evidence for develop- 
ment, so long as the proof of transition of one step into another is wanting; and the idea 
that such a discovery could establish a developmental theory is entirely unfounded. 
Indeed the reasoning in which some indulge— if we dare so call the spurious article — 
based on this premise alone, is unworthy of science. The successional relation of types, 
though a most important element in our argument, has been long known to many who 
give no sanction to the idea of development. 

t Entwickelungsgesehiehte, 224. 




I think that I have already made some progress in proving that the near or 
true generic relationship is one of absolute developmental repression or 
advance. Palaeontology shows that families and orders, as now existing, were 
preceded in time by groups which are synthetic or comprehensive, combining 
the common characters of modern generic series. This process of synthesis 
must, it is obvious, if continued, result in the near approximation of the single 
representatives of the now numerous and diverse groups. There is every reason 
to believe that a backward view through time will show this to have prevailed 
throughout the vertebrata and other branches, as we already can in part prove. 
And I have no doubt that the synthetic types, which represent modern orders, 
have existed in a generic relationship subordinate to the plan of the synthetic 
class, and that the latter have existed as genera only, of the type of the great 
branch. This is not ideal. We only have to look to our extiact ganoids, 
Archegosaurs, Labyrinthodonts, Compsognathus, Archaiopteryx, Ornitho- 
rhynchus, etc., to realize these facts. 

The first genera then formed a scale of which the members were identical 
with the undeveloped stages of the highest, and each to each according to 
their position. 

Such a series of antitypic groups having been thus established, our present 
knowledge will only permit us to suppose that the resulting and now existing 
kingdoms and classes of animals and plants were conceived by the Creator 
according to a plan of his own, according to his pleasure. That directions or 
lines of development towards these ends were ordained, and certain laws ap- 
plied for their realization. That these laws are the before-mentioned law of 


The first consists in a continual crowding backwards of the successive steps 
of individual development, so that the period of reproduction, while occurring 
periodically with the change of the year, falls later and later in the life his- 
tory of the species, conferring upon its offspring features in advance of those 
possessed by its predecessors, in the line already laid down partly by a 
prior suppression on a higher platform, and partly as above supposed, by 
the special creative plan. This progressive crowding back of stages is not, 
however, supposed to have progressed regularly. On the contrary, in the de- 
velopment of all animals there are well-known periods when the most impor- 
tant transitions are accomplished in an incredibly short space of time, (as the 
passage of man through the stages of the aorta bows, and the production of 
limbs in Batrachia Anura;) while other transitions occupy long periods, and 
apparently little progress is made. 

The rapid change is called metamorphosis ; the intervening stages may be 
called larval or pupal. The most familiar examples are those which come 
latest in life, and hence are most easily observed, as in the insects and frogs. 
When, during the substationary period, the species reproduces, a constancy 
of type is the result; when the metamorphosis only appears at the period of 
reproduction a protean type is the result ; wh^n the metamorphosis is crowded 
back to an earlier period of life, then we have another persistent type, but a 
new genus of a higher grade than its predecessor. 

In reviewing many examples everywhere coming under the eye of the natu- 
ralist, it is easy to perceive what would constitute a plastic and what a con- 
served condition of generic, or even of specific form. 

As one or more periods in the life of every species is characterized by a 
greater rapidity of development (or metamorphosis) than the remainder, so in 
proportion to the approximation of such a period to the epoch of maturity or 
reproduction, is the offspring liable to variation. During the periods corres- 
ponding to those between the rapid metamorphoses the characters of the genus 
would be preserved unaltered, though the period of change would bo ever 

Hence the transformation of genera may have been rapid and abrupt, and 
the intervening periods of persistency very long ; for it is ever true that the 




macrocosm is a parallel or repetition of the microcosm in matter and mind. 
As the development of the individual, so the development of the genus. 
We may add — so the development of the whole of organized beings. 

These metamorphoses may be fitly compared to those in the molecular con- 
stitution of matter.' The force of cohesion between the atoms of a vapor 
steadily increases with descending temperature, and in a regular ratio, till a 
given point is reached, when a sudden metamorphosis to a denser, or liquid 
condition takes place. Nor have we reason to believe, with regard to many 
substances, that there is any parallel relation between the temperature and 
the molecular constitution before or after the metamorphosis takes place. 
So the temperature continuing to descend, the molecular character of the 
liquid remains unchanged until the vis conservatriz suddenly giving way at the 
ordained point, a solid is the result. Thus while the change is really progress- 
ing the external features remain unchanged at other than those points, which 
may be called expression points. 

Now the expression point of a new generic type is reached when its appearance 
in the adult falls so far prior to the period of reproduction as to transmit it to 
the offspring and to their descendants, until another expression point of pro- 
gress be reached; 

Thus a developmental succession does not so obliterate the lines drawn 
around nature's types as to render our system ineffectual as an expression of 

The successional acceleration or retardation in metamorphosis may be best 
illustrated in the cases selected above, by the following tables. These are 
taken, it will be remembered, "from the Bufonidae and Hylidae as examples of 
*' exact parallelism ;" three are now added from the Ranidse and Discoglos- 
sidse. The case of "inexact parallelism" is that of the Scaphiopodidse. 

Whether they are cases of acceleration or retardation can only be deter- 
mined by reference to the palaeontology of the respective groups, or a careful 
comparison of times of metamorphosis. In the case of the Discoglossidse I 
suspect it to be retardation, as the highest genus is extinct. The others I 
shall arrange with them for temporary convenience. Were I dealing with a 
group of Ganoids, I should imagine the process to be retardation, as this 
group is going out of existence. On the other hand, were they higher 
Oscine birds we might imagine the case to be reversed. 


Series No. 1. No. 2. No. 3 

Bombinator..Hyla Epidalea. 


140th gen. 


120th gen. 


100th gen. 

e Pf 


80th gen. 

e Pf 


60th gen. 

e. Pf F 


40th gen. 




20th gen. 


?F : 



1st gen. 

: 1 

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ratus. (S 
ront ossi 
ose tail. 




35 fD m 



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Scytopis Bufo sp. 

Osteoeephalus Bufo sp. 

Latonia Trachycephalus.... Pel taphryne* 

* A parotoid gland of small size is added herCjlaut is not generic as compared with Bom- 
binator, as the latter has collections of crypts on the same region and over the body. 






T : 

T F : 

T F Ex : 

T F Ex : 



f No Yom. teeth. 
Ixalus. \ Sometimes " 

» S,t3 g CO 

Polype dates. 

O P O SL- 

[ Always 

Points not attained. 


oq Q 










Tail lost (re- 

Temp, roof 

Ossif. front 

Hatch ng. 



In the preceding diagrams each horizontal column represents the life history 
of the individuals of each genus. The line of dots, stars, etc., represents 
the same developmental stage of each, as it appears earlier or later in the life 
of the individuals. The point of crossing the breeding period is that al 
which the character is rendered permanent. When the change falls on this 
period the character is not generic, as in Ixalus, Tab. II. The period of losing 
the tail, like that of breeding, is represented as occurring at nearly the same 
time in the history of every genus, as it is generally seasonal. Yet this is not 
alvs^ays so, and like the other characters has most likely had its period of 
shifting. Compare difference of time of development, for instance, of the 
frontal and prefrontal bones in Tabs. I. and IV. The comparison of the adult 
stages of the less developed genera, at the tops of the columns, with the 
larval conditions of those more fully developed, may be traced in the absence 
of characters which appear in the latter. I have convinced myself of the 
accuracy of the above relations by the examination of many skeletons and 
wet preparations of adults and larvaj. 

The tables* are representations of nature, and not ideal sketches. It is to. 
be noted as remarkable, that the advance throughout so many diverse groups 
is in the same direction^ viz., to complete or excessive ossification of the cra- 
nium ; and this identity of progress might be readily shown by adding other 
characters, were it not that the tables would become too complex for con- 

lias any such transition from genus to genus ever been seen to occur 9 

It must of course take place during the life of the individuals of a species, 
and probably at different times during the lives of different individuals, de- 
pendent on their relative vigor. In our view, ordinary metamorphosis is such 
a change, and we have stated its bearing in this form, that " every character 
distinguishing suborders, families and genera is to be found among the indi- 
viduals of some species, living or extinct, to mark new varieties or stages of 

et. The developmental relation of generic to specific characters. 

For the relation of the law of retardation and acceleration to specific char- 
acters we will look to development again. While the young of Trachycepha- 
lus are successively different genera, they preserve most of their specific char- 
acters so as not to be mistaken. Agassiz says of the development of the 
North American turtles,-}- "I do not know a turtle which does not exhibit 
marked specific peculiarities long before its generic characters are fully devel- 
oped." The same thing can be said of the characters of our salamanders, 
whose specific marks appear before their generic, or even family characters. 
I suspect that this will be found to be a universal law. 

It also follows, if a developmental process, as proposed, has existed, 
that at times the change of generic type has taken place more rapidly than that of 

* Notes on the tables. — I. I characterized a genus Zaphrissa (Journ. A. N. S., 1866) from 
the Braunkohle (miocene) of Prussia, as different from Latonia, on the ground of the 
presence of a fontanelle in the exostosed frontoparietal bones. This combination of 
characters is very improbable, and appeared so at the time ; but the appearance of the 
Bpeciraen is quite clear in this respect. I think, however, it must be the result of injury, 
and that the roof has been partially carried away. 

Tab. II. Polypedates is here restricted to P. maculatus and P. quadrilineatus. The 
other species are referred to Rhacophorus, which has not hitherto rested on any proper 
basis; the asserted character — the palmation of the hands— being one quite graduated 
from species to species among Hylse. Chiromantis, Peters, is referred to the same, as its 
character is not strongly marked and is visible in other species. For similar reasons 
Leptomantis is referred to Ixalus. 

Tab. IV. In each of series II and III two series are mingled for the sake of comparing 
the structures of the prefontal bones. Thus Heteroglossa, Staurois, Hylorana and Try- 
pheropsis are one series, and Hyperolius and Hylambates members of another. 

t Contrib. N. Hist. United States, I., p. 391. Note. 



tpecijic* and that one and the same species [if origin be the definition,) has, in the 
natural succession, existed in more than one genus. 

Apart from any question of origin, so soon as a species should assume a 
new generic character it ceases, of course, to be specifically the same as other 
individuals which have not assumed it. If supposed distinctness of origin be, 
however, a test of specific difference, we shall then have to contend with the 
paradox of the same species belonging to two different genera at one and the 
same time. 

It follows, therefore, in our interpretation of nature, that groups defined by 
coloration alone are not to be regarded as genera, as is done by some orni- 
thologists and entomologists. They are simply groups of species in which 
distinctive generic characters had not appeared up to the period of repro- 
duction. Inasmuch as in development certain specific characters appear first, 
among them part or all of the coloration pattern, it is obvious that the latter 
do not belong to the generic category. The employment of such characters 
then, in this sense, is only to commence reversing the terms generic and 
specific, and to inaugurate the process of regarding each species as type of a 
separate genus. 

(i. Of probable cases of transition. 

Thus the transition between the toothed and edentulous conditions in Ceta- 
cea takes place in the ordinary growth of the individuals of the genus Glo- 
biocephalus, and the transition between the ossified and non-ossified types of 
Chelonia occurs during the life of the individuals of the genus Dermatemys. 

But in attempting to demonstrate this proposition we must bring forward 
facts of another kind. The anti-developraentalists are accustomed to put 
such changes aside, as part of the necessary history of established types ; hen^e 
we will not appeal to such. 

1. The frog Ranula affinis, of South America, was described by Peters 
as probably a climatal variety of European Rana temporaria. In this 
he is supported by the fact that the specific characters do not differ more 
than would characterize it as a local variety, were it an inhabitant of Europe. 
But I have found that it differs generically in the non-ossification of the 
ethmoid bone, as has been confirmed by Steindachner, and represents an 
embryonic condition of the same bone in RanS,. It is in fact an undeveloped 
Bana. That this is a true genus is confirmed by many specimens, by an addi- 
tional species (R. pal mi pes), and by the fact that the allied genus Trypher- 
opsis, embracing three species in the same region, differs in the same way from 
the otherwise identical genus of the Old World, Hylorana. 

2. The South African Saurians Ghamaesaura an gu i na, and Mancus m a- 
c r o 1 e p i s, are verjA closely allied in specific characters in all respects, though 
distinct. They have one important ground of generic distinction ; the latter 
has one pair of limbs less than the former. They are rudimental in Ghamae- 
saura, and the disappearance in Mancus is but another step in the same di- 
rection. The difiference in specific characters is of much less degree. 

3. In the genus Gelestus there are numerous species, which range from a 
slender, snake-like form with weak limbs, to stouter, strong-limbed forms with 
a more saurian build. Among these the Haytian C. phoxinusis well dis- 
guished by form and coloration. An allied genus from the same region is 
Panolopus, which in specific characters approaches the C. ph o xi n u s very 
closely, much more so than any Gelestus (one species possibly excepted). But 
in generic characters it is distinguished by the loss of all its toes and the non- 
separation of nine plates on the end of the muzzle. The genus Diploglossus, 
on the other hand, occupying a superior place on account of the division of 
the frontonasal into three, is, in specific characters (ofD. m o n otrop i s) much 

• See Proceedings Academy, 18G7, p. 86, where I observe that generic characters are 
probably less inherent than speciiitt. 



closer to the stout Celesti than the species of the latter genus are among 

4. The Gronias nigrilabris is a Silurid, which in specific characters 
more nearly resembles the Amiurus lynx, than the latter does the A. a 1 b i d u s 
and many other species of the genus. The A lynx is found in the same 
streams. The important generic character, the absence of eyes, is, however, 
its constant feature (in three specimens known to naturalists, others to fisher- 

5. The Cinclidium granulatum, a large tree toad of Brazil, resembles 
in all its characters the Centrotelma geographicum. The specific difiFer- 
ences between them amount to almost nothing, but both sexes of the former 
grow larger and are furnished with a generic peculiarity in the addition of 
some phalanges to the thumb. 

6. The Auk Sagmatorrhina s u c k 1 e y i Cass, is stated"**^ to resemble in plumage 
and all its characters the Ceratorhyncha m o n o c e r a t a, aS to be not distinguish- 
able, even as a variety from it, except by the striking generic characters. In 
the latter a concave bone-like process rises from above the nostril, and an 
accessory piece is found in the symphysis mandibuli, both wanting in the 
genus Sagmatorrhina. 

7. The Oporornis agilis Baird, a North American bird of the Tanager 
family, resembles very closely in form, color and habits, the adjacent species 
of the adjacent genus Geothlypis. While its specific characters are thus very 
close to Geothlypis tephrocotis, it differs in the generic feature of a longer 
wing. By this it is associated, and properly so, with another species, 0. 
f rm o s u s, which has the general color and habits of species of Myiodi- 
octes (M. canadensis), the next related genus. 

8. The following fact I give on the authority of Prof. Leidy, who will pub- 
lish it in his forthcoming work on the extinct mammalia of Nebraska, etc. 

Three species of Oreodon occur in the miocene strata; they are a larger, a 
medium and a small sized species. In the Pliocene beds above them they are 
represented by three species of Merychyus, which are in all respects known, 
identical specifically with the three preceding. Each one may thus be said to 
be more nearly allied to the species of the other genus than to its fellow of the 
same genus, in specific characters. But each, on the other hand, diflFers from 
each in generic characters. The teeth of Merychyus are more prismatic, have 
longer crowns and shorter roots, approaching the sheep, as Oreodon does the 

9. The North American Centrarchoid, Hemioplites simulans, in specific 
characters is most closely allied to the Enneacanthus guttatus Morris.* 
It has however one or two distinctive specific features, but it differs as to genus 
in having one less dorsal spine and one more anal spine, characters in the direct 
line of succession of genera to Centrarchus and Hyperistius. Now the lack 
of one of its dorsal spines is not an uncommon variation in the Enneacanthus, 
but the anal is never known to change. There is, however, apparently no 
reason, as far as physical causes are concerned, why it should not tend to 
vary as much as the dorsal. The lack of this tendency constitutes Hemio- 
plites, a genus distinct from Enneacanthus, at the present time. 

* By Cou^s Monograph of Alcidse. Proc. Acad. Phila., 1868, p. 34. 

t This phenomenon suggests an explanation on the score of adaptation, which the other 
cases do not. The existence during the later period of a tougher material of diet, would 
increase the rapidity of wearing oi the crown of the tooth, and require a longer crown 
and greater rapidity of protrusion. This necessitates a diminution of the basal shoulder 
and shortening of the roots, producing the prifmatic form aforesaid. The deer browse 
on forest foliage, which is more tender, while the Cavicornia graze the grasses, which 
contain, as is known, a greater amount of silex ; hence the more rapid attrition of the 

This may have been the case with the two extinct genera; the different periods during 
which they lived may have seen a change from forest to prairie. (It is not intended to 
insinuate that the species of the two genera are necessarily of the same or any given 



Those naturalists (who are not a few) who will be disposed on this account 
to deny generic rank to Hemioplites, will have, on the same grounds, to unite 
each succeeding step till they embrace the " series," and no doubt at the same 
time belie a considerable amount of their own work already done. 

10. The Coreopsis d i s c o i de a T. and G , var. anomala Gra)', is much more 
nearly allied to Bidens frondosa than to other species of its own genus, 
and the latter is nearer to it than to other species ©f Bidens. It differs chiefly, 
if not altogether, in the generic character: the barbs of the achenia are di- 
rected upwards ; those of the Bidens downwards. 

From these and many other such instances it may be derived : That the 
nearest species of adjacent genfra are more nearly allied in specific characters than 
the most diverse species of the same genus. 

11. While Taxodiura distich um and Glyptostrobus europai us, conifers of 
North America and of Eastern Asia, respectively, are readily distinguished by 
generic peculiarities of their cones ; in specific characters they appear to be 

Confirmatory of this proposition is the statement of Parker :f " In tracing 
out the almost infinite varieties of the modifications of any one specific type 
of shelled lihizopod, my friend, Prof. Rupert Jones and I found that like va- 
rieties of distinct species are much nearer in shape and appearance than unlike va- 
rieties of the same essential species." (It is not unlikely that species should here 
be read genus and variety species, though the latter may not fulfil the require- 
ments in regard to distinctiveness observed among higher animals. In types 
like the Rhizopod, forms of this grade may not be really differentiated. Their 
enormous geographical range would suggest this, if nothing else.) 

Objection. — A class of objectors to the preceding explanation of the rela- 
tions in question, will ascribe them to hybridization. They have already done 
80 to considerable extent among the Teleosts, (see the writings of Von Siebold, 
Steindachner and Giinther). That hybrids exist in nature will be denied by 
none, but that they are usual or abundant is not a probable condition of a 
creation regulated by such order as ours is. The tendency to modify in given 
lines of generic series, if admitted, will account for many of the cases regard- 
ed as hybrids by the above authors, for it is to be remarked in many cases how 
the generic characters are strikingly affected, and are chiefly used in guessing 
at the parentage. This is among Cyprinidae so much the case that their is 
scarce an example of a hybrid between two species of the same genus brought 
forward, but often between species of different genera. 

If any two forms should hybridize freely, the circumstance should prevent 
their recognition as distinct species. 

y Ascertained cases of transition. 

This naturally suggests 4hat in accordance with the theory of acceleration 
and retardation, a transition can take place in the life history of species. Have 
we any means of proving this suspicion ? 

1. The genus Ameiva (Saurians of South America) has been composed of 
species of moderate size furnished with acutely tricuspid teeth. Teius, on the 
other hand, embraces very large species with the molars obtusely rounded 
and of the grinding type. These genera are generally held to be well founded 
at present. 1 find, however, that in Ameiva p 1 e i i, which is the largest species 
of the genus, that in adults the greater part of the maxillary and mandibular 
teeth lose their cusps, become rounded,, then obtuse, and finally like those of 
Teius. While young, they are true Ameivse. Strangely enough the A. p 1 e i i, 
from Porto Rico, acquires but three such obtuse teeth when of the size of the 
other (St. Croix) forms. In youth the teeth of all are as in oth«r Ameivae. 
Here is a case of transition from one genus to another in the same species. 

* See Meehan, Proc. Amer. Ass. Adv. Sci. 1808. Newberry, Ann. Lye, N. Y., 18C8. 
t Transuc. Zool. Hoc, Loudon, 'imi, 161. 



2. In the important characters of the possession of branchiae, of maxillary 
bones, and of ossified vertebrae, the tailed Batrachia presents a series of a ris- 
ing scale, measured by their successively earlier assumption. Thus Salaman- 
dra atra''^ produces living young, which have already lost the branchiae; S. 
m ac u 1 OS a living young with branchiae; Plethodon f produces young from 
eggs which bear branchiae but a short time, and do not use them functionally ; 
Desmognathus nigra uses them during a very short aquatic life ; D. f u s c a 
and other Salamanders maintains them longer, while Spelerpes preserves them 
till full length is nearly reached. Finally species of Amblystoma reproduce 
while carrying branchiae, thus transmitting this feature to their young as an 
adult character And it is a very significant fact that Spelerpes, which bears 
branchiae longest, next to Amblystoma, is associated in the same zoological 
region with a genus (Necturus) which differs from its four-toed form (Batra- 
chosepsj), in nothing more than the possession of the osseous and branchial 
characters of its larva, in a permanent and reproducing condition. That this 
is a genus, to be one day converted into Batrachoseps by an acceleration of its 
metamorphosis, or that has been derived from it by the reverse process, I am 
much inclined to believe. In support of this I quote the following examination 
into the time of change of the species of Amblystoma from my essay on that 

"The great difference between the different species, and between individuals 
of the same species in this respect, may be illustrated by the following com- 
parison between the size of the animals at the time of losing the branchii« 
so far as known, and that to which they ultimately attain. 

Species. Size at loss of branchiae. 

In. Lines. 

A. jeffersonianum, 1 5-75 

A. punctatum, 1 10 

A. conspersum, 1 10-5 

A. opacum, 2 2 

A. texense, 2 1 

A. microstomum, 2 3-5 

A. talpoideum, 3 (perhaps too large.) 

A. paroticum, 3 7-5 (not smallest.) 

A *• • f 3 7 to 

A. tigrinum, j 6 7 

. ,. (3 9-5 to 8 9 

A. mavortium, •? g ^ 

A. mexicanum, ? branchiae persistent. ' 8 

The last species, though not uncommon in collections, is not known to pass 
through its metamorphoses in its native country, bijt reproduces as a larva, 
and is therefore type of the genus Siredon of Wagler, Cuvier, Owen and others. 
The larva of A. mavortium in like manner reproduces, but their offspring 
have in the Jardin des Plantes and at Yale College undergone an early meta- 
morphosis. || 

Here is a case where all the species but two change their generic characters; 
one changes them or not, according to circumstances, and one does not change 
them at all. What are the probabilities respecting the change in the first set 
of species ? 

* See Schreibers Isis, 1833, 527 : Koelliker, Zeitschr. f. Wissenseh. Zoologie, ix, 464. 

t Baird Iconographic Encyelopsedia, Wyman, Cope. 

X See Cope, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1866. 

g Proceed, Academy, 1867. 

Ij Through the kindness of Prof. Dumeril, I have received both larvae and adult of the 
species here noted, and observed by him. The larva is as he states, Siredon lichenoides of 
Baird, while the adult is his Amblystoma,m avortium, not A. tigrinum (= luridum) 
as also supposed by Dumeril. 


.verage i 

full size. 
















3 to 10 


As we know from the experimentg of Hogg, Dumdril and others that met- 
amorphosis is greatly hastened or delayed bj the conditions of temperature 
and light, whai would not be the effect on such a protean species of a change 
of topographical situation, such as the elevation or depression of the land ? 
And I have no hesitation in saying that if the peculiarities of series of indi- 
viduals of A. tigrinum and A. mavortium, in the respects above 
enumerated, were permanent, they would characterize those series as species, 
as completely as anv that zoologists are accustomed to recognize. For the 
evidences on this hea&, see the discussions of those species in my monograph. 

The experiments of Hogg above alluded to, are as follows, as given by him 
in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 

He placed a number of impregnated ova of frogs in vessels arranged at reg- 
ular distances from the light, in a cave. The lessening degrees of light were 
of course accompanied by a corresponding but much less rapid decline in 
temperature. The resulting effects on the metamorphosis "may be tabulated 
as follows : 














Larva free, 




25 ■ 


Larva free, 






Larva fi^e, 

Larva free. 



Larva very large. 





Metam. complete, 

Larva large, 

Larva large, 

Larva small, 



Metam. complete, 




Metam. complt. 




Metam. comp. 

3. The reproduction of some species of insects before they complete their 
metamorphosis is a well-known fact, and it is particularly to the point that, 
in many of them, some individuals do attain to their full development, while 
the many do not. Westwood says,* "two British species of this family (the 
Reduviidae), Prostemma g u 1 1 u 1 a and Coranus su bapterus, are interest- 
ing on account of their being generally found in an undeveloped state, the 
latter being either entirely apterous or with the fore-wings rudimental, 
although occasionally met with having the fore-wings completely developed. 
" 1 think," says Spinola, " that the presence of wings and their development de- 
pends on the climate," and in speaking of Oncocephalus griseus, he says 
" the influence of the northern climate appears to have arrested the develop- 
ment of the organs of flight." It will be seen that I have referred elsewhere 
that I have noticed that it is especially in hot seasons that certain species 
acquire, while the circumstance noticed respecting the ordinary occurrence of 
winged specimens of Microcoelia in the West indies is confirmatory of the 
same opinion." 

4. It is now known that certain Orthoptera do not get through their meta- 
morphosis in time for the period of reproduction, and hence never or in rare 
instances only develope more than a short distance beyond the pupa state. 

5. My friend, P. R. Uhler, tells me of an example among Hemiptera of 
the genus Velia. The species V. r i v u 1 o r u m Fab., and V. c u r r e n s* of 
Europe, are only distinguished by the developmental feature of the presence 
of wings in one, and their absence in the other. Another species of the tropi- 
cal region of the West Indies, Halobates americanus Uhler, is furnished 
with wings, while its individuals which occur abundantly in North America 
have been generally supposed to lack them. Individuals, however, no doubt 
occur whose developments is so far accelerated as to permit them to acquire 
wings before the period of reproduction, since one such hus been found by 

* Uhler informs me that Amyot's asserted color characters are not reliable. 



These wing characters are in many cases generic, it appears to the writer ; 
and the fact that they differ without corresponding specific differences, is 
important evidence as to the origin of genera. 

6. The females of the Lepidopterous genus Thyridopteryx never deyelope 
beyond the pupa state, according to the same authority, before reproduction ; 
they are reproducing pupae, so far as the external characters concerned in me- 
tamorphosis go. In other words, the latter have been retarded, while the re- 
productive system and others have progressed. Now ^neric characters are 
seen in the first, not in the last. The influence of the males is sufficient to 
prevent more than a part of the offspring from being retarded in the same 

I have selected a few of this class of facts which have come before my 
mind during the present writing, as drawn mainly from my own experience. 
How many more of the same purport could be found by search through the 
great literature of" science or in the field of nature, may be readily imagined. 
1 have no doubt that the field of Entomology especially will furnish a great 
number of evidences of the theory of acceleration and retardation, especially 
among the insects with active pupae. 

Finally, having already stated the law according to which these pro- 
cesses naturally take place, I quote the following significant language of 
Hyatt in the ab'ove quoted essa}- on the Cephalopoda, as approaching nearer 
to the " law of acceleration and retardation," than any thing I have found 
written. He says : 

'* In other words there is an increasing concentration of the adult charac- 
teristics of lower species, in the young of higher species, and a consequent dis- 
placement of other embryonic features, which had themselves, also, previously 
belonged to the adult periods of still lower forms." 

The preceding propositions have been formulated as follows ; a few addi- 
tions being now made : 

I. That genera form series indicated by successional differences of struc- 
tural character, so that one extreme of such series is very different from the 
other, by the regular addition or subtraction of characters, step by step.f 

II. That one extreme of such series is a more generalized type, nearly ap- 
proaching in characters the corresponding extreme of other series. 

III. That the other extreme of such series is excessively modified and spe- 
cialized, and so diverging from all other forms as to admit of no type of form 
beyond it.| 

IV. That the peculiarities presented by such extremes are either only in part 
or not at all of the nature of adaptations to the external life of the type.^ 

V. That rudimental organs are undeveloped or degraded conditions of the 
respective characters developed or obliterated in the extreme of the series. 

VI. That the differences between genera of the same natural series are only 
in the single modifications of those characters which characterize the ex- 
treme of that series. 

VII. That the relations of the genera of a primary series, are those of the 
different steps in the development of the individuals of the extreme genus ab 
ovo ( Von Baer, Agassiz) (with sometimes the addition of special adaptive 

VIII. That the presence, rudimental condition, or absence of a given generic 
character can be accounted for on the hypothesis of a greater rapidity of de- 

* On Insects, II, 473. 
t St. Hilaire, Owen, Agassiz, Dum6ril. 
X Dana on Cephalization ; Leconte. 

§ Owen on Cetaeea, Trans. Zool. Soc, Lon., 1866, 44. Leconte on Carabidae, Trans. Amer. 
Philos. Soc., 1853, 3G4. 




velopraent in the individuals of the species of the extreme type, such stimulus 
being more and more vigorous in the individuals of the types as we advance 
towards the same, or by a reversed impulse of development, where the ex- 
treme is characterized by absence or " mutilation " of characters. 

IX. And that as the character of the genus at the period of reproduction of 
its species, is that which is perpetuated ; 

X. So the character of the genus has been first inferior, then protean, and 
then advanced, as the metamorphosis has been by a retrograde movement in 
time, posterior to, at, or anterior to the period of reproduction. 

XI. That it therefore results that there is one primary structural type in- 
volved in such a series of species, which is made to present at any given 
period in its Geologic history that appearance of succession of genera or- 
dained by Creative Power. 

/. On the origin, of inexact parallelism. 

The hypothesis can only be demonstrated in case of exact par alMism. If 
proven in these, it readily accounts for the cases of inexact parallelism, which 
are of course in any single period vastly in the majority. First take the case 
of simple inexact parallelism. A series of individuals of the genus Didocus un- 
dergo the metamorphosis of the cranial structure earlier and earlier in life, 
commencing by completing the ossification of the perichondrium, of the fronto- 
parietal region in fall age, until at last it becomes completed as early as the 
period of reproduction. Heretofore the adult offspring have appeared during 
a, long period, invariably characterized by the larval cranium, but like now 
producing like, this development springs into new power, and the offspring 
ossify the cranial bones far earlier than their immediate predecessors ; in a 
word, the genus Pelobates nas been created I At this state of progress Di- 
docus is an undeveloped Pelobates. 

Let us, however, suppose the " acceleration" of development of the cranial 
bones still to progress. i^The character appears now soon after the ordinary 
metamorphosis has been passed, and now a little before. The identity of Di- 
docus with the undeveloped Pelobates is thereupon lost I 

So may have been the relations between Pelobates and Cultripes. Peloba- 
tes was probably once identical with the undeveloped Cultripes, but the same 
acceleration has concentrated the characters more rapidly than the other 
larval stages, leaving Pelobates behind. 

This I conceive to be the explanation of this relation : when the parallel- 
ism is inexact by two steps, as in Spea to Didocus, by the obliterated ear and 
ossified xiphisternum. The continued concentration of characters has been 
carried to earlier stages till the identity exists ia the adult state of neither one, 
but at a period of larval life of both, shortly preceding the adult period of the 
lower. The relations between the Amblystomidae and Plethodoniidae, which 
I have elsewhere ■''■ pointed out, have probably had their origin in this way. 

If we attempt to prove the identity of the modern mammalian f(»tal circu- 
lation with that of ttffe modern adult fish, we may find nearly an exact parallel 
in this respect, as it is the basis of class distinction- but in other respects the 
identity will not exist, rendering the parallel inexact or remote The structure 
of the origins of the aorta is at one time identical with that of the shark, 
with one exception — in the former but four aorta-bows appear together ; in the 
latter five. In the former the first disappears as the fifth comes into being. 
This is simply a continuation of acceleration. The first generalized representa- 
tive of the Mammalia lost the first aorta-bow towards the latter part of its 
growth, and became the next genus in advance of the selachian. The fact 
that these bows do not appear exactly simultaneously, but rather successively, 
renders it necessary that in a regularly shortening period of possession of 

• Jour. Ac NAt. ScL, Phil., 18C6, 100. 



transitory characters, one such, as the existence of the first aorta root, should 
vanish before the appearance of a permanent, the fifth, in the more specialized 
types, where acceleration reaches its maximum. This is indicated by the fact